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basic essay children This page analyzes a#xa0; computer games essay #xa0;and also notes how you can make good use of the question to plan and organize your essay. Take a look at amelia thesis, this IELTS task 2 question: Nowadays many people have access to computers on a wide basis and argumentative on texting while a large number of children play computer games.#xa0; What are the positive and negative impacts of playing computer games and what can be done to minimize the bad effects? Remember to always analyze the question carefully. The topic should be fairly clear: Remember to also look carefully to see if the topic is being narrowed down to a particular aspect of the amelia thesis, topic. In this case it is: Now you need to check what the task is. How many things do you have to using in an apa essay write about? Hopefully you realized there are three things that you can easily turn into brainstorming questions: What are the positive impacts of computer games on children ? What are the negative impacts of computer games on amelia smith thesis children ? How can the negative impacts be minimized ? Your answers to these questions will form your computer games essay. You do not have much time and you have three things to should gay marriage essay answer, so one or two ideas for each is enough, as remember you will need to amelia explain your ideas and give examples. Now, take a look at the model answer. You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: Nowadays many people have access to computers on call paper in management 2012 a wide basis and a large number of amelia smith, children play computer games.
What are the of risk, positive and negative impacts of thesis, playing computer games and what can be done to minimize the bad effects? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge. Write at least 250 words. Computer Games Essay Model Answer: Access to computers has increased significantly over recent decades, and driving the number of children playing games on computers has increased too. This essay will consider the positive and negative impacts of this and discuss ways to avoid the potential negative effects. With regards to the positive effects, playing computer games can develop children’s cognitive skills. Many popular games require abstract and high level thinking skills in order to amelia thesis win, skills that may not be taught at school.
For example, children need to follow instructions, solve complex problems and use logic in many of the games that are currently popular. The Fantods Of Risk Essays Management. Such experience will be beneficial to a child’s progression into an adult. Smith Thesis. However, concerns have been raised about the prolific use of format letter, computer games by children, much of this related to the violence they contain. The problem is that in many of the games children are rewarded for being more violent, and this violence is repeated again and again.#xa0;For instance, many games involve children helping their character to kill, kick, stab and shoot. This may lead to increased aggressive feelings, thoughts, and behaviours.#xa0;#xa0; In order to minimize these negative impacts, parents need to take certain steps. Firstly, some video games are rated according their content, so parents must check this and amelia ensure their children are not allowed to have access to games that are unsuitable. Parents can also set limits on the length of time games are played. Finally, parents should also take an english, active interest in the games their children are playing so they can find out how they feel about what they are observing.#xa0; To sum up, there are benefits of computer games, but there are disadvantages too. However, if parents take adequate precautions, the severity of these negative impacts can be avoided. This computer games essay is well-organized and it directly answers the question, with each paragraph addressing one of the tasks. Note how the topic sentences match the tasks (which have been taken from the prompt): What are the smith, positive impacts of computer games on children ? With regards to the positive effects, playing computers games can develop children’s cognitive skills.
What are the negative impacts of english format letter, computer games on children ? However, concerns have been raised about the prolific use of computer games by children, much of this related to smith thesis the violence they contain. In order to minimize these negative impacts, parents need to headings in an apa essay take certain steps. Thesis. This is why analyzing the question is so important. This provides you with the headings apa essay, basic building blocks with which to write your essay. Home › Sample Essays › Computer Games Essay. Oct 02, 17 12:12 PM. You are going to another country to study. You would like to do a part-time job while you are studying, so you want to ask a friend who lives there for. September 2017 - Brainstorming and Planning an Essay. Oct 01, 17 04:32 PM.
I sent you an essay question last Friday and asked you to amelia smith thesis come up with a plan to the fantods of risk essays management answer the question. This was the essay question: The best way to understand. Multinational Organisations and Culture Essay. Oct 01, 17 04:11 PM. Multinational Organisations and Culture Essay: Improve you score for thesis IELTS Essay writing by studying model essays. More Sample Essays: discuss two opinions. discuss two opinions. discuss two opinions. advantages / disadvantages / solutions. causes / advantages / disadvantages. discuss two opinions. Using Headings. discuss two opinions. causes / advantages / disadvantages. discuss two opinions. causes and solutions. Thesis. causes and types of music effects. problems and smith thesis solutions. causes and solutions.
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Glossary of Sales and Selling Terms. account – a customer, usually in a B2B or business-to-business organization; a major account is usually a large corporation (Top 1000) capable of significant purchases; or a national account is a customer or prospect with branches, offices or plants covering a wide territory – usually multiple states or regions. These type of accounts require special handling (and some pricing adjustments) and a senior sales person or team. Active Listening – Term used to describe higher levels of listening activities, involves actively seeking to understand how the customer or prospect feels and what are their personal and business issues to amelia smith thesis be addressed during the sales process. Involves things such as stance or leaning into the customer, observing all movements and changes of position and body language tips. And, key is asking questions for clarity and understanding. Added Value – the element(s) of service or product that a sales person or selling organization provides, that a customer is prepared to pay for because of the benefit(s) obtained. Added values are real or perceived; tangible or intangible.
A good, reliable, honest, expert, informed sales person becomes a very significant part of the selling organization’s added value, as perceived by the customer, if not by of risk essays, the selling organization. advantage – the aspect of a product or service that makes it better than another, especially the one in-situ or that of a competitor. advertising/advertising and promotion/AP – the methods used by amelia, a company to publicize and position its products and services to its chosen market sectors, including product launches, image and brand building, press and public relations activities, merchandising (supporting and promoting the product in retail and wholesale outlets), special offers, generating leads and inquiries, and argumentative, incentivizing distributors, and agents, and arguably sales people. AP methods are sometimes described as above-the-line (media advertising such as radio, TV, cinema, newspapers, magazines) or below-the-line (non-‘media’ methods or materials such as brochures, direct-mail, exhibitions, telemarketing, and PR); advertising agencies generally receive a commission (discount ‘kick-back’) from above-the-line media services, but not from below the amelia, line services, in which case if asked to arrange any will seek to add a mark-up. appointment – a personal sales visit to a prospect, usually arranged by phone. benefit – the gay marriage, gain (usually a tangible cost, but can be intangible) that accrues to the customer from the product or service. buyer – most commonly means a professional purchasing person in a business; can also mean a private consumer. Amelia. Buyers are not usually major decision-makers, that is to say, what they buy, when and how they buy it, and how much they pay are prescribed for english letter, them by the business they work for.
If you are selling a routine repeating predictable product, especially a consumable, then you may well be able to restrict your dealings to buyers; if you are selling a new product or service of any significance, buyers will tend to act as influencers at most. See decision-makers, and smith, the buying techniques page. buying signal – a buying signal is a comment from a prospect which indicates that he is visualizing to whatever extent buying your product or service. The most common buying signal is the of music, question: “How much is it?” Others are questions or comments like: “What colors does it come in?”, “What’s the lead-time?”, “Who else do you supply?”, “Is delivery free?” “Do you use it yourself?”, and surprisingly, “It’s too expensive.” call/calling – a personal face-to-face visit or telephone call by a sales person to a prospect or customer. Smith Thesis. Also referred to a sales call (for any sales visit or phone contact), or cold call (in the case of a first contact without introduction or notice in driving writing). call center – a department or company for outgoing and/or incoming (outbound/inbound) telephone calls to/from customers, commonly now extending to smith thesis email communications also if useful for should gay marriage essay, customer service, but not extending to email marketing. Call centers can be primarily reactive (inbound) or proactive (outbound – covering telemarketing, telesales, and research), or both.
Call centers can be in-house, part of the employed organization, or external, effectively a contractor or an agency. Most modern in-house or long-term out-sourced call centers are effectively customer service centers or departments, containing staff dedicated to telesales and amelia smith, customer services activities. Other types of the fantods on risk, call center activities and operations can be concerned more with short-term telesales, telemarketing or market research campaigns. Smith. Run well a call/contact center is a wonderful function. Poorly run call centers are a nightmare for essay on texting while, staff and customers alike. Smith Thesis. Since the 1990s when the call center function became de-humanized and obsessively cost-driven by many large corporations the nightmare scenario largely applies. Some call/contact centers are now such vast business units that they warrant being ‘off-shored’ (outsourced to countries with lower costs), which generally equates to types corporate own-foot-shooting on a truly huge scale.
A call center which is inherently liable to upset customers due to inadequate levels of amelia smith, customer empathy and service is quite obviously utterly self-defeating. Staff turnover is unsurprisingly a major challenge in should gay marriage be legalized call centers. canvass/canvassing – cold-calling personally at the prospect’s office or more commonly now by amelia smith thesis, telephone, in an attempt to arrange an essay on texting driving appointment or present a product, or to gather information. challenger selling – based upon amelia the study of sales people during and after the great global recession of call for research in management 2012, 2008-2011. The consulting group who engaged this study discovered five types of sales profiles during the study and ranked each of the five profiles based upon their performance levels. At the smith, top of results list were a set of sales people labeled the essay, challengers. These sales people did three primary items not done by the other four profile groups. They 1. Maintained control of the sales process; 2. they introduced innovative ideas into the sales process to amelia smith thesis entice the customer/prospect; and 3. they educated the customer/prospects on new better methods of improving their results.
close/closin g – the in an apa essay, penultimate step of the amelia smith thesis, ‘Seven Steps of the Sale’ selling process, when essentially the sales-person encourages the prospect to say yes and sign the be legalized, order. Amelia Smith. In days gone by should gay marriage, a Sales person’s expertise was measured almost exclusively by how many closes he knew. Thank God for amelia smith, evolution. But don’t expect to paper 2012 kid any buyer worth his salt today, and amelia thesis, using certain ones might even get you thrown out of his office. Essay On Texting While Driving. Use with great care. closed question – a question which generally prompts a yes or no answer, or a different short answer of just two possible options, compared to open questions, which typically begin with who, what, where, when, etc., and which tend to invite much longer answers. cold calling – typically refers to the first telephone call made to a prospective customer. More unusually these days, cold calling can also refer to calling face-to-face for the first time without an appointment at commercial promises or households.
Cold calling is also known as canvassing, telephone canvassing, prospecting, telephone prospecting, and more traditionally in the case of consumer door-to-door selling as ‘door-knocking’. collaboration selling – very modern and smith thesis, sophisticated, in which seller truly collaborates with buyer and buying organization to help the buyer buy. A logical extension to ‘strategic’ or ‘open plan’ selling. commodities/commoditized (products and services) – typically a term applied to describe products which are mature in development, produced and sold in vast scale, involving little or no uniqueness between variations of using headings apa essay, different suppliers; high volume, low price, low profit margin, de-skilled (‘ease of use’ in consumption, application, installation, etc). Traditionally the ‘commodities’ term applies to the ‘commodities markets’ which trade and set prices for fundamental commodities such as coffee, grain, oil, etc., however in smith a more generic sales and selling sense the term ‘commoditized’ refers to a product (and arguably a service) which has become mass-produced, widely available, easy to make, de-mystified, and simplified; all of for research in management, which is almost invariably associated with a reduction in amelia thesis costs, prices and profit margins, and which also has massive implications for call in management, the sales distribution model and methods for taking the product or service to market. Commoditized products are amenable to amelia smith thesis mass-market and large-scale sales distribution methods and models, as opposed to essays management specialized or high-complexity products, which tend to require closer customer support and amelia smith, greater expertise and of risk on risk, advice at the point of smith thesis, selling and while driving, installation, and commissioning and amelia smith, application, if appropriate. An electric battery torch is a commoditized product that is freely available, at competitively low price, ‘off-the-shelf’ at english essay format any supermarket (or via the internet); whereas a holographic projector is amelia thesis, only available via a specialized supplier, at relatively high cost and profit margin, potentially without a similar competing product, and requires a significant degree of gay marriage be legalized essay, technical advice and support, and possibly user-training. Similarly, a microwave oven is a commoditized product, widely available, inexpensively, off-the-self from a retail store (or via the internet); whereas an integrated commercial kitchen is amelia smith, a specialized system, requiring a high level of sales and selling expertise, support and installation. Commoditized products sell by the millions; specialized products might only sell in hundreds or less. All consumer products and services become commoditized over essay on texting while driving, time.
Virtually all B2B products and services become commoditized over amelia thesis, time. Color TV’s are cheaper than they were thirty years ago because they’ve become commoditized. Same can be said for mobile phones, home security systems, computers; even motor cars are becoming genuinely commoditized. In our lifetimes perhaps so too will houses and buildings. concession – used in the context of negotiating, when it refers to an aspect of the sale which has a real or perceived value, that is gay marriage essay, given away or conceded by seller (more usually) or the amelia thesis, buyer. One of the fundamental principles of sales negotiating is never giving away a concession without getting something in return – even a small increase in commitment is better than nothing. consultative selling – developed by various sales gurus through the essay format letter, 1980s by amelia, Mark Hanan among others, and practiced widely today, consultative selling was a move towards more collaboration with, and involvement from, the buyer in should be legalized the selling process. Strongly based on questioning aimed at gaining useful information. consumer – in the context of smith thesis, selling a consumer typically refers to a private or personal customer or user, as distinct from essay a business or organizational, or trade customer. Notably we see this term in the acronym B2C, which means ‘business-to-consumer’, which describes the type of business in which the transaction and amelia smith, relationship is essay while driving, between a business and a private ‘domestic’ customer.
A household insurer, or an smith estate agent, are examples of B2C sales organizations. Retail is by its nature consumer business. Gay Marriage Be Legalized Essay. A holiday company is a B2C business. B2B describes ‘business-to-business’ – which is trade and amelia thesis, selling between businesses. customer – usually meaning the purchaser, organization, or consumer after the essay on texting, sale. Prior to the sale is usually referred to as a prospect. customer relationship management:CRM – CRM is now a commonly used term to amelia describe the process of managing the entire selling process within a department or organization. Computerized CRM systems enable management of driving, prospect and customer details, contacts, sales history and account development. Well known examples of CRM computerized systems are Sage’s ACT!, which claims to be the world’s most popular CRM system, and Front Range’s Goldmine. Thesis. SalesForce.com is making a big push in the CRM market with its web-based system.
Chief elements of a CRM system (or strategy, since the term is used to describe the process and methodology as well as the system) are: • compilation and organization of data (prospects, customers, product, sales, history, etc) • planning, scheduling and integrating customer development activities and headings in an, communications. • analysis and reporting of all sales related activities and data. Good CRM strategy and systems are generally considered necessary for amelia smith, modern organizations of any scale to enable effective planning and implementation of types of music, sales (and to an extent marketing) activities. deal – common business parlance for the sale or purchase (agreement or arrangement). It is rather a colloquial term so avoid using it in serious company as it can sound flippant and unprofessional. decision-maker – a person in the prospect organization who has the power and budgetary authority to amelia thesis agree to a sales proposal.
On of the most common mistakes by call for research, sales people is to attempt to sell to someone other than a genuine decision-maker. For anything other than a routine repeating order, the only two people in any organization of smith thesis, any size that are real decision-makers for significant sales values are the CEO/Managing Director/President, and the Finance Director. Everyone else in the organization is generally working within stipulated budgets and supply contracts, and will almost always need to refer major purchasing decisions to one or both of the above people. In very large organizations, functional directors may well be decision-makers for in an apa essay, significant sales that relate only to their own function’s activities. See influencer. deliverable(s) – an aspect of a proposal that the smith, provider commits to do or supply, usually and preferably clearly measurable. demonstration/demo/ – the physical presentation by the sales person to 2012 the prospect of how a product works. Generally free of charge to the prospect, and normally conducted at the prospect’s premises, but can be at another suitable venue, eg., an exhibition, or at the supplier’s premises.
demographics – the study of, or information about, people’s lifestyles, habits, population movements, spending, age, social grade, employment, etc., in amelia thesis terms of the consuming and buying public; anyone selling to essays on risk the consumer sector will do better through understanding relevant demographic information. discipline – within the context of an organization this is thesis, similar to should gay marriage be legalized function, i.e., job role, although a discipline can refer more generally to a capability or responsibility, for example ‘financial disciplines’, or ‘customer service disciplines’, or ‘technical support disciplines’. Discipline can of course mean separately ‘control’, others or oneself, which is certainly relevant to sales and amelia thesis, selling, but not the reason for its inclusion in call paper 2012 this glossary. In business-to-business selling of a complex strategic nature looking at disciplines (capabilities and responsibilities) can help to explore the amelia smith, different ways that people are affected by format, a change or proposition, which generally accompanies the sale of a product or service. distribution/sales distribution – the amelia smith thesis, methods or routes by which products and services are taken to market. Sales distribution models are many and various, and on texting, are constantly changing and new ones developing. Understanding and establishing best sales distribution methods – routes to market – are crucial aspects of running any sales organization, and any business organization too. Sales distribution should be appropriate to the product and service, and the end-user market, and the model will normally be defined by amelia, these factors, influenced also by technology and social trends. For example, commoditized mass-market consumer products (FMCG – fast-moving consumer goods, household electronics, etc) are generally distributed via mass-market consumer distribution methods, notably supermarkets, but also increasingly the call paper, internet.
A lesson in changing sales distribution models, and thesis, the need for manufacturers and gay marriage be legalized, sellers to anticipate changes is found in the switching of book sales and CD sales from retail store distribution to websites, with the amelia thesis, resulting demise of many retailers in those sectors. Future changes in sales distribution will see for example music transferring increasingly via online downloads, thus threatening those involved with or dependent upon physical shipping of headings in an, products. B2B (business-to-business) sales distribution models have their own shape, again dependent on products and services, customer markets, technology, plus other influences such as economical trends, environmental and legislative effects, etc. Examples of B2B sales distribution models are franchising, direct sales forces (employed), direct sales forces (sales agents), telephone sales (call-centers, out-bound and smith, in-bound), the should essay, internet (online website businesses), distributors (independent sellers who carry products and services of other manufacturers and amelia, ‘principals’), and channel partners and partnering arrangements (prevalent in telecoms and in an, IT sectors). empathy – understanding how another person feels, and typically reflecting this back to the other person. Amelia. The ability to for research in management 2012 feel and show empathy is central to modern selling methods. Critical success factor that is totally misunderstood by many sales managers and smith thesis, sales people.
ethics/ethical selling/ethical business – this would not have appeared in a selling glossary a few years ago, because the english essay format letter, line between right and wrong was a mile wide. Smith. To certain leaders and companies it still is, although gradually, slowly business and selling is becoming more civilized. The Fantods Essays On Risk. Honesty, morality and amelia, social responsibility are now crucial elements in any effective selling method, and for any sustainable business. Essay. In Spring 2008 someone left a message on my answerphone. The person said he was from ‘central government’, working on a ‘policy piece’ about e-learning, and could I give him a call back. I duly called back. After several sidesteps, the ‘seller’ eventually clarified that the purpose of the contact was to sell me some advertising in a directory, supposedly endorsed or approved by a ‘government department’. This is a fine example of unethical selling, and unethical business too, since the seller was clearly following a company script and set of tactics designed to amelia thesis deceive.
Unethical business and selling have always been wrong, but nowadays they carry far greater risks for those who behave badly. Consumers are wiser and essay, better informed. The courts are less tolerant and amelia, more sensitive to transgressions. In all respects today poor ethics guarantee personal and business failure. FAB – features advantages benefits – the links between a product description, its advantage over others, and the gain derived by the customer from using it. One of the using headings in an, central, if now rather predictable, techniques used in the presentation stage of the amelia smith thesis, selling process. feature – an aspect of a product or service, eg., color, speed, size, weight, type of technology, buttons and knobs, gizmos and gadgets, bells and whistles, technical support, delivery, etc. English Letter. Also referred to a product or service detail. field – means anywhere out of the amelia smith thesis, sales office. Field sales people or managers are those who travel around meeting people personally in the course of managing a sales territory.
To be field-based is to work on the sales territory, as opposed to being office-based. forecast/sales forecast – a prediction of what sales will be achieved over a given period, anything from a week to on risk a year. Sales managers require sales people to forecast, in order to provide data to production, purchasing, and other functions whose activities need to be planned to meet sales demand. Sales forecasts are also an smith thesis essential performance quantifier which feeds into the overall business plan for any organization. Due to the traditionally unreliable and optimistic nature of 2012, sales-department forecasts it is entirely normal for the sum of all individual sales persons’ sales annual forecast to grossly exceed what the business genuinely plans to sell. Thesis. See targets. function/functional – in the context of an organization, this means the job role or discipline, eg., sales, marketing, production, accounting, customer service, delivery, installation, technical service, general management, etc. Understanding the functions of people within organizations, and critically their interests and needs, is very important if you are selling to businesses or other non-consumer organizations.
influencer – a person in the prospect organization who has the power to influence and persuade a decision-maker. Influencers will be generally be decision-makers for relatively low value sales. There is usually more than one influencer in any prospect organization relevant to a particular sale, and large organizations will have definitely have several influencers. It is usually important to english essay letter sell to influencers as well as decision-makers in the same organization. Amelia Thesis. Selling to large organizations almost certainly demands that the sales person does this. The role and power of influencers in the fantods management any organization largely depends on the culture and politics of the organization, and particularly the management style of the two main decision-makers. See decision-makers. intangible – in a selling context this describes, or is, an aspect of the product or service offering that has a value but is difficult to see or quantify (for instance, peace-of-mind, reliability, consistency). introduction – the word introduction has two different main meanings in selling: Introduction refers either to first stage of the face-to-face or telephone sales call (see the Opening stage in the Seven Steps of the Sale), or the smith, term means a personal introduction – also called a referral – of the headings apa essay, sales person to amelia someone in should be legalized essay the buying organization by a mutual friend or contact. Thesis. Personal introductions of this sort tend to imply endorsement or recommendation of the seller, and since they are made by an existing contact they help greatly in essay letter establishing initial trust. Thesis. The value and potency of a personal introduction generally reflects the importance of the introducing person and be legalized essay, the strength of their relationship with the smith thesis, buying contact.
Networking is essentially based on using (sometimes several quite informal) introductions, to connect a seller with a buyer. introductory letter – a very effective way to format improve appointment-making success, and to open initial dialogue, especially for selling to large organizations. LAMP® – Large Account Management Process – sales acronym and methodology for major accounts management developed by Robert Miller, Stephen Heiman and Tad Tuleja in smith thesis their 1991 book Successful Large Account Management (see the books at the foot of this page). The Fantods Essays Management. Note that LAMP® and Strategic Selling® methods and materials are subject to smith copyright and intellectual property control of Miller Heiman, Inc. Also note that LAMP® and format, Strategic Selling® methods and materials are not to be used in the provision of training and development products and services without a licence. lead-time – time between order and delivery, installation or commencement of smith thesis, a product or service. listening – a key selling skill, in argumentative essay that without good listening skills the smith thesis, process of questioning is rendered totally pointless. major account – a large and complex prospect or customer, often having several branches or sites, and generally requiring contacts and relationships between various functions in the supplier and customer organization. Of Risk Essays. Often major accounts are the responsibility of designated experienced and senior sales people, which might be formed into thesis, a major accounts team. Gay Marriage Be Legalized. Major accounts often enjoy better discounts and terms than other customers because of purchasing power leveraged by bigger volumes, and lower selling costs from economies of scale.
marketing – perceived by lots of business people to mean simply promotion and advertising, the term marketing actually covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions as well. It’s the amelia smith thesis, process by which a company decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and of risk management, then does it. margin/profit margin – the difference between cost (including or excluding operating overheads) and selling price of a product or service. Percentage margin is generally deemed to be the difference between cost and selling price, divided by amelia smith, the selling price ex tax (ex.- something that costs $100 and is sold for $200 plus tax produces a 50% margin – gross margin that is – net margin is after overheads are deducted). mark-up – this is the money that a selling company adds to the cost of call in management 2012, a product or service in amelia order to produce a required level of of music, profit. Strictly speaking, percentage mark-up refers to the difference between cost and selling price as a factor of the cost, not of the selling price.
So a product costing $100 and selling for $200 has been given a mark-up of 100%; (at the same time it produces a margin of 50%). needs-based selling – a selling style popularized in the 1970s and 80s which asserted that sales people could create needs in a prospect for their products or services even if no needs were apparent, obvious or even existed. The method was for amelia smith, the sales person to question the prospect to identify, discover (and suggest) organizational problems or potential problems that would then create a need for the product. I’m bound to point out that this is no substitute for good research and proper targeting of prospects who have use of the products and services being sold. negotiation/negotiating – the trading of concessions including price reductions, between supplier and essay format, customer, in an attempt to shape a supply contract (sale in other words) so that it is acceptable to both supplier and amelia smith thesis, customer. Negotiations can last a few minutes or even a few years, although generally it’s down to one or two meetings and one or two exchanges of essay format, correspondence. Ideally, from the seller’s point of view, negotiation must only commence when the sale has been agreed in smith principle, and conditionally upon essay while driving satisfactory negotiation. However most sales people fall into the trap set by smith thesis, most buyers – intentionally or otherwise – of starting to negotiate before the should gay marriage essay, selling process have even commenced. NLP:Neuro-Linguistic Programming – A very accessible branch of psychology developed by Bandler and Grinder in the 1960s. Smith. NLP involves language, thinking and communications, and is therefore immensely useful and often features in gay marriage be legalized sales training.
networking – an increasingly popular method of developing sales opportunities and contacts, based on referrals and introductions – either face-to-face at meetings and gatherings, or by amelia, other contact methods such as phone, email, social and business networking websites, etc. objection/overcoming objections – an objection is a point of resistance raised by the fantods of risk essays on risk, a prospect, usually price (“It’s too expensive..”), but can be anything at any stage of the selling process. Overcoming objections is a revered and much-trained skill in amelia thesis the traditional selling process, but far less significant in modern selling. Modern collaborative selling principles assume that objections do not arise if proper research, needs analysis, questioning and empathic discussion has taken place. Also the notion of using techniques or pressure to overcome what may be legitimate obstacles is contrary to principles of modern selling. Modern selling methods tend to identify objections much earlier in the process, and types, either to amelia thesis filter out the prospect at that stage and abandon the approach, or where objections arise from multiple decision influencers within the buyer organization, to agree collaboratively a strategy with the main contact at the prospective customer for dealing with objection(s) arising. open/opening – the first stage of the of music essay, actual sales call. opening benefit statement/OBS – traditionally an initial impact statement for sales people to use at amelia smith first contact with prospect, in writing, on english essay format the phone or face-to-face – the thesis, OBS generally encapsulates the likely strongest organizational benefit typically (or supposedly) derived by customers in the prospect’s sector, eg., “Our customers in the clothing retail sector generally achieve 30-50% pilferage reduction when they install one of call in management 2012, our Catch-A-Crook security systems…” open question – a question that gains information, usually beginning with who, what, why, where, when, how, or more subtly ‘tell me about..’ – as distinct from amelia smith thesis a closed question, for example beginning with ‘Is it…?’ or ‘Do you…?’ etc., which tend to glean only a yes or no answer. package – in a selling context this is in an apa essay, another term for amelia, the product offer; it’s the whole product and gay marriage be legalized essay, service offering at a given price, upon given terms. partnership selling – very modern approach to organizational selling for business-to-business sales.
pattern interrupt – term used for gaining the attention of the buyer or customer. Amelia Smith Thesis. Buyers have been conditioned to assume a pattern or flow of ideas or statements from the fantods of risk essays on risk a sales person. Therefore, in the pattern interrupt, the sales person goes off-script or makes an unexpected statement – truthful statement – that suddenly grabs the attention of the buyer / customer who is asking themselves the thesis, question – What? And therefore tuning back into the conversation to find out if what they thought they heard was true. Very powerful attention gaining method used by the top sales and marketing professionals. perceived – how something is seen or regarded by someone, usually by the prospect or customer, irrespective of the fantods of risk essays on risk management, what is believed or presented by the seller, ie what it really means to the customer.
positioning – more a marketing than sales term, although relevant to experienced and sophisticated sellers, and related to targeting – positioning refers to how a product/service/proposition is presented or described or marketed in relation to the market place – with reference to customers, competition, image, pricing, quality, etc. Positioning basically refers to whether a proposition is being sold appropriately – in the right way, to the right people, at smith the right time, in the right place, and at types the right price. A potentially brilliant business can fail because its products are not positioned properly, which typically manifests as sales people being unable to sell successfully. Amelia Smith Thesis. There might be little or nothing wrong with the sales people and their skills, and the product/service, but the of music essay, venture fails because the positioning is wrong. Conversely, good positioning can rescue a less than brilliant product/service. Effective selling is not only about quality and skills – its about suitability of targeting. preparation – in the context of the amelia thesis, selling process this is the work done by the sales person to research and plan the sales approach and/or sales call to a particular prospect or customer. Almost entirely without exception in the global history of selling, no call is adequately prepared for, and sales that fail to happen are due to this failing. presentation/sales presentation – the process by which a sales person explains the types of music essay, product or service to the prospect (to a single contact or a group), ideally including the thesis, product’s features, advantages and benefits, especially those which are relevant to the prospect.
Presentations can be verbal only, but more usually involve the use of visuals, commonly bullet-point text slides and images on a computer display or projected onto a screen. product – generally a physical item being supplied, but can also mean or include services and intangibles, in which case product is used to mean the should, whole package being supplied. product offer – how the product and/or service is positioned and presented to thesis the prospect or market, which would normally include features and/or advantages and types of music essay, also imply at least one benefit for the prospect (hence a single product can be represented by a number of different product offers, each for different market niches (segments or customer groupings). One of the great marketing challenges is always to define a product offer concisely and meaningfully. proposal/sales proposal – usually a written offer with specification, prices, outline terms and conditions, and warranty arrangements, from a sales person or selling organization to a prospect.
Generally an amelia smith immensely challenging part of the process to get right, in that it must be concise yet complete, persuasive yet objective, well specified yet orientated to the customer’s applications. An outline proposal is often a useful interim step, to avoid wasting a lot of time including in a full proposal lots of material that the customer really doesn’t need. proposition – usually means product offer, can mean sales proposal. The initial proposition means the basis of the for research paper in management, first approach. PSS – Professional Selling Skills – highly structured selling process pioneered by the US Xerox (and UK Rank Xerox) photocopier sales organization during the 1960s, and adopted by countless business-to-business sales organizations. PSS places a huge reliance on presentation, overcoming objections and 101 different closes. Amelia Smith Thesis. Largely now superseded by more modern two-way processes, but PSS is argumentative on texting while, still in use and being trained, particularly in old-fashioned paternalistic company cultures. Amelia Thesis. The regimented one-way manipulative style of argumentative while driving, PSS nowadays leaves most modern buyers completely cold, but strip it away to the bare process and it’s better than no process at all.
prospect – a customer (person, organization, buyer) before the sale is made, ie a prospective customer. puppy dog sale/puppy dog close – a classic method of selling or closing a deal whereby you let the customer try the product or service for free without commitment, for a limited period, in the confidence that once they live with it they won’t want to give it up – just like giving someone have a puppy for smith thesis, a day. These days the puppy dog approach would ideally extend to of music giving the prospective customer some education and support about looking after the puppy so that they understand and are prepared for the changes that come with a new puppy. questioning – the amelia thesis, second stage of the sales call, typically after the opening or introduction but also vital to modern selling methods, notably collaborative/consultative selling. A crucial selling skill, and rarely well demonstrated. The correct timing and use of the important different types of questions are central to the processes of essay letter, gathering information, matching needs, and building rapport and thesis, empathy. While Driving. Questioning also requires that the sales person has good listening, interpretation and empathic capabilities. referral – a recommendation or personal introduction or permission/suggestion made by someone, commonly but not necessarily a buyer, which enables the seller to approach or begin dialogue with a new perspective buyer or decision-maker/influencer.
Seeking referrals is a a widely trained selling technique, in which the seller asks the thesis, buyer (or other contact) at the end of argumentative on texting, a sales call for referrals, i.e., details of other people who might be interested in the seller’s proposition, or who might be able to make their own introductions/referrals. research/research call – the act of amelia smith thesis, gathering information about a market or customer, that will help progress or enable a sales approach. Often seen as a job for should gay marriage be legalized essay, telemarketing personnel, but actually more usefully carried out by sales people, especially where large prospects are concerned (which should really be the amelia, only type of prospects targeted by modern sales people, given the need to should gay marriage recover very high costs of amelia smith thesis, sales people). retention/customer retention – means simply keeping customers and not losing them to competitors. Modern companies realise that it’s far more expensive to find new customers than keep existing ones, and so put sufficient investment into looking after and growing existing accounts. Less sensible companies find themselves spending a fortune winning new customers, while they lose more business than they gain because of poor retention activity. (The hole in the bucket syndrome, where it leaks out faster than it can be poured in.) risk reversal – concept used in marketing quite often to entice the passive decision maker into making a decision. The seller assumes all or the majority of the risk involved in the business transaction, thus taking away the primary negative in a buying decision – the risk to the buyer. sales cycle – the Sales Cycle term generally describes the time and/or process between first contact with the customer to when the sale is using headings in an, made.
Sales Cycle times and thesis, processes vary enormously depending on the company, type of business (product/service), the effectiveness of the sales process, the market and the particular situation applying to the customer at the time of the inquiry. Types Of Music. The Sales Cycle can be less than a minute or can be many months or even a few years. A typical Sales Cycle for a moderately complex product might be: 1. lead generated. 3. arrange appointment. 4. customer appointment with questions. 5. Amelia. verify depth of problems and essay format, consequences. 6. presentation of proposal. 7. and close sale. sales forecasts – also called sales projections, these are the predictions that sales people and sales managers are required to make about future business levels, necessary for their own organization to smith plan and budget everything from stock levels, production, staffing levels, to advertising and promotion, financial performance and market strategies.
sales funnel – describes the pattern, plan or actual achievement of conversion of prospects into using headings apa essay, sales, pre-inquiry and amelia thesis, then through the sales cycle. So-called because it includes the conversion ratio at each stage of the sales cycle, which has a funneling effect. Prospects are said to be fed into the top of the funnel, and the fantods of risk on risk management, converted sales drop out at the bottom. The extent of amelia smith thesis, conversion success (ie the tightness of argumentative essay on texting, each ratio) reflects the quality of prospects fed into the top, and the sales skill at each conversion stage. The Sales Funnel is a very powerful sales planning and sales management tool. sales report – a business report of sales results, activities, trends, etc., traditionally completed by a sales manager, but increasingly now the responsibility of sales people too. A sales report can be required weekly, monthly, quarterly and annually, and thesis, often includes the essay, need to amelia thesis provide sales forecasts. sales pipeline – a linear equivalent of the Sales Funnel principle.
Prospects need to be fed into the pipeline in order to drop out of the other end as sales. The length of the of music, pipeline is the sales cycle time, which depends on business type, market situation, and the effectiveness of the sales process. sector/market sector – a part of the market that can be described, categorised and then targeted according to its own criteria and characteristics; sectors are often described as ‘vertical’, meaning an industry type, or ‘horizontal’, meaning some other grouping that spans a number of amelia, vertical sectors, ex. a geographical grouping, or a grouping defined by in an apa essay, age, or size, etc. segment/market segment – a sub-sector or market niche; basically a grouping that’s more narrowly defined and smaller than a sector; a segment can be a horizontal sub-sector across one or more vertical sectors. service contract – a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the trading arrangement is agreed with the customer.
Also known as trading agreements, supply agreements, and other variations. solutions selling – a common but loosely-used description for a more customer-orientated selling method; dependent on identifying needs to which appropriate benefits are matched in amelia smith a package or ‘solution’. The term is based on the premise that customers don’t buy products or features or benefits – they buy solutions (to organizational problems). It’s a similar approach to ‘needs-creation’ selling, which first became popular in the 1970s-80s. Solutions selling remains relevant and its methods can usefully be included in the open plan selling style described later here, although modern collaborative and facilitative methodologies are becoming vital pre-requisites.Michael Bosworth developed this method as continuation of SPIN selling methods.
SPIN® and SPIN® Selling – A popular selling method developed by Neil Rackham in the 1970-80s: SPIN® is an acronym derived from the basic selling process designed and defined by Rackham: Situation, Problem, Implication, Need, or Need Payoff. Note that SPIN® and for research paper in management, SPIN SELLING® methods and smith thesis, materials are subject to copyright and intellectual property control of the call for research paper in management, Huthwaite Organisations of the US and UK. Strategic Selling® – when used in upper case and/or in the context of Miller Heiman’s Strategic Selling® methodology (which features in their books of the same name, first published in 1985) the Strategic Selling® term is a registered and protected product name belonging to the American Miller Heiman training organization – so be warned. LAMP® and Strategic Selling® methods and smith thesis, materials are subject to copyright and intellectual property control of Miller Heiman, Inc., and again be warned that LAMP® and Strategic Selling® methods and materials are not to argumentative driving be used in the provision of thesis, training and types of music, development products and services without a license. strategic selling – you will also hear people (me included) referring to ‘strategic selling’ in a generic sense, and not specifically referring to the Miller Heiman methods and materials. In a generic ‘lower case’ sense, ‘strategic selling’ describes a broad methodology which began to be practiced in the 1980s, literally ‘strategic’ by amelia smith, its nature (the principles involve taking a strategic view of the prospective customer’s organization, its markets, customers and strategic priorities, etc), which is described below and referred to as ‘open plan selling’. When using the ‘strategic selling’ terminology in a training context you must be careful therefore to argumentative essay on texting driving avoid confusion or misrepresentation of the Miller Heiman intellectual property.
If in any doubt don’t use the ‘strategic selling’ term in relation to providing sales training services – call it something else to avoid any possible confusion with the Miller Heiman products, (see the Miller Heiman Strategic Selling® copyright details below. tangible – in a selling context this describes, or is, an aspect of the product or service offering that can readily be seen and measured in terms of cost and value (eg., any physical feature of the smith thesis, product; spare parts; delivery or installation; a regular service visit; a warranty agreement). See intangible. target account – in a sales context this is the of risk essays, issued (or ideally agreed) level of sales performance for thesis, a sales person or team or department over a given period. Bonus payments, sales commissions, pay reviews, job gradings, life and death, etc., can all be dependent on sales staff meeting sales targets, so all in while all sales targets are quite sensitive things. Targets are established at amelia smith thesis the beginning of the trading year, and then reinforced with a system of regular forecasting and reviews (sometimes referred to as ‘a good bollocking’) throughout the year. See forecasting.
targeting – this has a different meaning to the usual noun sense of should be legalized essay, target (above). Targeting is a marketing term – very relevant and important for sales people and sales managers too – which refers to the customers at which the selling effort is aimed, hence targeting. In this respect the term relates to ‘target markets’, or ‘target sectors’. Amelia Smith. This is the customer aspect within ‘positioning’ of a product or service or proposition. Targeting is represented by argumentative essay while driving, the question: Who will buy the product/service? Deciding targeting on a company scale is normally the responsibility of a marketing department or agency, but each sales person and amelia smith, sales team as huge potential to essays develop and refine their own local targeting – so as to aim their efforts at the sectors or customers which will produce the amelia smith, greatest results.
For example – and many sales people, especially self-employed providers and traders – completely ignore the fact that sales generally come more easily from existing or previous customers than prospective new customers to whom the supplier is completely unknown. Similarly size of prospective customer is another largely overlooked aspect of targeting. Using. Any business will naturally have more amenable sectors of potential customers than other parts of the market. Targeting is the process by which the selling organization maximizes its chances of engaging with the amelia smith thesis, most responsive and profitable customers. telemarketing – any pre-sales activity conducted by telephone, usually by specially trained telemarketing personnel – for instance, research, appointment-making, product promotion. telesales – selling by telephone contact alone, normally a sales function in its own right, ie., utilizing specially trained telesales personnel; used typically where low order values prevent the gay marriage, use of expensive field-based sales people, and amelia thesis, a recognizable product or service allows the using, process to succeed. It is usually an outbound sales method. territory – the geographical area of amelia, responsibility of a sales person or a team or a sales organization. A generation ago a field-based sales person’s territory would commonly be a county or state. Now in this globalized age, where so much selling is done online and remotely by telephone rather than by expensive face-to-face selling, field-based sales people’s territories are much bigger, and in an apa essay, can be entire countries or continental regions. territory planning – the process of planning optimum and most cost-effective coverage (particularly for making appointments or personal calling) of a sales territory by the available sales resources, given prospect numbers, density, buying patterns, etc., even if one territory by one sales person; for one person this used to smith thesis be called journey planning, and was often based on a four or six day cycle, so as to avoid always missing prospects who might never be available on in an apa essay one particular day of the week.
trial close – the technique by which a sales person tests the prospect’s readiness to buy, traditionally employed in response to a buying signal, eg: prospect says: “Do you have them in stock?”, to which the sales person would traditionally reply: “Would you want one if they are?” Use with extreme care, for fear of looking like a clumsy desperate fool. If you see a buying signal there’s no need to jump on amelia smith thesis it – just answer it politely, and before ask why the question is important, which will be far more constructive. unique/uniqueness – a feature that is argumentative essay on texting driving, peculiar to a product or service or supplier – no competitor can offer it. See the marketing section for smith thesis, more detail about english essay format, developing unique selling propositions. Uniqueness is amelia smith, a much overlooked aspect of selling.
The vast majority of of risk on risk, sales organizations focus their efforts on selling ‘me too’ products and amelia, services, where inevitably discussions tend to concentrate on price differences, whereas the types essay, most enlightened and progressive sales organizations strive to smith thesis develop unique qualities in the propositions, which dramatically reduces competitive pressures. UPB – unique perceived benefit – now one of the central strongest mechanisms in the modern selling process, an extension and refinement of the product offer, based on argumentative while detailed understanding of the prospect’s personal and organizational needs. A UPB is your USP from the customer’s perspective, in amelia smith thesis other words, what your USP means to should gay marriage be legalized essay your customer, which is a very different way of approaching selling than from the amelia smith thesis, traditional angle of seller-oriented USPs. It’s essential to discuss your offering in these terms with your customer. USP – unique selling proposition – this is in management 2012, what makes the product offer competitively strong and without direct comparison; generally the smith thesis, most valuable unique advantage of a product or service, for the market or prospect in in an apa essay question; now superseded by UPB. variable – an aspect of the sale or deal that can be changed in order to amelia smith better meet the english essay format, needs of the seller and/or the amelia smith, buyer. Typical variables are price, quantity, lead-time, payment terms, technical factors, styling factors, spare parts, back-up and breakdown service, routine maintenance, installation, delivery, warranty.
Variables may be real or perceived, and often the perceived ones are the using headings in an, most significant in amelia any negotiation.
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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out amelia thesis, your resume, you’re really sending out using headings in an apa essay, a piece of yourself. So make sure it’s representing you to your best advantage. Just like how you dress your best for an interview, it’s important to give your resume the same treatment — to thesis, make sure it’s polished and presentable. The Fantods Of Risk On Risk. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of styles, from smith strictly businesslike to should gay marriage essay, ultra creative — browse through them to get some ideas for updating your own resume. Smith Thesis. Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates. Click the image to see more resume templates.
Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by essays on risk management Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to amelia smith thesis, your name and makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. But Mikha Makhoul’s resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesn’t sacrifice professionalism for english essay format visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally — giving it a 3D appearance and amelia, creating the illusion of on texting while driving depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and red to symbolize his analytic side. Try using shapes and smith, frames for emphasis. Be Legalized. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines.
Here, Michael Long frames his name and thesis, his role to help them stand out. A cohesive color scheme of argumentative on texting driving cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look. Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an amelia thesis edge in terms of attracting attention. Other strong points of english format letter this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and amelia thesis, plenty of negative space. There seems to call paper, be a trend, at least in industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to smith, forget the stuffy business lingo and show that there’s a human behind the piece of paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his “Hello, nice to meet you.
Here’s a little about call for research, me” header at the top of amelia smith thesis this resume, may help you create rapport with the person who’s reviewing your application before you even meet them. This resume by the fantods of risk essays on risk management Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyle’s name and amelia, a catchy tagline. Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of professionalism (and an opportunity to show off your abilities). Plus, once you put the work in, this “brand” is something you can use over and over again — on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. Essays Management. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to be easily readable and not get lost against the background. This clean resume by amelia Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and whittles down the information to in management 2012, only the basics (skills and past positions). Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style. Printing your resume on textured paper can give an amelia impression of argumentative on texting while quality, craftsmanship, or luxury.
If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by S.N. Carter, printed on a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel. When applying for a position where a more creative approach isn’t appropriate, it’s always a safe bet to opt for smith thesis a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Should. Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and a small personal portrait. If you’re after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here.
Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the images should, at thesis a glance, tell something about the fantods on risk, you and complement or enhance the text, like in amelia this resume design by Rachel Winter. If you’re seeking work in call in management an industry where appearance is important, or the job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume. It doesn’t have to be the center of attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotype’s resume template. Mailing out some resumes? Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into your plain, corporate resume?
Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for amelia this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike. For Research Paper In Management 2012. You can use the same graphic on your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look. If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujica’s round resume does here. Smith. If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the using headings in an apa essay text is readable. You’ve only got one name. Make it memorable. If it’s unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on amelia smith thesis his resume.
Give the hiring manager something to zero in on. Your font choices can change the whole character of your resume. For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Need to show your qualifications on using headings the run? Post your resume online and make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to networking platforms like LinkedIn. Use blocks of smith thesis color and/or lines to separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to navigate visually. This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If you’re going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and call for research, helps you keep everything sharply aligned. Use a sidebar in your resume to call attention to extra (or extra important) information that you want to highlight.
Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and contact information from her educational and professional details. Thesis. Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to creatively represent the headings apa essay breadth of his skills and experience. Similar in function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiau’s proficiency in smith thesis various areas, such as management and the fantods of risk essays on risk, design. The size of the amelia smith thesis circles corresponds with his amount of using in an experience — a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Give the person looking at amelia thesis your resume an format excuse to find out more about you. Including a link to your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. Amelia Thesis. If your job history includes working for using headings in an apa essay big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume. Smith Thesis. Tamas Leb has included space to do so on this resume template, and it makes an impressive statement, even at a glance. For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to build a one-of-a-kind design and letter, think about innovative ways to present your information. Here, Peter Kisteman’s laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and smith thesis, gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in a folder or other kind of of music essay holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and accomplishments, plus the thesis extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from S1M.
The vertical timeline on the outside offers an should gay marriage immediate visual representation of the candidate’s career history. This traditional black, white, and gray design by amelia thesis Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent. Should Gay Marriage. This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Besides being another nice example of amelia thesis using an accent color, this design by using apa essay Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and simple, showing that resumes don’t have to amelia, be fancy to in an apa essay, make a good impression. Amelia Smith Thesis. If competition is stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the limited area of a one-page resume allows for. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and custom illustrations to of risk essays on risk management, stand out from the crowd. This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch. As if to say that a normal paper resume just won’t cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the box. Thesis. This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for a high-impact look that will make people take notice.
There may be times when it’s ok to let your sense of humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For instance, check out the pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for types essay his difficult last name. Using a border is a good way to add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Amelia Smith. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the types of music essay same style, which is a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. Sometimes you have to smith, do what you can to on texting driving, get noticed.
For an smith thesis illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for of risk essays her industry and gives her a standout way to display her skills. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and smith thesis, a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrade’s resume gets looked at. No long-winded explanations of job roles here. Just the paper 2012 essentials — enough to amelia smith thesis, get someone interested in wanting to the fantods essays management, know more about Gianina Santiago and her background. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and amelia smith thesis, lots of white space give Maxat Malbekov’s resume a sleek look that’s easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to only the most relevant information. In An. If you have a lot of information you need to amelia smith, fit on one page, take a tip from this design by Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for each section. Need to call in management 2012, keep your resume fairly conservative? A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from ResumeBaker some extra interest. Syril Bobadilla’s illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style.
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But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn. Put these skills into english essay, action! Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is amelia thesis a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio.
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essay on arianism Christianity's civil war Arianism vs. Catholicism. The Struggle for Power. Jesus Never Existed The Criminal History of the Christian Church. The Trinity #150; An Evolving Nonsense. 14th century depiction of the Catholic Triune God. Gosh! #150; 3 Heads, 4 Legs! Complete Rubbish! In its original form Christianity was not Trinitarian: the amelia smith, term is nowhere in the Bible, was unknown to St Paul or to any of the using apa essay, ante-Nicene Fathers and amelia, flies in types the face of amelia smith monotheism.
Because of its hybrid nature, the riddle at the fantods of risk essays management, the heart of Christianity was, on the one hand, how could a redeeming sacrifice #150; if less than a god #150; atone for all of humanity's sins? But on the other hand, if the sacrificial lamb was really a god , could he then really have suffered and died on the cross? Hence, the amelia thesis, Trinity.. 2012! . The Bishop who did not know of Jesus! Theophilus of Antioch. Theophilus , an early Christian apologist, in his work Theophilus to Autolycus #150; used the amelia smith thesis, Greek word trias but he was NOT speaking of any Catholic Trinity. In Book 2, chapter 15 he writes of paper in management a type of Trinity #150; of God, His Word and His Wisdom.
He refers extensively to Jewish scripture but makes only passing reference to recent (and unnamed) gospels. He mentions neither apostles nor disciples. This is consistent with #150; a rather startling truth #150; that Theophilus does not know of an historical Christ at all! The bishop wrote 29,000 words without once mentioning Jesus Christ!! So Why was Theo' calling himself a Christian. This is how Theophilus explains the origin (in Antioch) of the amelia thesis, word Christian:
Chapter XII - Meaning of the Name Christian. And about should your laughing at me and calling me Christian, you know not what you are saying. (Christ is not a name but a Greek rendering of the Hebrew Messiah meaning the anointed one.) OILING UP #150; Eat YOUR Heart Out, Jesus! It is a strange experience . to study these obscure congregations, drawn from the proletariate of the Levant, superstitious, charlatan-ridden, and helplessly ignorant, who still believed in Gods begetting children of mortal mothers, who took the 'Word', the 'Spirit', and the 'Divine Wisdom', to be persons called by amelia thesis those names, and turned the should essay, Immortality of the Soul into thesis 'the standing up of the should essay, corpses'; and to reflect that it was these who held the smith, main road of essay format advance towards the greatest religion of the western world. Gilbert Murray, Five Stages of thesis Greek Religion , IV. The Failure of Nerve, p165. Isis in the process of becoming Mary (Upper Egypt, 4th century)
The Docetists said Jesus was God himself, temporarily disguised as a man. The Ebionites regarded Jesus as the chosen one: Christ a man chosen by God on whom the Holy Spirit rested and made divine. 'Mark' has his godman going off to essays on risk, a mountain and praying (Mark 6.46). But to amelia smith thesis, whom is he praying? If he were part of the Trinity – 'True God from argumentative essay on texting True God' and all that – he would be praying to himself! Tertullian , a bishop of Carthage, provided a hybrid theology, a 'missing link' between the one god nonsense and smith, three god nonsense. A severe, uncompromising man (virgins should be veiled; second marriage was fornication, etc.) he broke with the Catholics in Rome (about 211), both for their lax ways and because they were in the grip of call paper 2012 Monarchians (the original one-god faction). First with the Montanists (who said the Holy Spirit spoke through them) and amelia smith thesis, then with his own sect, he developed a non-Catholic version of the Trinity. Having read Theophilus's work, he rendered trias as trinitas in Latin. He worked out the semantic formula #150; 'three persons, one substance' but then went on to say that from all eternity there had been 'Reason' (Wisdom) and the 'Word' in God, but not as distinct 'persons'.
In the beginning, said Tertullian, Christ did not exist (hence, a lesser god!), but was a perfectly created being! (By the way, he did not believe that Mary was a perpetual virgin!) In the ancient world the dove was a symbol of the types essay, mother goddess, often used to represent female fertility and procreation. A self-castrating fanatic from Alexandria, Origen wrote prolifically but little of his work survived. He was condemned in 553 for heresy. We know he speculated about a triad of Father, Son, and Spirit, but with the latter two entities subordinate and inferior to the Father. For his pains, he was charged posthumously with the guilt of Arianism. Origen had been influenced by Gnosticism and amelia smith thesis, thought that Jesus appeared differently to different observers according to their spiritual capacities #150; a sort of types of music cosmic shape-shifter. Rather cutely, Origen said that even Satan could be redeemed. Too much of a freethinker for his own good.
Coins from amelia smith thesis Ashkelon (1st century BC) use a dove to represent the goddess Tyche-Astarte. Hippolytus #150; an 'anti-pope' #150; argued that the Monarchian or ' modalist' doctrine of should be legalized essay Pope Callistus was 'contrary to scripture.' (Callistus of course was the pope friendly with the concubine of Emperor Commodus.) In pre-Trinitarian Rome, so-called 'modalism' (or, yet another name, 'Sabellianism') was the prevailing doctrine, holding simply that Christ was a manifestation of God Himself. Hippolytus, though condemned as a ditheist for his two-god theories, gained support from another 'anti-pope' #150; the puritanical Novatian. Under pressure from his rivals, Callistus set out a revised formula. Thanks to the pen of an ex-slave and crook , an embryonic doctrine of the Trinity made its triumphant entry into smith thesis the dogmas of the Roman Church. By the english essay format, time Athanasius arrived in Rome, about a century later, the Catholic Church was ready to amelia, accept his mystical rationale that the Father and the Son are one and the same in substance, a sort of using apa essay square root of nonsense. Like much else, the ancient symbolism of the dove was subsumed into amelia smith thesis Christian use of this pagan icon.
'The mouths of headings in an communicants were held open by a wooden engine while the consecrated bread was forced down their throats, the amelia smith thesis, breasts of tender virgins were either burnt with red-hot egg-shells, or inhumanly compressed between sharp and heavy boards.' – Edward Gibbon, commenting on the hostility between Arians and Catholics . Rome did more than hire barbarians to fight its wars; like any latter-day imperialist power, it intervened directly and indirectly in 'tribal affairs' far beyond its frontiers. Rome had its 'client kings,' its royal hostages and refugees, its barbarian 'consuls.' It encouraged conflict between the tribes and it used its influence, money and diplomacy to effect the outcome of each crisis of tribal leadership. Barbarians did more than fight for Rome. They competed with each other for call in management 2012 imperial favour, they supported rival imperial candidates and took sides in Rome's civil wars. A tribe might fight both for and against the emperor in a single campaign season. Barbarians re-established 'Roman' rule in exchange for land and titles. A 'Roman' generalissimo, more often than not, was himself of barbarian blood. Ultimately, barbarian chieftains nominated the Caesars and amelia thesis, the Augustii. When they tired of the fiction, they still acknowledged the Emperor in Constantinople. Through it all , during the 4th-6th centuries, a Christian civil war was fought between Arianism and Catholicism, the terrible twins of a malevolent religion.
Now shadowy and all but forgotten this conflict was nonetheless violent and of decisive consequence. The nastier of the types of music, two #150; Catholicism #150; was to triumph. Amelia Smith! Arianism's undoing was the same as Paganism's before it: its religious tolerance. The simple reality was that the should, violent, fanatical and intolerant creed of Catholicism destroyed all that stood in its way. Arian Tolerance vs. Amelia Thesis! Catholic Intolerance.
Though we believe not the things which ye believe, yet we do not speak evil of them, for the holding of this or that belief may not be imputed as a crime . Response from Gregory of essays Tours, Catholic bishop : Thou art a defender of the Gentiles, and smith thesis, a champion of heretics, for thou dost defile the dogmas of the Church and dost proclaim the worship of pagan abominations . Historia Francorum , V, 43, McKenna (Paganism and Pagan Survivals in Spain up to english letter, the Fall of the Visigothic Kingdom). After the rapid Muslim conquest of Spain, Arian Christians – who already rejected the divinity of smith Christ – converted en masse to the new faith of Islam. Dastardly Arians set fire to Catholic Church #150; 9th century Catholic propaganda. (MS Gr. Using Headings Apa Essay! 510 Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris) At the feet of Emperor Constantine Arian heretics condemned and their books are burnt. (MS CLXV, Biblioteca Capitolare, Vercelli, 9th century) Arianism #150; Christianity's Last Link with Rationality. Scholars trained in the schools of Greek philosophy and rationality did not entirely lose their mind when they became Christian theologians. It was quite reasonable, therefore, for amelia smith them to proceed from the concept of a single, universal creator god to the proposition that whatever else Christ may have been, he was less than the supreme god, a subordinate deity somewhere between man and the Almighty.
This, in a nutshell, was the view of Arius , a theorizing presbyter in 4th century Alexandria. A creation, said Arius, is less than its creator. The Son is less than the Father that 'begot' him. In the call paper in management 2012, Beginning was the Creator God and the Son did not exist. It was a simple theology, one that had a certain rationality and also the merit that it could be readily understood. It showed the influence upon Arius of Alexandrian neo-Platonism , and smith, more particularly, the speculations of Lucian of Antioch. Borrowing freely from the lexicon of pre-Christian philosophers , Greek words like 'ousia' (essence), 'hypostasis' (substance), 'physis' (nature), and 'hyposopon' (person), were given new 'Christian' meanings by Arius and those who came after him. Arius was an proficient orator, writer (his major work in 323 was Thalia , later burned of course) and song writer!
His sea shanties popularised his religious ideas in the coastal port cities. But Arius had a much younger political rival and adversary in the shape of a fellow Alexandrian, Athanasius . Protégé of the then bishop (Alexander), Athanasius devoted himself to memorizing scripture and the true science of the be legalized essay, profound mysteries. Theological speculation was not Athanasius's strong suit but neither was he bound by scripture alone. Rather, he stood by belief and experience of Divine Mystery, as interpreted in the traditions of the Church. He had no need for the logic of Greek philosophers. Whereas philosophy could only persuade select and local cliques of immortality and goodness #150; men of thesis little intellect have infused into the multitudes of the churches the principle of a supernatural life. Athanasius and Divine mystery 'Arianism' is the of music essay, polemical creation of smith thesis Athanasius above all, who was determined to show that any proposed alternative to call paper in management 2012, the Nicene formula collapsed back into some version of Arius' teaching, with all the incoherence and inadequacy that teaching displayed. R. Thesis! Williams, Arius , p247. The inspiration for Athanasius's anti-rationalism was not the using in an, Alexandria of amelia smith thesis classic Greek learning but Upper Egypt, home of cultic ceremonial and ancient mysteries. To this tradition, in the 4th century, were added monastic escapees and ascetic hermits, like 'Paul of Thebes' and 'Antony of Coma ' (with whom Athanasius spent some early years).
In Upper Egypt, 4th century Christians were busy christianizing the temples of the pharaohs, adopting that which they were not destroying. 4th century Christian altar (left of picture) carved into a pharaoh's sanctuary. Promoted above the venerable Arius, Athanasius gained the bishop's throne in using headings in an 328 and smith, held on the fantods of risk on risk to it (though half spent in exile!) for more than forty years. Amelia Smith Thesis! He defended to the last the right of the ecclesiasta to interpret God's Will #150; placing so-called Church tradition on a par with the Gospels. Throughout his tumultuous life #150; and he was banished by no fewer than four Roman Emperors #150; Athanasius clung tenaciously to call for research in management, the doctrine that Jesus Christ was God (just like Horus , son of Osirus , was God.) The one true God made apparent his Will, Word, Wisdom, what-have-you, through 'emanations' and Christ was such an emanation. Squaring this particular circle #150; monotheism and yet Christ as god #150; required a peculiarly illogical (mysterious) formula #150; but then Egypt was just the place to smith, find such a formula. Athanasius returned repeatedly to for research paper, Upper Egypt, hiding among the monks during times of exile (356 - 61; 362 - 63; 356 - 66). The Egyptians had always deified these emanations, typically grouping them into trinities (in fact, a whole hierarchy of smith trinities). Thus, Isis-Horus-Set, Amum-Maut-Khonso, Atum-Shu-Tefnut-Mahet, etc., etc., reigned for thirty centuries, an using, eternal godhead. The key aspect for the Egyptians (and Athanasius) was the god/human interface. Amelia Smith! Begotten, not made, of one essence with the Father was a traditional Egyptian mode of including a man-god within the greater godhead.
The pharaohs stepped into headings in an apa essay the trinity on Earth (as Horus) and became the heavenly element (as Osirus) after death. Athanasius wrote : The Word, then, visited that Earth in which He was yet always present. Coming as God and as Man . Revealing Himself, conquering Death, and restored to life. Thus the religion of the thesis, Pharaohs was recast in paper Christian form. Athanasius's major literary contribution to the world was a work of fantasy, equal to that of the 'Incarnation' , the 'Life of Antony,' a model of inventive hagiography. This fiction was to inspire such luminaries as Jerome and Augustine in their own lives of saints. The Life , a paean to asceticism and the power of the Lord's name, is awash with demons and miracles.
And rising up he saw a beast like a man to the thighs but having legs and feet like those of an ass. And Antony only amelia signed himself and said, 'I am a servant of Christ. If thou art sent against me, behold I am here.' But the beast together with his evil spirits fled, so that, through his speed, he fell and essays on risk management, died. Amelia Smith! And the headings, death of the beast was the smith thesis, fall of the demons. For they strove in all manner of ways to lead Antony from the desert and were not able. The Egyptian desert had always been feared as the home of 'demons.' Christian ascetics – inspired by format Antony's example – now swarmed over the desert to battle the amelia smith, demon – and in so doing, infused nascent orthodoxy with a demonology that would invoke such bloodshed and horror in the European Middle Ages.
Well would you believe it. Athanasius assures us Antony commanded lions to dig the grave for fellow heroic hermit Paul. Antony it seems spent his time in the desert cursing a pandemic of demons. The enmity of the Christians towards each other surpassed the fury of savage beasts against man. Arius had been forced to flee Alexandria in 319.
First in Palestine and then in Roman Asia, he rallied support from fellow Lucianists, including the call for research in management 2012, senior bishops Eusebius of Caesarea (the Church historian), Eusebius of Nicomedia, and Valens, Bishop of Mursa. Synods convened in Palestine and Bithynia opposed synods convened in Egypt. During several years the argument grew more vicious and violent. At this stage, there was no universally recognised orthodox creed . Amelia Smith! The answers to such questions as 'How divine was Christ? ', 'How far was he human?' were still a matter of contention. Orthodoxy as yet was not rigidly demarcated. Should Gay Marriage! The Christian 'civil war' was not the story of the defence of orthodoxy, but the amelia, struggle to determine orthodoxy. Murder and mayhem would characterize its resolution, as would every base human motive masquerading under the for research in management, banner of religion. Wisdom from a Fool: Just a matter of words. Initially Constantine was simply perplexed by the enmity between Arius and Athanasius. In letters to both protagonists in smith 324 he tried to reconcile them by be legalized saying that their disagreement was merely just a matter of words. Rivals in every sense, Arius and Athanasius shattered any hopes Constantine may have entertained of amelia smith a united Christian Empire.
Exasperated by their obduracy he convened the first universal (ecumenical) Church Council and demanded an agreed (orthodox) creed. Convening at Nicaea in 325, for several months the theologians wrangled. Emperor Constantine had had enough. After personally struggling with dimly understood nuances of Greek theology #150; and taking counsel from the call paper, Spanish prelate Ossius of Cordova #150; this pagan thug and murderer proposed the amelia, formula which expressed ( his idea of ) the precise relationship of Christ to God: he opted for of one substance (in Greek 'homoousion'). Thus was it determined that Jesus of Nazareth had, in fact, been God Incarnate , the should gay marriage essay, infinite creator of the universe. No mere carpenter, temporarily filled by 'Divine Essence' , this new god of the amelia, Romans was no less than the eternal King in Heaven. Overawed by call 2012 the master of the world, the smith, assembled bishops (with only two exceptions) endorsed the creed.
High Summer of Arianism. But many churchmen were unhappy with this two god formula. Should Gay Marriage Essay! Arius, sent into exile, travelled widely in the east and gained many supporters. Constantine remained far from clear just what he believed. Amelia Smith Thesis! When Ossius fell from favour Arius returned to it. The Council of Nicaea: Papering over the cracks. Such were the in management 2012, divisions at the first universal Church council that there was no agreement even over how many clergy had actually attended. Curiously, no copies of the thesis, council's proceedings survived. Funny that . We do know that when the Creed was finished 18 bishops still opposed it. He submitted to Constantine a creed which the emperor judged to be orthodox and a contrite emperor ordered that Arius should receive the argumentative on texting driving, holy communion in the cathedral of Constantinople.
Murder of Arius. On the very day which had been fixed for his triumph, Arius died suddenly and under strange circumstances. His bowels suddenly burst out in a privy. says Gibbon, the cause a choice between poison and miracle. Arius had been eliminated but a vexed Constantine turned his wrath on the Athanasians. Though Constantine 's Council of Nicaea was ever after hailed as the lodestone of Catholic Orthodoxy , Constantine himself died as a baptised Arian in 337. After his death, the imperial family remained divided on the issue and a blood purge ensued. The victor and amelia smith thesis, probable murderer, Constantius II, took the eastern throne at the age of 20, with Arian clergy swaying his simple, superstitious mind. For a generation, Arianism would prevail and Catholicism stumbled. Athanasius, outmaneuvered, retreated to Rome, accompanied by monks from the Egyptian desert. Athanasius#146; exile in Rome brought Pope Julius I into the fantods of risk essays the struggle. He called a council favourable towards Athanasius at Sardica in 343 but this council was avoided by the Eastern bishops and amelia thesis, ignored by Constantius.
It got worse. By 350, with his two brothers dead, Constantius' writ embraced the using headings in an apa essay, whole Roman world . Arian bishops commanded important sees throughout the empire, most importantly at the imperial cities of Milan and Constantinople. Yet fatally for the cause of Arianism, speculation encouraged further speculation. Council followed council (14 were held between 341 and 360) in which every shade of heretical subterfuge found expression. (Catholic Encyclopedia). The Arians broke into diverse groups according to which term they supported - 'anomoios' (dissimilar), 'homoios' (similar) or 'homoiousion' (like in smith thesis substance). Favourites moved in and out of court circles with alarming frequency. Types! The empire's resources were drained by the navel gazing.
Beardless Jesus gets his Arian baptism #150; and pagan river god looks on! 5th century 'Arian' Christian baptistery ceiling, Ravenna. Attempts to resolve Arian differences were made at Sirmium (351, 359). Thesis! The final formula was an ambiguous 'homoean' ('of like substance') declaration that Constantius forced on should the church in two councils, Rimini (for the West) and Seleucia (for the East) in smith 359. This 'homoean' victory was confirmed and imposed on the whole Church by the Council of essay format letter Constantinople in the following year. Said Jerome after the Council of amelia smith Rimini: The whole world groaned and marvelled to find itself Arian. The Catholics were left dependent on Rome for essay format support. At first, the obstinate Bishop in thesis Rome, Liberius, was forced into of risk essays exile but subsequently he regained his lucrative see by subscribing to the Arian creed #150; in so doing gaining everlasting opprobrium from Catholics as a heretic pope.
Other Western bishops, like Hilary of Poitiers, Ossius of Cordoba and Eusebius of Vercellae were banished to thesis, Asia, though they maintained contact with other renegades like Basil and the two Gregories. As the war dragged on, rival Arian and Catholic bishops fought each other in for research the streets. The wily pagan emperor Julian (360 -63) encouraged all exiled fanatics of the Galilean to amelia smith thesis, return home in call paper 2012 the fond hope that they might destroy each other. Amelia Thesis! In Alexandria, where the dispute began, that largely happened. Erstwhile bacon salesman George of Cappadocia, a grandee of the Arians #150; and future St George of England! #150; seized the bishop#146;s chair when Athanasius was driven into the desert. So incensed were the inhabitants by using headings in an apa essay his persecutions that they took their revenge on George by throttling the bishop and dumping his body in the sea . Catholicism #150; Talismanic Mysteries the thesis, path to Power. The West, which remained free from controversies of an english essay format letter, abstract nature, and amelia smith thesis, was faithful to the creed of its baptism. Intellectual centres were chiefly Alexandria and Antioch, Egyptian or Syrian, and for research in management 2012, speculation was carried on in Greek. The Roman Church held steadfastly by tradition . From these doubtful theorizings Rome kept aloof. He entered a fertile ground.
Latin did not lend itself to subtle distinctions of theology nor was there any Greek tradition of philosophical discourse. The west produced no theologian of note before Augustine in the fifth century. In Italy and smith, the untutored western provinces, relics, demonology and miracles made far greater sense. Athanasius died in 373 but his dogmas had been enthusiastically taken up by the popes. The Trinity #150; Why adopt such a 'difficult' dogma? Two things distinguished the gay marriage be legalized, Catholics from their Arian opponents: one political, the other doctrinal. Politically, the eastern sees, though each preserving a limited degree of amelia smith autonomy, were ultimately subordinate to imperial control. The Patriarchy in Constantinople was in the gift of the emperor and functioned as a department of the state. In contrast, the call for research in management 2012, Popes in Rome increasingly saw themselves as independent of, and ultimately superior to, any secular authority. Sees in the west became thoroughly subordinate to the Bishop in smith Rome.
In short, Catholicism was a tightly disciplined structure of the fantods essays on risk management power and wealth, rivaling the state. Doctrinally, Catholicism kept aloof from fruitless Christological speculation on the nature of the god-man. Its call was for unity around an unfathomable mystery. Stop thinking, Believe! Instead of theology it opted for a legitimising stratagem of bones and smith thesis, miracles. 2012! Roman Catholicism, with no authentic links to the Galilean saga, was building its power base on spurious claims of signs and miracles. That shadowy third person of the trinity #150; the Divine Wisdom or Holy Spirit #150; could be identified with many things #150; not least with the communion of saints , the amelia smith thesis, institution of the church itself , a new visible city of God on earth. The fantastic nonsense of the Trinity set Catholicism free of all restraint. With the 'Holy Spirit' let loose all manner of wonderful events could occur at the behest of the Catholic bishops. Literally, the magic of the Holy Spirit , was made live and well, beavering away on behalf of the headings apa essay, Bishop of Rome and amelia smith thesis, his henchmen.
The elevation of the soldier Valentinian I in headings 364 brought a Catholic to the throne in the West, though not a particularly devout one. Amelia Smith Thesis! But it was he who brought Ambrose (city boss of Milan) to the fore. Ambrose persuaded Valentinian's son, the young caesar Gratian, to depose six Arian bishops and enact a series of laws between 379 and english essay format, 380 prohibiting Arianism in thesis the West. The argument was settled, as ever, by force. With Gratian dead at 24 Ambrose moved on to his younger sibling. In the of music, hands of Ambrose the 'Trinitarian creed' was developed to inform the dim witted Valentinian II, a child otherwise under the thesis, influence of his Arian mother, the Empress Justina. The naked power struggle between politico bishop and Regent masqueraded as a theological dispute on the nature of the godhead. A mob animated by some convenient martyr's bones settled the matter. The Trinity, that unfathomable mystery, had become the central doctrine of Roman Christianity, enforced on of risk management pain of death. After a generation in the doldrums Catholic Orthodoxy #150; triumphant in the west #150; now got its comeback opportunity in the east. In 381 the Spanish fanatic Theodosius I and a mob of rumbustious bishops arrived in Constantinople from the west.
The new pious Emperor outlawed Arianism (and everything else of amelia smith thesis which he disapproved) throughout the english essay format letter, empire. At the Council of Constantinople it was proclaimed that not only smith was Christ god #150; but that the Holy Spirit was god too! The bishops and their emperor declared that mysterious entity, flexible yet bafflingly obtuse, a fully paid up member of the call in management, godhead, thus giving the amelia smith thesis, Roman world a triune god #150; three versions of nonsense rather than one. Early in the 5th century the Trinitarian dogma was re-labelled the Athanasian Creed , in honour of the original fanatic who had preferred Egyptian mysteries to Greek philosophy. (In later centuries, the rather woolly concept of the 'Holy Spirit' would be upstaged by of risk on risk the altogether more visual 'Mary Mother of thesis Jesus'.
The Trinity itself would give the 'Scholastics' of the format letter, Middle Ages a lifetime of leisured theorising). When Roman captives, gold or troops passed beyond the northern frontier, Arian Christianity went with them. As early as the 360s some of the Vandal tribes had acquired Christian talismans and from them the trinkets of Christ passed to remoter tribes. Famously, a Roman monk of Gothic ancestry #150; Ulfilas #150; set his hand to rendering his own written form of the Gothic tongue and amelia, translated parts of the Bible #150; which one presumes might have been read to the illiterate tribesmen. Or maybe not. By the 370s, Arianism had been adopted by for research paper in management the Goths and spread from them to smith thesis, nearly all the German tribes.
During the migrations and invasions of the 5th and 6th centuries, the barbarian kingdoms which arose on the fallen empire of the west, were almost all of Arian persuasion. For Research Paper 2012! Arianism served each in the same fashion it had served Constantinople under the Arian emperors: as a 'national' religion, in amelia embryonic form potentially a 'department' of a 'national administration,' with bishops chosen by kings. Essay On Texting! The very notion was anathema to the 'universal' persuasion of the Catholics whose grand design was for ecclesiastic not secular power, under the international authority of a papal monarch in Rome. The one exception was a barbarous tribe from the smith thesis, marshlands of the types essay, Rhine #150; the amelia smith, Franks #150; who became the favoured sons of the using apa essay, Catholics. The symbiotic relationship between the Catholic bishops and the Frankish warlords brought both to the mastery of Western Europe. Chris Scarre, Chronicle of the Roman Emperors (Thames Hudson, 1995) Robert Graves, Count Belisarius (London, 1938)
Rowan Williams, Arius (SCM Press, 2001) Arthur Ferrill, The Fall of the Roman Empire (Thames Hudson, 1986) Helen Ellerbe, The Dark Side of smith thesis Christian History (Morningstar Lark, 1995) Richard Fletcher, The Conversion of Europe (Harper Collins, 1997) Edward Gibbon, The Decline Fall of the Roman Empire (1799) Michael Grant, The Climax of Rome (Weidenfeld Nicolson, 1996)
Michael Grant, Fall of the headings in an, Roman Empire (Weidenfeld Nicolson, 1996) Robert Wilken, The Christians As the Romans Saw Them (Yale UP, 1984) Robin Fox lane, Pagans Christians (Viking, 1986) Hearts Minds? #150; The Conversion of the Tribesmen. 1000 Years of Carnage Barbarity in the name of smith thesis Christ. The Papal Princes #150; Christian Lords of Hell on Earth. Saint Peter – Linking Rome back to the Godman. Do you really think it all began with a sanctimonious Jewish wonder-worker, strolling about using in an apa essay 1st century Palestine? Prepare to be enlightened. Still holding to the idea that some sort of holy man lies behind the legend?
Better check out. A closer look at smith, the glib assertion that the Jesus story got off the ground quickly and essay format, spread rapidly. Many currents fed the Jesus myth, like streams and tributaries joining to form a major river. Sourcing the legend – The Syncretic Heritage of Christianity. Much of the mythology of smith Christianity is a rehash of an older and even more transparent fabrication – Judaism.
Human ingenuity and cunning is matched by mankind's equally monumental credulity and wishful thinking. Church organisation, authority and membership preceded rather than followed the essay, justifying doctrine. As the organisation and its needs changed so has the ‘Testament of God’ adapted accordingly. From religious policeman to grandee of the amelia smith, church, from beast fighter in Ephesus to beheading in Rome, Paul's story has more holes than a swiss cheese. Orchestrated by ambitious Christian clerics, a cancer of superstition, fear and brutality was imposed across Europe. Heart of Darkness – The Criminal History of the Christian Church.
The Christian Heaven may have been a vain folly but the of music, Christian Hell has been real enough. Raised to the status of State religion the Christian Church reigned over the destruction of civilization. As the centuries passed religious barbarism grew ever more vicious. For two millennia Christianity's anti-sexual, puritanical doctrines have inflicted untold damage on the mental, emotional and amelia smith thesis, physical lives of types countless millions of smith people. With a Jewish father (stern patriarch) and a Christian mother (obsession with guilt and heaven) it is not surprising that Islam grew up a bit of a tartar. Heaven help us. The richest, most powerful nation in history has a psychotic infatuation with Jay-a-sus the Lawd! Some fifty articles are now available as a book. For your copy order:
Copyright 2004 by Kenneth Humphreys. Copying is types of music essay, freely permitted, provided credit is given to the author and amelia smith thesis, no material herein is using, sold for amelia profit.