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blindness essay jose By Jose Saramago. Translated from the Portuguese by Giovanni Pontiero from the 1995 Ensaio sombre a Cegueira. London: The Harvill Press, 1997. Comments of goldwater tips, Bob Corbett. Also appended remarks from repor t George Snedeker. How are we to imagine a world in which some central part of our meaning system suddenly disappears? I've played with the idea in thinking about having survived an goldwater essay, atomic war which destroyed most humans, and all the basic infrastructures of everyday life. And French Revolution Essays. The problems one runs into even in such a game of imagination is to be consistent and being able to step far enough away to see what it is that really changes. In my day-dreaming imaginings I never went so far as to even dare to consider the inner changes in my person or the other survivors around me. Tips. It was much more than I could do to even anticipate and manage the physical problems of change and how to deal with them.
Jose Saramago presents us with exactly such a problematic, yet his masterful analysis deals not only with the physical aspects of change and how his characters deal with them, but he inters into the psychological realm and astounds us with his insights and thesis, brilliance. A man is sitting at a traffic light one day waiting for the light to turn green and he suddenly goes blind. Essay. This is the first blind man. Slowly this mysterious form of blindness, the like not known in the literature of modern medicine, spreads to the whole nation. As best we know, there is repor t, only one sighted person left in the realm. We follow a cast of fewer than 10 characters in detail. We have no names, only descriptors. After all one character tells us blind people need no names. There is the first blind man, the first blind man's wife. The blind man had a seeming good semaritan who helps him home and but then steals his car and is thus called the man who had stole the goldwater tips, car.
There is the doctor whom he consults and the doctor's wife, the girl with dark glasses, the boy with the squint and thesis end of, the man with the black eye patch. There are a few others, but these become our key characters, later on adding the dog of tears. In the early days of the white blindness in goldwater tips, which each person seems only a white creamy mass, the government freaks out at the quick contagion of it and inters a large number of the blind in an old insane asylum. There, in scenes which are quite reminiscent of Golding's The Lord of the fences essay, Flies, pure anarchy reigns and a gang sets itself up to control the government delivered food. Soon however, the 7 central characters have escaped the goldwater, asylum when it turns out that all the guards who are keeping them interred have themselves gone blind and they simply walk out into a world of and french, all blind people. All blind people that is, save one. The doctor's wife somehow remains sighted and she is able to give this small group the advantages that allows it to essay, survive when others could not. She can locate places, keep them all in line and, most importantly, find food and water in a world gone blind. What is this odd book of mla essay book, Jose Saramago? Is it an allegory?
If so an goldwater, allegory of what? Of the dependency of humans on basic systems of order in the manner of Thomas Hobbes? Is it a condemnation of humans as being only on the edge of civilization and being shown to american revolution essays, be ready to plunge into barbarism at goldwater essay, the least shaking of central systems of order? Or on a more positive note, is the tiny group of 7 the hopeful core that even in such catastrophic circumstances would maintain humanity and re-create a safer environment? Were this latter the case then the critic has a difficult time explaining the presence of the one sighted person who survives and leads. Or does this problematic suggest that leaders are essential to the continuation of the human species? Or, abandoning the allegory theory, is this simply an astonishing tour-de-force of imagination, being just what it is mla essay book, literally and no more, the investigation of the logic of life when something such as sight disappears and the sighted woman is essay tips, necessary as a sop since no other believable mode of survival would be easily available. Mla Essay Book. This view would harmonize with the direction one finds in other Saramago novels especially The Stone Raft and The Gospel According to Jesus Christ, perhaps even of The Year of the Death of Ricardo Reis. Saramago seems to have a passion for playing with alternative realities and attending with care to the logic of the system he once sets up.
I believe I lean much more to this notion that we are to understand Blindness not as an allegory, but as an goldwater essay, exploration of an mla essay book, alternative reality. On his view we are freer to remain inside the story as given and just marvel at goldwater essay, how he unravels the at the the paper, story and develops not only the physical ramifications, but especially how he deals with the inner realities and changes in the character's minds. However, on this view we are left with the tips, curious status of the doctor's wife's sight, and then the even more curious recurrence of the special dog which we had in The Stone Raft as well. And French. Saramago seems to goldwater essay, like dogs in nearly occult roles in a mockingbird essay, his fantasies. This one, however, plays no central as the dog in The Stone Raft.
Rather, it gets it name by goldwater, licking away the and french revolution, tears of the doctor's wife when she breaks down in near despair on see what has happened to goldwater tips, the blind city. The dog of tears remains with the group the rest of the tale, but seems to have no other role. After just the american revolution essays, first few pages I nearly lost my faith in Saramago. The blind man goes blind at goldwater tips, the stop sign, gets taken home by the car thief and american and french, soon is taken to goldwater tips, the doctor, who is an ophthalmologist, by his wife. I began to repor t, wonder -- how in the world can he sustain an entire moderately long novel as the essay, story of this blind guy. Where could this go? What is there to build on? I suspected I may have had a weak Saramago novel in my hand. And then the thunderous second shoe drops, the doctor goes blind in the night.
I simply gasped aloud on the subway I was riding when that happened. I knew I was now in for mla essay book something odd, but I had no idea just how odd and soon people were falling into goldwater tips blindness with great rapidity and I was hooked on a new alternative world according to Saramago. The ending, which I won't mention was very unsatisfactory to me, but I'll leave that to the reader to discover and evaluate on his or her own. Jose Saramago is one of the great masters of storytelling and fiction of our time. Fences Questions. His language is impeccable and he plays with it often, calling attention to it, even interrupting the story to reflect on words and modes of expressing thoughts. Goldwater. The story itself is captivating and in the later sections when the group of 7 are wandering in this nightmare of a city where all are blind is the paper, one of the most frightful and even terrifying scenes I know in fiction. Goldwater Essay Tips. This is in no way a horror story, yet I can't imagine a novel in the genre of horror rising to the level of terror that Saramago strikes in us in these scenes of fences essay, wandering bands of blind people struggling to find food and stay alive. It is a macabre and brilliant painting of pictures for the verbally sighted and yet another addition to the marvelous list of Saramago triumphs.
Special thanks to George Snedeker for this note: I have just read your review of goldwater essay, Saramago's BLINDNESS. as a visually impaired person, I have been trying to make sense of his use of blindness as a trope. blindness operates in his text as both an thesis at the the paper, intertextual sign and as a referent. blindness represents limitation. this is tips, true in the very obvious sense of the analogy between knowing and seeing. blindness also leads the characters to return to the state of nature. I have always been troubled by the doctor's wife. her eyes allow her to lead the others to a mockingbird essay morals, safety. she is also necessary as the narrator of the story. Tips. without her, who would describe the events and scenes of the novel. A more systematic review from George Snedeker. BETWEEN METAPHOR AND REFERENT: Reading Saramago's Blindness SUNY/College at Old Westbury. Jose Saramago received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1998. Although several of his books were available in English translation, not many people in the United States had read his novels prior to the award. Soon his latest novel, Blindness, was on the New York Times Best-Seller List.
If I had not previously read two of his earlier books, I would not have been much interested in reading an allegorical novel that uses blindness as its master sign. Mla Essay Book. Saramago uses a quotation from the Book of Exhortations as the goldwater tips, epigram to Blindness: If you can see, look. If you can look, observe. Near the end of the novel, when the blind people are getting their vision back, he has one of his characters remark: I don't think we did go blind, I think we are blind, Blind but seeing, Blind people who can see, but do not see (292). These two quotations indicate the political and philosophical intention of the novel. They indicate, but do not disclose it.
The greatest problem with an allegorical novel like Blindness is that it grants too much freedom to repor t, the reader. It allows too many interpretations. Essay Tips. Saramago uses blindness as a metaphor for both personal misfortune and social catastrophe. The story begins when the first blind man loses his vision in his car while waiting for a traffic light to end of, change. The man who helps him get safely home goes back and steals his car. The next day the wife of the first blind man takes him to see the eye doctor.
Within a few days, the wife of the tips, first blind man, the car thief, the doctor and all of the aziz ansari cousin essay, patients in his waiting room also go blind. The only character in goldwater, the novel that miraculously avoids the affliction of blindness is the doctor's wife. With a large number of people going blind quickly and with no apparent cause, public health officials panic and the blind are interned in a former mental hospital to protect the population from infection. They are provided with food but are left to fend for themselves within the walls of the abandoned mental hospital. Soldiers keep watch and threaten to kill anyone who tries to escape. The numbers of infected persons increases rapidly.
New groups of blind people are imprisoned in the hospital. Among the new inmates are a group of hoodlums, one of whom possesses a gun. Mla Essay Book. The hoodlums soon demand that the goldwater tips, other internees pay for their food and provide them with women to fulfill their sexual desires. This outrage soon leads to fences questions, a revolt. A few days later, the blind internees realize that the entire population of the goldwater tips, city has gone blind and they leave the hospital in search of food. As the narrative of Blindness progresses, the essay questions, conditions of the blind continue to get worse. They find themselves in a society that no longer functions.
Blind people roam the streets looking for goldwater food and shelter. At The The Paper. After scavenging for days, they realize that soon it will be impossible to goldwater essay, obtain enough nourishment to keep alive. American. While they are at the edge of despair their vision miraculously begins to return. The novel abruptly ends without making clear in what ways people have been transformed by the horrific experience of collective blindness. As I mentioned earlier, the doctor's wife is the only character who does not go blind.
She remains free from essay infection. This allows her to assist the group of blind people. Her eyes allow her to exercise a degree of control over the situation. It is thesis end of, she who kills the blind man with the gun. It is she who leads the blind in their search for food and shelter. Blindness is essay tips, clearly a sign of limitation in this novel. It causes the entire society to no longer function. It also places blind people in the condition of physical jeopardy and psychological torment. The society no longer functions because the blind are not able to provide the ordinary services that we are routinely dependent upon for survival: the production and distribution of food, water and electricity and the maintenance of the infrastructure of transportation and communication.
The central problem with Saramago's novel is that his master sign blindness is a floating signifier. No matter what his intention, the metaphor of blindness has a real referent. American Revolution Essays. Readers of this novel are faced with an ambiguity, the relationship between the symbolic and the real. The authorial voice of the novel and the critical response which has appeared in the mainstream press has occluded the essay, problem of the referent. Repor T. Saramago writes as if his metaphorical depiction of misfortune and catastrophe could somehow be innocent of the cultural meanings that are routinely associated with visual impairment. It is interesting to note that reviews which have appeared in the mainstream press fail to essay tips, even consider that the essay, use of blindness as a metaphor might pose a problem. Reviewers have often made the comparison between Blindness and Camus' Plague, Kafka's Trial and Golding's Lord of the tips, Flies. None of the mla essay book, reviews I have read have made the more obvious comparison to H.G. Wells' short story The Country of the Blind. In this story, Wells uses blindness to essay, represent a restricting society and the struggle of the individual against social conformity.
Both Saramago and Wells use blindness as a sign of limitation because this idea is readily available. It is part of our common stock of cultural images. Mla Essay Book. They use blindness for the same reason that Golding uses children in goldwater tips, Lord of the Flies. Like Camus, Saramago uses disease as a way of representing social and political crisis. Both authors emphasize the human response to social catastrophe.
However, there is a problem with the representation of historical events by means of a medical model. In this representation, nature displaces the social and replaces it with an image of fate. Mla Essay Book. As a consequence, blindness is defined as a physical condition. Saramago's writings have often been discussed as an example of magic realism. However, Blindness has more in essay, common with Kafka's allegorical novels than it does with works by Gabriel Garcia Marquez or Salman Rushdie.
The fundamental problem posed by essay, allegorical novels is how to locate their political and social meaning. Saramago provides his readers with few clues to guide interpretation. The story is set in an unnamed country, somewhere in the second half of the twentieth century. There are few identifying characteristics that provide a context for the events that transpire. The epidemic of blindness takes place without any apparent cause; the disease spreads quickly and as the novel ends the blind are getting their vision back. Their recovery has as little explanation as the goldwater tips, onset of blindness. The problem the reader is american and french essays, faced with is what to make of the metaphorical illness, the social catastrophe, and the miraculous recovery. Essay Tips. What does it all mean? Near the end of the book, Saramago has one of his characters suggest that perhaps they had never really been blind, that perhaps the american, sighted do not really see. Essay Tips. If this is meant to be the underlying message of the novel it is, in fact, not a very original idea, since the analogy between seeing and understanding is one of the oldest ideas in Western philosophy. It is perhaps most clearly illustrated in Book 7 of mla essay book, The Republic, where Plato uses a visual metaphor to illustrate the goldwater essay tips, limits of human understanding.
He describes a cave where several people are seated in such a way that they cannot see the direct light of the fire. Instead, they can only see its distorted shadows upon the wall of the cave. I suspect that Saramago is more interested in probing the at the end of the paper, human capacity to understand social reality than the Platonic concept of Absolute Truth. I wish he had chosen a better way of representing this quest. Plato. 1961.The Collected Dialogues of Plato. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Saramago, Jose. 1997. Blindness. New York: Harcourt Brace. Wells, H. G. 1911. The Country of The Blind and Other Stories. London: T. Nelson.
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By Matt Margolis. By Michael Savage. By Michael Savage. By Tommy Newberry. By James Delingpole. By Jerome Corsi. By Jack Cashill. ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT FEATURES: Democrat Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. American And French Revolution! was elected President of the United States on November 4, 2008. Prior to that, he had served four years as a U.S. senator from goldwater essay tips Illinois (2005-2008) and eight years as an Illinois state senator (1996-2004). “In Islam, religion passes from the to kill a mockingbird essay father to the child.
Barack Hussein Obama, Sr. [his Kenyan birth father] was a Muslim who named his boy Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. Only Muslim children are named ‘Hussein’. [Barack Obama’s] stepfather, Lolo Soetoro, was also a Muslim. In fact, as Obama's half-sister, Maya Soetoro-Ng explained to Jodi Kantor of the New York Times : ‘My whole family was Muslim, and most of the people I knew were Muslim.’ An Indonesian publication, the tips Banjarmasin Post reports a former classmate, Rony Amir, recalling that ‘All the relatives of repor t Barry's [Barack’s] father were very devout Muslims.’” * As a child in Indonesia, Obama attended Koranic classes at a Muslim school known as Besuki. At tha same time, he attended the St. Francis of essay Assisi Catholic School. * In February 2009, Obama said: I was not raised in a particularly religious household. I had a father who was born a Muslim but became an atheist, grandparents who were non-practicing Methodists and ansari cousin Baptists, and a mother who was skeptical of organized religion.
I didn't become a Christian until I moved to the South Side of Chicago after college. * In a March 2009 interview, Obama's then-30-year-old half-brother, George Hussein Onyango Obama , said that “on the inside Barack Obama is Muslim.” * In September 2010, Obama said: I came to goldwater essay, my Christian faith later in life. * Author Edward Klein , while researching his 2012 book The Amateur , once asked the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, Obama's longtime pastor at Trinity United Methodisy Church in mla essay book Chicago: Did you convert Obama from Islam to Christianity? Wright replied enigmatically: That's hard to goldwater tips, tell. * Daniel Pipes writes that many pieces of evidence argue for Obama having been born and and french revolution raised a Muslim Specifically, says Pipes: (1) Islam is a patrilineal religion : In Islam, the goldwater essay father passes his faith to the children; and harris essay when a Muslim male has children with a non-Muslim female, Islam considers the children Muslim.
Obama's grandfather and father having been Muslims the extent of their piety matters not at all means that, in goldwater tips Muslim eyes, Barack was born a Muslim. (2) Arabic forenames based on repor t the H-S-N trilateral root : All such names (Husayn or Hussein, Hasan, Hassân, Hasanayn, Ahsan, Muhsin, and others) are exclusively bestowed on Muslim babies. (The same goes for names based on the H-M-D root.) Obama's middle name, Hussein, explicitly proclaims him a born Muslim. (3) Registered as Muslim at tips, SD Katolik Santo Fransiskus Asisi : Obama was registered at end of the paper, a Catholic school in Jakarta as Barry Soetoro. Goldwater Tips! A surviving document correctly lists him as born in Honolulu on Aug. 4, 1961; in addition, it lists him having Indonesian nationality and Muslim religion.
(4) Registered as Muslim at SD Besuki : Although Besuki (also known as SDN 1 Menteng) is repor t a public school, Obama curiously refers to it in Audacity (p. 154) as the Muslim school he attended in Jakarta. Its records have not survived but several journalists (Haroon Siddiqui of the Toronto Star , Paul Watson of the goldwater Los Angeles Times , David Maraniss of the Washington Post ) have all confirmed that there too, he was registered as a Muslim. (5) Islamic class at thesis at the the paper, SD Besuki : Obama mentions ( Audacity , p. 154) that at Besuki, the teacher wrote to tell my mother that I made faces during Koranic studies. Only Muslim students attended the goldwater essay weekly two-hour Koran class, Watson reports: two of his teachers, former Vice Principal Tine Hahiyari and thesis at the the paper third-grade teacher Effendi, said they remember clearly that at essay tips, this school too, he was registered as a Muslim, which determined what class he attended during weekly religion lessons.
Muslim students were taught by fences essay a Muslim teacher, and Christian students were taught by a Christian teacher, said Effendi. Andrew Higgins of the Washington Post quotes Rully Dasaad, a former classmate, saying that Obama horsed around in tips class and, during readings of the Koran, got laughed at because of his funny pronunciation. Maraniss learned that the class included not only studying how to pray and how to read the thesis at the end of Koran, but also actually praying in the Friday communal service right on the school grounds. (6) Mosque attendance : Maya Soetoro-Ng, Obama's younger half-sister, said her father (namely, Barack's stepfather) attended the mosque for goldwater, big communal events, Barker found that Obama occasionally followed his stepfather to the mosque for Friday prayers. Watson reports: The childhood friends say Obama sometimes went to Friday prayers at fences, the local mosque. Essay! We prayed but not really seriously, just following actions done by older people in the mosque. But as kids, we loved to meet our friends and fences essay questions went to the mosque together and played, said Zulfin Adi, who describes himself as among Obama's closest childhood friends. Sometimes, when the muezzin sounded the call to prayer, Lolo and Barry would walk to the makeshift mosque together, Adi said.
His mother often went to the church, but Barry was Muslim. He went to the mosque, Adi said. (7) Muslim clothing : Adi recalls about Obama, I remember him wearing a sarong. Likewise,Maraniss found not only that His classmates recalled that Barry wore a sarong but written exchanges indicating that he continued to wear this garment in tips the United States. This fact has religious implications because, in Indonesian culture, only Muslims wear sarongs. (8) Piety : Obama says that in Indonesia, he didn't practice [Islam], an aziz cousin college assertion that inadvertently acknowledges his Muslim identity by implying he was a non-observant Muslim. But several of those who knew him contradict this recollection. Rony Amir describes Obama as previously quite religious in Islam. Tips! A former teacher, Tine Hahiyary, quoted in the Kaltim Post , says the aziz ansari cousin harris future president took part in advanced Islamic religious lessons: I remember that he had studied mengaji . In the context of Southeast Asian Islam, mengaji Quran means to recite the Koran in Arabic, a difficult task denoting advanced study. In summary, the record points to tips, Obama having been born a Muslim to a non-practicing Muslim father and having lived for four years in a fully Muslim milieu under the auspices of his Muslim Indonesian stepfather.
For these reasons, those who knew Obama in american revolution essays Indonesia considered him a Muslim. * Daniel Pipes has pointed out the significance of the manner in which Obama typically addresses Muslim audiences: “When addressing Muslim audiences, Obama uses specifically Muslim phrases that recall his Muslim identity. He addressed audiences both in goldwater tips Cairo (in June 2009 ) and Jakarta (in Nov. And French Revolution Essays! 2010 ) with 'as-salaamu alaykum,' a greeting that he, who went to Koran class, knows is reserved for one Muslim addressing another.” Further, Pipes notes that “In Cairo, he [Obama] also deployed several other pious terms that signal to Muslims he is one of them: (a) 'the Holy Koran' (a term mentioned five times): an essay tips exact translation from the mla essay book standard Arabic reference to essay, the Islamic scripture, al-Qur'an al-Karim ; (b) 'the right path': a translation of the Arabic as-sirat al-mustaqim , which Muslims ask God to thesis the paper, guide them along each time they pray; (c) 'I have known Islam on three continents before coming to the region where it was first revealed': non-Muslims do not refer to Islam as revealed ; (d) 'the story of Isra, when Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed joined in prayer': this Koranic tale of a night journey establishes the leadership of Muhammad over all other holy figures, including Jesus; (e) 'Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed, peace be upon them': a translation of the essay tips Arabic 'alayhim as-salam , which pious Muslims say after mentioning the names of dead prophets other than Muhammad.” * Pipes offers also the following insight about Obama's use of the phrase Peace be upon them: “Obama's saying 'Peace be upon them' has other implications beyond being a purely Islamic turn of phrase never employed by Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians. First, it contradicts what a self-professed Christian believes because it implies that Jesus, like Moses and Muhammad, is dead; Christian theology holds him to have been resurrected, living, and the immortal Son of God. Second, including Muhammad in this blessing implies reverence for him, something as outlandish as a Jew talking about Jesus Christ . Third, a Christian would more naturally seek peace from Jesus rather than wish peace on him.” “[Obama] drastically overestimates both the american and french essays number and goldwater the role of Muslims in the United States, announcing in June 2009 that 'if you actually took the number of Muslims Americans, we'd be one of the largest Muslim countries in the world.' (Hardly: according to one listing of Muslim populations , the morals United States, with about 2.5 million Muslims , ranks about 47 th largest.) Three days later , he gave a bloated estimate of 'nearly 7 million American Muslims in goldwater essay our country today' and fences essay bizarrely announced that 'Islam has always been a part of America's story. since our founding, American Muslims have enriched the United States.' Obama also announced the dubious fact, in Apr. 2009 , that many Americans 'have Muslims in their families or have lived in a Muslim-majority country.' When ordering religious communities in the United States, Obama always gives first place to Christians but second place varies between Jews and Muslims, most notably in his Jan. 2009 inaugural speech: 'The United States is a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus and non-believers.' Obama so wildly overestimates the Muslim role in American life that they suggest an tips Islamic supremacist mentality specific to someone coming from a Muslim background.” The 1970s and CPUSA Member Frank Marshall Davis: In 1971, Obama was sent back to Hawaii to be raised largely by fences questions his white, middle-class, maternal grandparents, and to attend the prestigious Punahou Academy. For only one month of his life, also when he was ten, Obama was visited by goldwater essay tips his biological father.
To avoid being mistaken for a sellout,I chose my friends carefully. The more politically active black students. The foreign students. The Chicanos.The Marxist Professors and the structural feminists and punk-rock performance poets.We smoked cigarettes and fences essay questions wore leather jackets. At night,in the dorms,we discussed neocolonialism, [the socialist, anti-colonialist revolutionary] Franz Fanon,Eurocentrism,and patriarchy. When we ground out our cigarettes in goldwater tips the hallway carpet or set our stereos so loud that the and french essays walls began to shake, we were resisting bourgeois society's stifling constraints. Essay! We weren't indifferent or careless or insecure. We were alienated. John C. Drew's Recollections of mla essay book Obama as a Student at goldwater essay, Occidental College: What’s missing from this story is thesis end of that the 'social justice' young men and tips women were, in fact, simply left-wing socialists. They found a hero in Professor Boesche because he made complex texts easier to aziz ansari cousin essay, understand and because he encouraged them to fight even though they would be inevitably ground up in the gears of history.
The outrage that Obama felt when he got a 'B' from Boesche was due to the idea that Obama felt he was held to a higher standard because he was a revolutionary who shared Boesche’s perspective. Tips! Obama felt he was held to a higher standard because he was one of the student[s] in greatest ideological agreement with what Professor Boesche was teaching at essay, that time. In February 2010, John C. Drew shared the essay following recollections he had of Obama: I met Barack Obama face-to-face later that same year in american and french essays late December 1980. Goldwater Essay! By then, I was in the paper my second year of graduate school at Cornell. Goldwater! I was doing my first, official teaching. The young Ann Coulter was a student in Theodore J. Lowi’s Introduction to American Government course in aziz harris 1980 and goldwater essay I was the teaching assistant responsible for guiding her small group discussion section.
Back on aziz ansari cousin harris essay the West Coast for goldwater essay tips, Christmas break, I was visiting a girlfriend who was still attending Occidental College who introduced me to 'Barry' Obama and repor t his housemate Mohammed Hasan Chandoo, a wealthy Pakistani student. From Occidental, Obama transferred to Columbia University in New York City, where he graduated in essay 1983 with a degree in political science. In 1982, Obama's biological father -- Barack Obama, Sr. -- died in a car crash. In Dreams From My Father , Obama reveals that during his student years at Columbia he “went to socialist conferences at Cooper Union and African cultural fairs in Brooklyn.” Specifically, these were Socialist Scholars Conferences (SSC), which featured the elite of socialist academia as well as union activists, political revolutionaries, reformers, and opponents of “corporate greed.” According to mla essay book, the libertarian writer Trevor Loudon, guest speakers at these conferences included “members of the Communist Party USA and its offshoot, the Committees of Correspondence, as well as Maoists, Trotskyists, black radicals, gay activists and radical feminists.” Matthew Vadum and essay tips Jeremy Lott provide an excellent explanation of what a community organizer does. They write: “What does a “community organizer” do? Good question. Ever since former New York mayor Rudy Giuliani mocked Senator Barack Obama at the Republican convention in aziz ansari cousin September 2008, for the senator’s community organizing past, and Alaska Governor Sarah Palin said that her previous experience as mayor was “sort of like a ‘community organizer,’ except that you have actual responsibilities,” [Obama’s] supporters have been furiously spinning this one. They’ve suggested a fanciful interpretation of “community organizer” that includes organizing church picnics and goldwater essay tips bake sales.
Some have even had the cheek to suggest that Jesus Christ was a community organizer. Dr. And French! Thomas Sowell, the eminent Stanford University sociologist, offers this assessment of what community organizers do: For 'community organizers' . Essay! racial resentments are a stock in trade. What does a community organizer do? What he does not do is organize a community. What he organizes are the resentments and paranoia within a community, directing those feelings against other communities, from whom either benefits or revenge are to be gotten, using whatever rhetoric or tactics will accomplish that purpose. Political analyst Andrew McCarthy calls community organizing a gussied-up term for systematic rabble-rousing. He adds:
The quest for raw power is the gospel according to the seminal organizer, Saul Alinsky. Aziz Cousin Harris College Essay! In Obama terminology, 'hope' is the goldwater essay tips possibility that power may be wrested from the paper society’s 'haves' by infiltrating their political system. Just as Willie Sutton robbed banks because that’s where the money is, organizers must target the very system they reject to acquire powermaking themselves attractive to the great mass of society despite having 'contemptuously rejected the essay values and the way of life of the middle class,' as Alinsky put it. This is the formula for transformational 'change': the repor t exploitation of power, once acquired, to redistribute wealth and elevate the left’s professionally aggrieved vanguard. The day after the rally, Marty [Jerry Kellman in Dreams] decided it was time for me to do some real work, and he handed me a long list of people to goldwater essay, interview. Find out their self-interest, he said. That’s why people become involved in organizingbecause they think they’ll get something out of it. Once I found an issue enough people cared about, I could take them into mla essay book, action. Goldwater Tips! With enough actions, I could start to build power. Issues, action, power, self-interest.
I liked these concepts. At The End Of! They bespoke a certain hardheadedness, a worldly lack of sentiment; politics, not religion. Obama's expenses at DCP were signed and approved by essay the late Cardinal Joseph Bernardin, a far-leftist who founded the american and french Catholic Campaign for Human Development (CCHD); who famously credited Mikhail Gorbachev, not Reagan or John Paul II, with having brought about the essay tips collapse of the aziz ansari Soviet Union; and who called for a “consistent ethic of goldwater tips life,” in fences questions an effort to persuade anti-abortion Catholics to likewise embrace pacifism and wealth redistribution. He pursued manifestly worthy goals; protecting people from goldwater tips asbestos in government housing projects is obviously a good thing and a responsibility of the government that built them. But [in every case except one] the proposed solution to every problem on the South Side was a distribution of a mockingbird government funds .  Nor was Obama reluctant to use intimidation as a tactic. In one instance, he personally orchestrated a demonstration in goldwater essay which scores of protestors broke into a private meeting between bank executives and local community leaders, menacing them as they attempted to repor t, negotiate a deal vis a vis a controversial landfill issue. In 1987, when Obama was executive director of DCP, he asked Chicago mayor Harold Washington to support a community organizing project whose advisory board would include Obama's pastor Jeremiah Wright, the leftist Catholic priest Michael Pfleger, Illinois State Senator Emil Jones, and John Ayers (brother of former Weather Underground terrorist Bill Ayers). In a followup letter addressed to Washington’s assistant three days later, Obama again laid out his plans and goldwater essay included a list of his advisory council members.
Trained in the Saul Alinsky Method: Three of Obama's mentors in Chicago were trained at the Saul Alinsky-founded Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF) in the Windy City. (The Developing Communities Project itself was an ansari cousin harris college essay affiliate of the Gamaliel Foundation, whose modus operandi for essay, the creation of “a more just and mla essay book democratic society” is rooted firmly in the Alinsky method.) Alinsky was known for having helped to establish the aggressive political tactics that characterized the 1960s, and which have remained central to goldwater essay tips, all subsequent revolutionary movements in the United States. He was a natural, the undisputed master of agitation, who could engage a room full of repor t recruiting targets in a rapid-fire Socratic dialogue, nudging them to admit that they were not living up to their own standards. As with the panhandler, he could be aggressive and confrontational. With probing, sometimes personal questions, he would pinpoint the source of pain in their lives, tearing down their egos just enough before dangling a carrot of hope that they could make things better. For several years, Obama himself taught workshops on goldwater essay tips the Alinsky method.
“Grass-roots community organizing builds on indigenous leadership and direct action. The debate as to how black and other dispossessed people can forward their lot in repor t America is not new. From W. E. Goldwater! B. DuBois to Booker T. Washington to Marcus Garvey to Malcolm X to repor t, Martin Luther King, this internal debate has raged between integration and goldwater tips nationalism, between accommodation and militancy, between sit-down strikes and boardroom negotiations. Questions! The lines between these strategies have never been simply drawn, and goldwater essay the most successful black leadership has recognized the need to bridge these seemingly divergent approaches. Author Andrew McCarthy makes the repor t following observations about Obama's words: Breathtaking. Lawfulness and essay lawlessness, thuggishness and regular politicswe’re not to divine any moral or ethical differences. They are just different 'approaches' to empowerment.
They only and french 'seem' to be 'divergent.' It may be important to goldwater essay, maintain the veneer of respect for legal processes, but it is just as legitimate to stretch or break the rules whenever necessary to achieve the desired outcomesocial justice being a higher form of legitimacy than society’s rule of law. Aziz Cousin College Essay! Separatism, menacing, and goldwater tips civil disobedience: none of these is thesis at the end of the paper beyond the pale; they are simply choices on the hard power menu Obama 'bridges' with soft power (i.e., the system’s mundane legal and political processes). As a young community organizer, Obama had close connections to essay tips, the Midwest Academy, a radical training ground for to kill a mockingbird morals, activists of his political ilk. Probably the most influential community-organizing-related entity in America at essay tips, that time, the Midwest Academy worked closely with the essay questions DSA and synthesized Saul Alinsky’s organizing techniques with the practical considerations of electoral politics. Emphasizing “class consciousness” and goldwater tips “movement history,” the Academy’s training programs exposed students to the efforts and achievements of mla essay book veteran activists from tips earlier decades. Thesis! Recurring “socialism sessions,” taught by Heather Booth, encompassed everything from Marx and Engels through Michael Harrington’s democratic socialism and the factional struggles of the essay tips Students for a Democratic Society, a radical organization that aspired to repor t, remake America’s government in a Marxist image. Knowing that many Americans would be unreceptive to straightforward, hard-left advocacy, the Midwest Academy in its formative years was careful not to explicitly articulate its socialist ideals in its organizing and training activities.
The group’s inner circle was wholly committed to goldwater essay, building a socialist mass movement, but stealthily rather than overtly. American Revolution Essays! As Midwest Academy trainer Steve Max and the prominent socialist Harry Boyte agreed in a private correspondence: “Every social proposal that we make must be [deceptively] couched in terms of how it will strengthen capitalism.” This strategy of goldwater hiding its own socialist agendas below the proverbial radar, earned the Academy the designation “crypto-socialist organization” from Stanley Kurtz. “Nearly every thread of Obama’s career runs directly or indirectly through the Midwest Academy,” says Kurtz, and, as such, it represents “the hidden key to Barack Obama’s political career.” The author elaborates: “Obama’s organizing mentors had ties to [the Midwest Academy]; Obama’s early funding was indirectly controlled by it; evidence strongly suggests that Obama himself received training there; both Barack and Michelle Obama ran a project called ‘Public Allies’ that was effectively an extension of the Midwest Academy; Obama’s first run for fences, public office was sponsored by Academy veteran Alice Palmer; and goldwater Obama worked closely at essay, two foundations for years with yet another veteran organizer from the Midwest Academy, Ken Rolling. Perhaps more important, Barack Obama’s approach to politics is clearly inspired by that of the goldwater Midwest Academy.” Obama and the Alliance for Better Chicago Schools: In 1988 Obama applied for admission to mla essay book, Harvard Law School.
At the essay time, a Muslim attorney and black nationalist named Khalid Abdullah Tariq al-Mansour asked civil rights activist Percy Sutton to repor t, send a letter of recommendation to his (Sutton's) friends at Harvard on Obama's behalf. In an interview published by the Daily Herald on goldwater March 3, 1990, Barck Obama said: I feel good when I'm engaged in what I think are the cousin harris core issues of the goldwater tips society, and those core issues to american and french essays, me are what's happening to goldwater tips, poor folks in this society. There's certainly racism here [at Harvard Law School]. There are certain burdens that are placed [on blacks], more emotionally at this point than concretely. Hopefully, more and end of more people will begin to feel their story is somehow part of this larger story of essay tips how we're going to reshape America in a way that is repor t less mean-spirited and goldwater more generous. I mean, I really hope to be part of a transformation of this country. In May 2012, Breitbart News reported that it had obtained a 36-page promotional booklet produced in 1991 by Barack Obama's then-literary agency, Acton Dystel, which stated that Obama was born in Kenya and raised in Indonesia and Hawaii. The booklet, which was distributed to people in the publishing industry, includes a brief biography of Obama and 89 other authors represented by Acton Dystel.
Obama’s biography in the booklet reads as follows: Barack Obama, the first African-American president of the Harvard Law Review , was born in Kenya and raised in Indonesia and Hawaii. The son of an American anthropologist and a Kenyan finance minister, he attended Columbia University and american and french essays worked as a financial journalist and editor for Business International Corporation. He served as project coordinator in Harlem for tips, the New York Public Interest Research Group, and was Executive Director of the american revolution essays Developing Communities Project in Chicago’s South Side. His commitment to social and racial issues will be evident in goldwater essay his first book, Journeys in mla essay book Black and goldwater White . The booklet also included biographies of such notable authors as former Speaker of the House Tip O’Neill, sports legends Joe Montana and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, and a number of Hollywood celebrities.
Jay Acton (of Acton Dystel) told Breitbart News that the repor t booklet had cost the goldwater tips agency tens of thousands of dollars to repor t, produce. He said that while almost nobody wrote his or her own biography, the non-athletes in the booklet were probably approached to approve the text as presented. His most traditional course was in the due process and goldwater equal protection areas of constitutional law. His voting rights class traced the evolution of election law, from the disenfranchisement of blacks to contemporary debates over districting and campaign finance. His most original course, a historical and political seminar as much as a legal one, was on racism and law [In] one class on race, he imitated the way clueless white people talked. 'Why are your friends at american and french revolution, the housing projects shooting each other?' he asked in tips a mock-innocent voice. . Mr. Obama was especially eager for his charges to understand the horrors of the past, students say. He assigned a 1919 catalog of lynching victims, including some who were first raped or stripped of their ears and fingers, others who were pregnant or lynched with their children, and some whose charred bodies were sold off, bone fragment by bone fragment, to essay, gawkers. 'Are there legal remedies that alleviate not just existing racism, but racism from the past?' Adam Gross, now a public interest lawyer in Chicago, wrote in his class notes in goldwater essay tips April 1994. Liberals flocked to his classes[.] After all, the mla essay book professor was a progressive politician[.] . Karen McQuillan writes, in American Thinker , that Obama was a lecturer, and not a full professor, because he did not have the essay tips qualifications to be a professor.
Adds McQuillan: Obama never published a single law paper. Thesis At The End Of! He was hired by the University of Chicago when they learned he had been given a book contract on race and law directly after graduating from Harvard. Tips! There was no book just the contract, which he later reneged on. This is not the normal level of thesis at the the paper accomplishment for a University of goldwater Chicago professor or even lecturer. Introduction to repor t, ACORN and Project Vote: In the early to mid-1990s, Obama worked with ACORN, a grassroots political organization that grew out of George Wiley's National Welfare Rights Organization (NWRO).
In the late 1960s and goldwater essay early 70s, NWRO members had invaded welfare offices across the U.S. Mla Essay Book! -- often violently -- bullying social workers and loudly demanding every penny to which the law “entitled” them.  Litigator for Davis, Miner, Barnhill Galland, P.C .: In 1993 Barack Obama took a job as a litigator of voting rights and employment cases with the law firm Davis, Miner, Barnhill Galland, P.C. (a.k.a. Davis Miner). That same year, he also became a lecturer at the University of Chicago Law School. Obama -- along with such notables as Al Sharpton and Jeremiah Wright -- helped organize the tips October 1995 Million Man March in Washington, DC, which featured Nation of aziz harris essay Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. Said Obama in the immediate aftermath of the March: “What I saw was a powerful demonstration of an impulse and need for goldwater essay, African-American men to fences, come together to recognize each other and affirm our rightful place in the society.
Historically, African-Americans have turned inward and towards black nationalism whenever they have a sense, as we do now, that the goldwater mainstream has rebuffed us, and that white Americans couldn’t care less about the profound problems African-Americans are facing.” Obama Smears White Executives in the Suburbs: I worked as a community organizer in Chicago. I was very active in at the the paper low-income neighborhoods, working on issues of goldwater essay crime and education and employment, and seeing that in some ways, certain portions of the African American community are doing as bad if not worse, and recognizing that my fate remained tied up with their fates, that my individual salvation is fences essay questions not going to come about without a collective salvation for the country. Unfortunately I think that recognition requires that we make sacrifices, and goldwater essay tips this country has not always been willing to make the sacrifices necessary to bring about a new day and a new age. By no means was this the only time Obama spoke about collective salvation.
In a 1998 radio interview he said: . End Of The Paper! my individual salvation is not going to tips, come about without a collective salvation for ansari harris college essay, the country. Um, unfortunately I think that recognition requires that we make sacrifices and this country has not always been willing to make the sacrifices necessary to bring about a new day and a new age. Obama Identifies White Suppression of Blacks As a Problem in goldwater essay the United States, As Elsewhere: . [T]he truth of the thesis at the end of the paper matter is that many of the problems that Africa faces, whether it's poverty or political suppression or ethnic conflict is just as prominent there and goldwater tips can't all be blamed on to kill the effects of colonialism. Goldwater Essay Tips! What it can be blamed on is some of the common factors that affect Bosnia or Los Angeles or all kinds of places on this earth, and essay that is the tendency for one group to try to suppress another group in the interest of power or greed or resources or what have you. In an goldwater essay tips environment of scarcity, where the cost of living is rising, folks begin to repor t, get angry and bitter and essay tips look for scapegoats. American And French Revolution! Historically, instead of looking at the top 5% of this country that controls all the wealth, we turn towards each other, and the Republicans have added to essay, the fire. In that same interview, Obama said that his perspective on at the the paper the “top 5%” had been shaped by his experiences abroad: It's about power. My travels made me sensitive to the plight of goldwater essay those without power and the issues of class and inequalities as it relates to wealth and power. Anytime you have been overseas in these so-called third world countries, one thing you see is the vast disparity of wealth of those who are part of power structure and questions those outside of essay tips it.
Bill Ayers, Bernardine Dohrn, and Obama's Entry into Politics: In the mid-1990s, Obama developed a friendship with fellow Chicagoans Bill Ayers and his wife Bernardine Dohrn, university professors who hosted a fundraiser at their home to introduce Obama to their neighbors during his first run for thesis end of the paper, the Illinois state senate in goldwater essay tips 1996. (This fundraiser was likely organized by fences essay questions the socialist New Party.) Ayers (who contributed money to Obama’s 1996 campaign) and Dohrn had been leaders of the 1960s domestic terrorist group Weatherman, a Communist-driven splinter faction of essay tips Students for repor t, a Democratic Society. Essay Tips! The pair had participated personally in end of the bombings of New York City Police Headquarters in 1970, the Capitol building in 1971, and the Pentagon in 1972. To this day, both have remained unrepentant about their former terrorist activities and their hatred of the United States.  “This is a guy who lives in essay my neighborhood, who is repor t a professor of English in Chicago, who I know, and who I have not received some official endorsement from. He is not somebody who I exchange ideas from essay tips [with] on repor t a regular basis. And the essay tips notion that somehow, as a consequence of me knowing somebody who engaged in detestable acts forty years ago when I was eight years old, somehow reflects on me and to kill essay my values doesn't make much sense [T]his kind of game, in essay which anybody who I know, regardless of how flimsy the repor t relationship is, [that] somehow their ideas could be attributed to me, I think the American people are smarter than that. They’re not gonna suggest somehow that that is reflective of my views, because it obviously isn’t.” Chicago Annenberg Challenge and Bill Ayers: But in reality, Obama's ties to Ayers were deep and longstanding. In 1995, for instance, Obama was appointed as the first Chairman of the goldwater tips Chicago Annenberg Challenge (CAC), a “school reform organization” founded by Ayers, who would later write, in essay his book Teaching Toward Freedom , that his educational objective was to “teach against oppression” as embodied in “America’s history of evil and essay tips racism, thereby forcing social transformation.” “Ayers made presentations to board meetings chaired by thesis at the end of Obama.
Ayers also spoke for the Chicago School Reform Collaborative before Obama's board, while Obama periodically spoke for the board at meetings of the collaborative According to the documents, the CAC granted money to far-leftist causes, such as the goldwater tips radical Association of repor t Community Organizations for Reform Now, or ACORN, which has done work on behalf of Obama's presidential campaign.” WorldNetDaily reported further that “while Obama chaired the essay board of the CAC, more than $600,000 was granted to an organization founded by mla essay book Ayers and goldwater essay run by Mike Klonsky, a former top communist activist. Klonsky was leader of the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party, which was effectively recognized by China as the all-but-official U.S. Maoist party.” Said Stanley Kurtz: “Instead of funding schools directly, [the CAC] required schools to affiliate with ‘external partners,’ which actually got the money. Proposals from repor t groups focused on math/science achievement were turned down. Instead CAC disbursed money through various far-left community organizers, such as ACORN.” Kurtz has provided the essay following synopsis of the CAC/Ayers agendas:
The CAC's agenda flowed from Mr. Ayers's educational philosophy, which called for repor t, infusing students and their parents with a radical political commitment, and which downplayed achievement tests in favor of activism. In the mid-1960s, Mr. Ayers taught at a radical alternative school, and served as a community organizer in Cleveland's ghetto. Between 1995 and 1999, Obama and tips CAC distributed $110 million to a variety of leftist education enterprises for to kill a mockingbird essay morals, experiments in Chicago's public schools. During his time teaching at goldwater, the University of Chicago, Obama told then-colleague John Lott directly: “I don’t believe people should be able to own guns.” Obama Endorses Ayers' Book:
In December 1997 Obama wrote a blurb praising Ayers' recently published book, A Kind and fences questions Just Parent: The Children of Juvenile Court , calling it a searing and timely account of the juvenile court system, and the courageous individuals who rescue hope from despair. A notable attendee at essay, the aforementioned political gatherings which Ayers and Dohrn hosted on behalf of Obama (in the mid-1990s) was Democratic state senator Alice J. Palmer (of Illinois’ 13th District), who quickly developed a friendly relationship with Obama. Prior to her stint in politics, Palmer had worked for the Black Press Institute and was editor of the Black Press Review . During the cousin harris college essay Cold War, she supported the Soviet Union and spoke out against the United States. In the 1980s she served as an executive board member of the U.S. Peace Council, which the essay tips FBI identified as a Communist front group (and which was an affiliate of the World Peace Council, an international Soviet front). Fences! Palmer participated in the World Peace Council’s Prague assembly in 1983 -- just as the goldwater essay tips USSR was launching its “nuclear freeze” movement, a scheme that would have frozen Soviet nuclear and military superiority in place. Obama Betrays Palmer: But in November 1995, Jesse Jackson, Jr. defeated Palmer in a special election for Reynolds’ empty congressional seat.
At that point, Palmer filed to retain the Democratic nomination for the state senate seat she had encouraged Obama to pursue; that seat would be up for grabs in the November 1996 elections. She asked Obama to politely withdraw from the race and offered to help him find an alternative position elsewhere. In 1995 Barack Obama sought the endorsement of the so-called New Party for aziz ansari harris, his 1996 state senate run. He was successful in obtaining that endorsement, and he used a number of New Party volunteers as campaign workers. Obama was involved as early as 1993, with a New Party sister organization - Progressive Chicago. This organization was formed by members of the New Party as a support group for progressive candidates. It's main instigators included New Party members Madeline Talbott of Chicago ACORN and Dan Swinney, a Chicago labor unionist. Barack Obama was probably approached to join Progressive Chicago as early April 7, 1993, as this unsigned handwritten note suggests [see image here].
According to the same note Obama was more than happy to be involved [see image here]. By September 1993 Obama was one of 17 people listed as a signatory on all Progressive Chicago letters - as shown by the second page of this September 22 Progressive Chicago letter to Joe Gardner [see image here]. Goldwater Tips! It appears beyond doubt that Barack Obama was involved, more than two years before his Illinois State Senate run, with a New Party founded, sister organization - Progressive Chicago. In a 2010 interview, Carl Davidson, a Marxist activist who helped establish the New Party, recalled Obama's involvement with the New Party: A subcommittee met with [Obama] to interview him to see if his stand on the living wage and similar reforms was the same as ours. We determined that our views on these overlapped, and mla essay book we could endorse his campaign in the Democratic Party.
Recently obtained evidence from the goldwater tips updated records of at the the paper Illinois ACORN at essay tips, the Wisconsin Historical Society now definitively establishes that Obama was a member of the New Party. He also signed a 'contract' promising to thesis, publicly support and associate himself with the goldwater essay New Party while in office. Barack Obama, candidate for State Senate in the 13th Legislative District, gave a statement to the membership and answered questions. He signed the aziz harris college essay New Party 'Candidate Contract' and requested an endorsement from the essay tips New Party. He also joined the New Party. Consistent with this, a roster of the aziz ansari cousin harris Chicago chapter of the New Party from early 1997 lists Obama as a member, with January 11, 1996, indicated as the date he joined. Obama Calls for goldwater essay tips, Collective Action; Says the Christian Right is Characterized by Intolerance and Narrow-mindedness; Blames Society for Failing to Educate Teens Who Get in american and french revolution essays Trouble: In a 1995 story in the Chicago Reader , Obama was quoted saying: In America, we have this strong bias toward individual action. You know, we idolize the John Wayne hero who comes in to correct things with both guns blazing. But individual actions, individual dreams, are not sufficient.
We must unite in collective action, build collective institutions and organizations. The right wing talks about this but they keep appealing to that old individualistic bootstrap myth: get a job, get rich, and get out. Instead of investing in our neighborhoods, that's what has always happened. Our goal must be to help people get a sense of building something larger. People are hungry for community; they miss it. They are hungry for goldwater, change. The Marxist Carl Davidson and Obama's 1996 State Senate Run: Obama’s 1996 senate campaign also secured the endorsement of the Democratic Socialists of ansari harris college essay America (DSA), the largest socialist organization in the United States and the principal U.S. Goldwater Tips! affiliate of the Socialist International. Obama’s affiliation with DSA was longstanding, as evidenced by his reference, in to kill Dreams From My Father , to the fact that during his student years at Columbia University he “went to essay, socialist conferences at Cooper Union,” a privately funded college for ansari harris, the advancement of science and art. From the early 1980s until 2004, Cooper Union had served as the tips usual venue of the morals annual Socialist Scholars Conference. According to Trevor Loudon, guest speakers at these conferences included “members of the tips Communist Party USA and its offshoot, the repor t Committees of Correspondence, as well as Maoists, Trotsyists, black radicals, gay activists and radical feminists.” London observes that “Obama speaks of ‘ conferences ’ plural, indicating [that] his attendance was not the result of goldwater tips accident or youthful curiosity.”
So, what’s in the play? It truly is a love song to Alinsky. In the first few minutes of the play, Alinsky plays Moses yes, the fences essay questions Biblical Moses talking to goldwater essay, God. At The The Paper! The play glorifies Alinsky stealing food from goldwater essay tips restaurants and organizing others to do the same, explaining, 'I saw it as a practical use of fences essay questions social ecology: you had members of the intellectual community, the hope of the future, eating regularly for six months, staying alive till they could make their contributions to essay tips, society.' Joining Obama on the discussion panel were the following individuals: Also in 1937, Despres and his wife met with, and ansari cousin harris delivered a suitcase of “clothing” to, Leon Trotsky, who was then in goldwater essay tips Mexico City, hiding from Stalin’s assassins. The Joyce Foundation: I Actually Believe in Redistribution:
At an October 19, 1998 conference at Loyola University, Barack Obama said: There has been a systematic . A Mockingbird! propaganda campaign against the possibility of government action and its efficacy. Goldwater! And I think some of it has been deserved. The trick is, how do we structure government systems that pool resources and hence facilitate some redistribution, because I actually believe in redistribution, at least at a certain level, to make sure that everybody's got a shot. “to the extent that we are doing research figuring out what kinds of government action would successfully make their [the working poor's] lives better, we are then putting together a potential majority coalition to move those agendas forward”; the one good thing that comes out of [the welfare-reform bill of 1996] is that it essentially desegregates the welfare population,” merging urban blacks with “the working poor, which are the other people; and mla essay book such a coalition becomes one batch of folks . that is increasingly a majority population” whose policy needs would grow to encompass health care, job training, education, and a system where government would “provide effective child care.” The Woods Fund of goldwater Chicago and Bill Ayers: Obama also had been a board member of the Woods Fund of repor t Chicago since 1993. Goldwater Essay! In 1999 he was joined on repor t this board by Bill Ayers, who would serve alongside Obama until the latter left the goldwater Fund in morals December 2002. (In 2002 -- while Obama was still on the board -- the Woods Fund made a grant to Northwestern University Law School's Children and Family Justice Center, where Ayers' wife, Bernardine Dohrn, was employed.)
In 2000, Obama ran against goldwater, former Black Panther and incumbent congressman Bobby Rush in the Democratic Primary for the U.S. House of Representatives. Rush denounced Obama as an “elitist” who “wasn’t black enough,” and crushed him by nearly a two-to-one vote margin. Mla Essay Book! Obama returned to the Illinois state senate for another four-year term. As noted earlier, during his state senate years Obama was a lecturer at the University of Chicago law school, where he became friendly with Rashid Khalidi, a professor in goldwater tips Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations. Obama and his wife were regular dinner guests at Khalidi’s Hyde Park home. Khalidi and his wife Mona had founded in 1995 the Arab American Action Network (AAAN), noted for its contention that Arab Americans face widespread discrimination in the United States, and for and french, its view that Israel’s creation in 1948 was a catastrophe for Arab people. In 2001 and essay again in 2002, the thesis end of Woods Fund of Chicago, while Obama served on goldwater essay its board, made grants totaling $75,000 to AAAN. Shortly after Obama’s unsuccessful run for Congress in 2000, he was deeply in debt, with little cash at mla essay book, his disposal (his annual part-time salary as a state senator was $58,000) and a stagnant law practice that he had largely neglected during a year of political campaigning. “Even as I hope for goldwater essay, some measure of american and french peace and essay tips comfort to the bereaved families, I must also hope that we as a nation draw some measure of wisdom from this tragedy. Certain immediate lessons are clear, and we must act upon those lessons decisively.
We need to step up security at our airports. We must reexamine the mla essay book effectiveness of our intelligence networks. And we must be resolute in identifying the perpetrators of these heinous acts and dismantling their organizations of destruction. Depicting America as a Racially and Economically Unjust Society: Obama was an outspoken opponent of the Iraq War ever since it was first discussed as a possible means of unseating Saddam Hussein from tips power. On October 2, 2002, Obama gave an antiwar speech alongside Jesse Jackson on the very day that President Bush and essay questions Congress agreed on a joint resolution authorizing the essay use of force against Iraq. It was with this speech that Obama first caught the attention of the American public. Now, let me be clear I suffer no illusions about Saddam Hussein. He is a brutal man. A ruthless man. A man who butchers his own people to secure his own power.
He has repeatedly defied U.N. resolutions, thwarted U.N. inspection teams, developed chemical and biological weapons, and thesis at the end of coveted nuclear capacity. He's a bad guy. The world, and the Iraqi people, would be better off without him. Also in his 2002 speech, Obama said that instead of using force to depose Saddam, America should “fight” for democratic reforms in essay tips the Middle East, for stronger international nuclear safeguards, and for energy independence: “Those are the and french revolution battles that we need to goldwater essay tips, fight. Mla Essay Book! Those are the battles that we willingly join the battles against ignorance and intolerance, corruption and greed.
Poverty and despair.” In July 2004, Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in Boston. He used the speech to introduce himself to essay, a national audience while impugning the Bush administration and the War in Iraq. In 2004 Obama ran for one of Illinois’ two seats in the U.S. Senate. The Chicago Tribune endorsed Obama’s campaign. And French Revolution Essays! More importantly, the Tribune persuaded a Democrat-appointed judge in California to open the sealed divorce records of Obama’s Republican opponent to the media. Essay Tips! The resulting sex scandal, based on essays allegations in the divorce records by a Hollywood actress eager to prevent her ex-husband from getting custody of their children, prompted the Republican to resign from the race. One month before the 2004 Democratic primary for the U.S. Senate, Obama was down in the polls, about to lose to Blair Hull, a multimillionaire securities trader. But then the Chicago Tribune leaked the claim that Hull’s second ex-wife, Brenda Sexton, had sought an order of essay protection against him during their 1998 divorce proceedings.
Obama then used similar techniques to repor t, win the general election, as Human Events again explains: As luck would have it, Obama’s opponent in the general election had also been divorced! Jack Ryan was tall, handsome, Catholic and tips shared a name with one of Harrison Ford’s most popular onscreen characters! He went to Dartmouth, Harvard Law and Harvard Business School, made hundreds of millions of repor t dollars as a partner at Goldman Sachs, and goldwater essay tips then, in his early 40s, left investment banking to fences essay, teach at an inner city school on the South Side of Chicago. With a $10 million campaign war chest from contributors, and with no Republican opponent who could garner much support, Obama had an open road to become the next U.S. Senator from Illinois.
His friend and political supporter, the essay tips longtime Chicago alderwoman Dorothy Tillman, helped him win the voting in Chicago’s predominantly black wards. At The The Paper! He also received valuable backing from the Jesse Jacksons, Junior and Senior, and Rev. Jackson’s Rainbow Coalition. In March 2005 Obama joined forces with the Web-based, grassroots political network MoveOn -- which seeks to use its fundraising clout to push the Democratic Party ever further to the political left -- in an effort to raise campaign money for West Virginia Senator Robert Byrd’s 2006 reelection bid. In a letter to MoveOn members, Obama wrote: “You and millions of others, working through MoveOn, have helped change the goldwater way politics works in this country.” In a 2005 commencement address, Obama described the conservative philosophy of government as one that promises “to give everyone one big refund on their government, divvy it up by individual portions, in the form of tax breaks, hand it out, and encourage everyone to use their share to go buy their own health care, their own retirement plan, their own child care, their own education, and american so on.” “In Washington,” said Obama, “they call this the Ownership Society. But in our past there has been another term for it, Social Darwinism, every man or woman for him or herself. It's a tempting idea, because it doesn't require much thought or ingenuity.” The fact that Obama socialized with Ayers and Dohrn contradicts the statement that Obama campaign spokesman Ben LaBolt gave the New York Times in goldwater tips 2008: 'Mr. LaBolt said the men . Mla Essay Book! have not spoken by phone or exchanged e-mail messages since Mr. Obama began serving in essay the United States Senate in January 2005 and last met more than a year ago when they bumped into repor t, each other on the street in Hyde Park.'
Obama Accuses the Bush Administration of Racism: In September 2005, Obama spoke at goldwater essay tips, a town hall meeting of the Congressional Black Caucus. Nominally devoted to the subject of and french essays “eradicating poverty,” the meeting was replete with condemnations of President George W. Bush, the Republican Party, and America’s purportedly intractable racial inequities. Obama stopped short of suggesting that the allegedly slow federal response to goldwater essay, the victims of Hurricane Katrina (which had devastated New Orleans and the Gulf Coast earlier that month) -- especially black victims -- was motivated by racism. But he nonetheless claimed that racism was the cause of essay questions what he perceived to be the Bush administration’s lack of goldwater essay sensitivity to the struggles of to kill a mockingbird essay African Americans generally: “The incompetence was colorblind. What wasn’t colorblind was the goldwater essay tips indifference.
Human efforts will always pale in repor t comparison to nature’s forces. Essay Tips! But [the Bush administration] is a set of folks who simply don’t recognize what’s happening in to kill large parts of the country.” Blacks in hurricane-hit areas were poor, Obama further charged, because of the goldwater essay Bush administration’s “decision to mla essay book, give tax breaks to Paris Hilton instead of providing child care and education ” Obama Advocates Welfare State; Says Much Success Is Due to “Blind Luck”: Obama Endorses Dorothy Tillman, Proponent of Reparations and Admirer of Louis Farrakhan: In 2006 Obama endorsed the aforementioned Dorothy Tillman in the Third Ward race for the Chicago City Council. A passionate admirer of essay tips Louis Farrakhan, Tillman was a leading proponent of reparations for essay, slavery. Claiming that America remains “one of the cruelest nations in the world when it comes to black folks,” Tillman continues to declare that the essay tips U.S. “owes blacks a debt.”
In December of 2006, Obama, who by then was contemplating a run for the presidency, met in New York with billionaire financier George Soros, who previously had hosted a fundraiser for fences questions, Obama during the latter’s 2004 campaign for the U.S. Goldwater Essay! Senate. promoting the view that America is a mockingbird essay institutionally an goldwater tips oppressive nation promoting the election of leftist political candidates throughout the United States opposing virtually all post-9/11 national security measures enacted by U.S. government, particularly the Patriot Act depicting American military actions as unjust, unwarranted, and immoral promoting open borders, mass immigration, and a watering down of current immigration laws promoting a dramatic expansion of social welfare programs funded by ever-escalating taxes promoting social welfare benefits and amnesty for illegal aliens defending suspected anti-American terrorists and their abetters financing the recruitment and a mockingbird essay training of future activist leaders of the political Left advocating America’s unilateral disarmament and/or a steep reduction in its military spending opposing the death penalty in all circumstances promoting socialized medicine in the United States promoting the tenets of radical environmentalism, whose ultimate goal, as writer Michael Berliner has explained, is “not clean air and clean water, [but] rather . the demolition of technological/industrial civilization” bringing American foreign policy under the goldwater essay control of the thesis at the end of the paper United Nations promoting racial and ethnic preferences in academia and the business world alike promoting taxpayer-funded abortion-on-demand advocating stricter gun-control measures advocating the legalization of marijuana. Obama's Activities in Support of tips a Socialist Bidding to Be Elected President of aziz ansari cousin essay Kenya: McCarthy says Obama undermined U.S. relations with a strong antiterrorism ally in an African region where al-Qaida operates. In 2006 . Essay! Obama campaigned for a pro-communist candidate running against Nairobi's pro-American government 'in outrageous contravention of U.S. policy and, probably, federal law.' Running for President: On January 16, 2007, Obama announced the creation of and french a presidential exploratory committee. Within hours after the announcement, Soros sent the senator a contribution of $2,100, the maximum amount allowable under campaign finance laws. Later that week, the New York Daily News reported that Soros would back Obama over Senator Hillary Clinton, whom he had supported in the past. Obama’s wife Michelle quickly emerged as one of the goldwater new candidate’s most vocal campaigners.
In a February 2007 appearance with her husband on the television program 60 Minutes , Mrs. Obama implied that America’s allegedly rampant white racism posed a great physical threat to her husband. Said Mrs. Obama: “As a black man, you know, Barack can get shot going to the gas station.” In April 2007, Obama addressed the activist Al Sharpton’s National Action Network, telling an overflow crowd of listeners about his success as an questions Illinois lawmaker in making health insurance available to goldwater, children and reducing the cost of prescription drugs for senior citizens. Essay! He also expressed his opposition to goldwater, racial profiling in law enforcement, detailing how he had helped pass legislation against the practice.
In addition, he asserted that society must help ex-convicts escape an fences questions “economic death sentence” by securing jobs for them when they leave prison. “Jackie Kendall, executive director of the Midwest Academy, was on the team that developed and delivered the first Camp Obama training for goldwater, volunteers aiding Obama’s campaign through the 2008 Iowa Caucuses. Repor T! Hans Riemer, who served as national youth vote director for the Obama campaign, said of the camp: 'We are training them, teaching them how to essay, be effective, showing them what their role is in our strategy to win the election We’re taking people from raw enthusiasm to capable organizers.' Support from Jodie Evans of Code Pink: In February 2007, Evans co-hosted (along with her now-deceased husband Max Palevsky and the Dreamworks team of Steven Spielberg, David Geffen and Jeffrey Katzenberg) a key Obama fundraiser just weeks after he announced his presidential candidacy.
Evans donated the maximum $2,300 to Obama’s campaign. In April 2007, the Obama campaign announced that Evans was one of its early fundraising bundlers. In June 2008, Evans met with Obama at a high-priced fundraiser. In late August 2008, Evans attended the Democratic National Convention and, because of her status as a bundler, was invited to mla essay book, two private receptions with Obama and his running mate, Joe Biden. In September 2008, Evans attended two exclusive Hollywood fundraisers with Obama. Two weeks later, she met with Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in New York City.
In October 2008, Evans worked with Code Pink’s Los Angeles chapter on a get-out-the-vote campaign in Obama's behalf. Robert Malley and the Hamas Incident: In 2007 Obama appointed Robert Malley, the Middle East and North Africa Program Director for the International Crisis Group, as a foreign policy advisor to his campaign. ICG receives funding from the Open Society Institute (whose founder, George Soros, serves on the ICG Board and Executive Committee). Prior to joining ICG, Malley had served as President Bill Clinton’s Special Assistant for goldwater, Arab-Israeli Affairs (1998-2001); National Security Advisor Sandy Berger’s Executive Assistant (1996-1998); and the National Security Council’s Director for essay questions, Democracy, Human Rights, and Humanitarian Affairs (1994-1996). Malley’s father, Simon Malley, had been a key figure in the Egyptian Communist Party. Essay! Rabidly anti-Israel, Simon Malley was a confidante of the late PLO leader Yasser Arafat; an inveterate critic of “Western imperialism”; a supporter of various leftist revolutionary “liberation movements,” particularly the Palestinian cause; a beneficiary of Soviet funding; and a supporter of the 1979 Soviet invasion of mla essay book Afghanistan.
“Thanks to all of you at Planned Parenthood for all the work that you are doing for women all across the country and for families all across the essay countryand for men, who have enough sense to realize you are helping them, all across the country. Planned Parenthood is the largest abortion provider in the United States, with some 850 clinics across the country. Mla Essay Book! It purports to offer “a wide range of essay medical and counseling services and health care education,” but its primary business is providing abortion services. In 2004 Planned Parenthood completed 138 abortions for every adoption referral it made to an outside agency. During the 2004-2005 fiscal year, the organization reported 1,414 adoption referrals (one adoption for essays, every 180 abortions). During its 2005-2006 fiscal year, Planned Parenthood performed a record 264,943 abortions; garnered $345.1 million in goldwater tips clinic income; took in $212.2 million in donations; and received record taxpayer funding of cousin harris essay $305.3 million.
Total income reached a record $902.8 million. In August 2007, Obama appeared at the national convention of the goldwater essay tips leftist political weblog Daily Kos. A Mockingbird Essay! According to a New York Times report: Mr. Goldwater Tips! Obama, who has built his candidacy upon the mantra of mla essay book change, received booming applause when he was introduced to the audience of more than 1,500. Goldwater Essay! When the moderator mentioned that the senator turned 46 years old on repor t Saturday, several of goldwater tips those gathered in the ballroom began to serenade him with 'Happy Birthday.' In October 2007 Obama stated that, if elected, he would offer a high-level position in his administration to thesis, former Vice President Al Gore. On December 4, 2007, Obama’s campaign announced the goldwater essay creation of mla essay book its African American Religious Leadership Committee. Essay Tips! Among the committee's more notable members were Rev. Jeremiah Wright, Rev. Mla Essay Book! Otis Moss III, and Rev.
Joseph E. Lowery. From March 1972 until February 2008, Jeremiah Wright -- whom Barack Obama described as his “spiritual advisor,” his “mentor,” and “one of the greatest preachers in America” -- was the essay pastor of Chicago's Trinity United Church of Christ (TUCC), where Obama had attended services since 1988, and where he (Obama) had been a member since 1992. Said Obama of Wright: “What I value most about repor t Pastor Wright is not his day-to-day political advice. He’s much more of a sounding board for me to make sure that I am speaking as truthfully about what I believe as possible and that I’m not losing myself in some of the goldwater essay hype and hoopla and stress that’s involved in national politics.” Rev. Thesis At The End Of! Otis Moss III -- whom Obama has extolled as a “wonderful young pastor” -- served as assistant pastor of TUCC from 2006-2008 and then succeeded Jeremiah Wright as pastor when the essay latter retired.
In one notable sermon, Moss likened the condition of repor t contemporary black Americans to that of the essay hapless lepers referenced in to kill biblical stories. He further implied that whites -- who, in his estimation, continue to subjugate blacks both socially and economically -- are the “enemy” of African Americans. “Our society creates thugs,” Moss added. “Children are not born thugs. Thugs are made and not born.” Rev. Joseph Lowery is essay tips a prominent figure in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Viewing the United States as a nation that is “not committed to serious efforts to address the issue of and french racism,” he has warned that “white racism is gaining respectability again,” and that “there’s a resurgence of racism at almost every level of tips life.” Lowery has expressed contempt for Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, specifically because the black conservative Thomas opposes the use of affirmative action (i.e., race preferences) in business and academia. Says Lowery: “I have told [Thomas] I am ashamed of him, because he is becoming to the black community what Benedict Arnold was to the nation he deserted; and what Judas Iscariot was to repor t, Jesus: a traitor ; and goldwater what Brutus was to thesis, Caesar: an essay assassin .” Another notable religious supporter of Barack Obama is Rev. Michael Pfleger, a white Roman Catholic priest who has been the pastor of Saint Sabina Catholic Church in Chicago since 1981. A great admirer of Louis Farrakhan and mla essay book Jeremiah Wright, Pfleger views America as a nation plagued by tips “classism and revolution essays racism,” and he identifies white racism as “the number one sin in this country.” Pfleger has had a longstanding friendly relationship (since the late 1980s) with Obama and has played a significant role as a spiritual advisor who, Obama once said, had helped him maintain his moral compass. Yet another religious figure affiliated with Obama is goldwater essay Rev.
James Meeks, a Democratic member of the Illinois state senate, where he served alongside Obama from 2002-2004 (prior to repor t, Obama’s election to the U.S. Senate). Tips! Meeks also has been the pastor of thesis Chicago’s 22,000-member Salem Baptist Church since 1985, and he was once the executive vice president of Jesse Jackson’s Rainbow/PUSH coalition. For his 2008 presidential run, Obama formed a Black Advisory Council whose members included, most notably: (a) Marxist professor Cornel West, a longtime member of the Democratic Socialists of America and a great admirer of goldwater essay tips Obama’s former pastor, Rev. Jeremiah Wright; and (b) Harvard law professor Charles Ogletree, a reparations-for-slavery proponent who has advised Obama on such matters as criminal-justice reform. Obama Clearly Articulates His Desire to Remake the World and aziz cousin essay Change This Country: After Obama's victory in the Iowa Caucus, longtime Communist Party USA supporter Frank Chapman -- who had previously chaired the National Alliance Against Racist Political Oppression and served as a board member of the U.S. Peace Council, both Communist Party fronts -- wrote a letter that was published in the January 12, 2008 edition of the CPUSA publication, Peoples Weekly World : Now, beyond all the optimism I was capable of mustering, Mr. Obama won Iowa!
He won in a political arena 95 percent white. It was a resounding defeat for essay tips, the manipulations of the ultra-right and their right-liberal fellow travelers. American Revolution Essays! Also it was a hard lesson for liberals who underestimated the political fury of the masses in goldwater these troubled times. Accusing Republicans of Having Failed Minorities: During a Democratic presidential debate on January 21, 2008, Obama expressed his belief that Republican politicians had failed to provide adequate opportunities for the social and economic advancement of american minorities: “I am absolutely convinced that white, black, Latino, Asian, people want to move beyond our divisions, and they want to join together in order to create a movement for essay tips, change in this country. The Republicans may have a different attitude. Repor T! The policies that they have promoted have not been good at providing ladders for upward mobility and opportunity for essay, all people.” Tony Rezko, the Federally Indicted Real-Estate Developer: Also in January 2008, Obama’s relationship with a federally indicted real estate developer came to light when rival candidate Hillary Clinton said, during a South Carolina Democratic Party presidential debate: “I was fighting against american essays, [Republican] ideas when you were practicing law and representing your contributor, Rezko, in his slum landlord business in inner city Chicago.” Clinton’s reference was to Tony Rezko, a Syrian-born, Chicago-based restaurateur and real estate developer who had been one of the first major financial contributors to Barack Obama’s political campaigns in the 1990s. Goldwater Essay Tips! For a full explanation of Rezko’s relationship with Obama, see footnote number  . At a February 12, 2008 campaign stop in Wisconsin, Obama said: The politics of hope does not mean hoping things come easy.
Because nothing worthwhile in this country has ever happened unless somebody somewhere stood up when it was hard, stood up when they were told, no you can't, and said, yes we can. Fences Essay! And where better to affirm our ideals than here in Wisconsin, where a century ago the progressive movement was born. It was rooted in the principle that the voices of the people can speak louder than special interests, that citizens can be connected to their government and to one another, and that all of us share a common destiny, an American Dream. On other occasions, Obama described himself as a pragmatic progressive who tries to make decisions based on what works. Praise from Louis Farrakhan: In February 2008 Louis Farrakhan called Obama “a herald of the Messiah.” “Barack has captured the youth,” said the Nation Of Islam leader, referring to the passionate support Obama had drawn from young people in America. “And he has involved young people in a political process that they didn’t care anything about.
That’s a sign. Goldwater! When the messiah speaks, the youth will hear. And the repor t messiah is absolutely speaking.” In March 2008 the controversial Al Sharpton, a strong supporter of Obama’s presidential candidacy, revealed publicly that he was in essay tips the habit of speaking to Obama on a regular basis -- “two or three times a week.” Sharpton also said that he had told Obama four months earlier, “I won’t either endorse you or not endorse you. But I will tell you I can be freer not endorsing you to help you and fences everybody else.” According to Sharpton, Obama then protested and asked for his public support: “No, no, no. I want you to endorse.” In early 2008, MoveOn executive director Eli Pariser announced that he and his organization were endorsing Obama for goldwater, U.S.
President. “We’ve learned that the key to essay, achieving change in Washington without compromising core values is having a galvanized electorate to back you up,” said Pariser, “and Barack Obama has our members ‘fired up and ready to go’ on essay tips that front.” In April 2008 Ahmed Yousef, a political advisor for the terrorist group Hamas, told interviewer Aaron Klein that his (Yousef’s) organization was hopeful that Obama would win the presidential election and change America’s foreign policy vis a vis the questions Arab-Israeli conflict. When reporters subsequently asked Obama what he thought of the Hamas leader’s endorsement, Obama said: “My position on Hamas is indistinguishable from the goldwater essay position of Hillary Clinton or [Republican presidential candidate] John McCain. I said they are a terrorist organization, and I've repeatedly condemned them. I’ve repeatedly said, and I mean what I say: Since they are a terrorist organization, we should not be dealing with them until they recognize Israel, renounce terrorism, and the paper abide by tips previous agreements.” During an April 2008 campaign stop in harris college essay San Francisco, Obama said: “You go into some of these small towns in Pennsylvania, and like a lot of small towns in essay the Midwest, the jobs have been gone now for 25 years, and nothing’s replaced them. And they fell through the Clinton administration and to kill the Bush administration, and goldwater essay each successive administration has said that somehow these communities are gonna regenerate, and they have not. Mla Essay Book! And it’s not surprising then they get bitter, they cling to guns or religion or antipathy to goldwater essay tips, people who aren't like them or anti-immigrant sentiment or anti-trade sentiment as a way to and french, explain their frustrations.”
Anthony Lake, Foreign Policy Advisor: In June 2008, Obama named former New Leftist Anthony Lake as one of goldwater essay tips his leading foreign policy advisors. Lake served as a special assistant for national security affairs under President Nixon in 1969-70, but soon thereafter he stepped down from essay questions that post to protest the Nixon administration’s bombing raids in Cambodia -- raids that were designed to support the existing government against the power-grabbing efforts of Pol Pot and his bloodthirsty Khmer Rouge. At a June 2008 campaign stop in goldwater tips Jacksonville, Florida, Obama suggested that his political opponents were trying to exploit the revolution issue of race to undermine his candidacy. “It is going to goldwater essay, be very difficult for Republicans to run on mla essay book their stewardship of the tips economy or their outstanding foreign policy,” he said. “We know what kind of campaign they’re going to run. They’re going to try to aziz ansari college essay, make you afraid. They’re going to try to make you afraid of me. He’s young and goldwater essay inexperienced and he’s got a funny name. Thesis At The End Of The Paper! And did I mention he’s black?” Speaking at a July 2008 gathering of hundreds of minority journalists in Chicago, Obama said the United States should acknowledge its history of poor treatment of certain ethnic groups: “There's no doubt that when it comes to our treatment of Native Americans as well as other persons of color in this country, we've got some very sad and difficult things to goldwater essay tips, account for.
I personally would want to see our tragic history, or the essay morals tragic elements of our history, acknowledged. I consistently believe that when it comes to whether it's Native Americans or African-American issues or reparations, the most important thing for goldwater tips, the U.S. government to do is fences questions not just offer words, but offer deeds.” Joe Biden, Running Mate: In August 2008, Obama named Senator Joe Biden to be his vice presidential running mate. Fannie Mae . has been under increasing pressure from the Clinton Administration to expand mortgage loans among low and moderate income people and felt pressure from stock holders to maintain its phenomenal growth in profits. In addition, banks, thrift institutions and mortgage companies have been pressing Fannie Mae to help them make more loans to so-called subprime borrowers. These borrowers whose incomes, credit ratings and savings are not good enough to qualify for conventional loans, can only goldwater essay tips get [so-called 'subprime'] loans from finance companies that charge much higher interest rates -- anywhere from three to four percentage points higher than conventional loans.
Demographic information on these borrowers is sketchy. But at mla essay book, least one study indicates that 18 percent of the loans in the subprime market went to black borrowers, compared to 5 per goldwater cent of loans in the conventional loan market. In moving, even tentatively, into this new area of lending, Fannie Mae is taking on significantly more risk, which may not pose any difficulties during flush economic times. But the government-subsidized corporation may run into trouble in an economic downturn, prompting a government rescue similar to that of the savings and mla essay book loan industry in the 1980's. The Editors of goldwater National Review Online explain the connection between the foregoing policies and Barack Obama: One of the reasons so many bad mortgage loans were made in the first place is that Barack Obama’s celebrated community organizers make their careers out of forcing banks to to kill morals, do so.
ACORN, for essay, which Obama worked, is one of many left-wing organizations that spent decades pressuring banks and to kill a mockingbird morals bank regulators to do more to make mortgages available to goldwater tips, people without much in the way of income, assets, or credit. These campaigns often were couched in mla essay book racially inflammatory terms. Goldwater! The result was the questions Community Reinvestment Act. Goldwater Essay Tips! The CRA empowers the to kill a mockingbird FDIC and other banking regulators to punish those banks which do not lend to the poor and minorities at the level that Obama’s fellow community organizers would like. Among other things, mergers and essay acquisitions can be blocked if CRA inquisitors are not satisfied that their demands which are political demands have been met. There is a name for loans made to people who do not have the credit, assets, income, or down payment to qualify for a normal mortgage: subprime. As Forbes magazine points out, Obama has been a staunch supporter of the CRA throughout his public life. In an mla essay book October 15, 2008 presidential debate, Republican John McCain raised the issue of Obama’s ties to ACORN.
At the time, ACORN was in the news for two major reasons. First, the organization was under investigation in 14 separate states for massive voter fraud. Strongly pro-Democrat, ACORN claimed to goldwater essay tips, have registered 4 million new voters (most of whom were Democrats) during the preceding four years. Aziz Harris! Many tens of thousands of these registrations already had been found to be fraudulent -- they bore phony names, fake or nonexistent addresses, inaccurate personal information, duplicate signatures, etc. The full extent of the fraud, however, was impossible to determine. “The only goldwater essay tips involvement I’ve had with ACORN was I represented them alongside the U.S. Justice Department in making Illinois implement a motor voter law that helped people get registered at DMVs. ACORN is a community organization.
Apparently what they’ve done is they were paying people to go out and register folks, and apparently some of the people who were out there didn’t really register people, they just filled out a bunch of names. It had nothing to do with us. We were not involved.” He said nothing about the years he had spent training ACORN activists; nothing about the laudatory statements he had made about ACORN in the recent past; and nothing about the $800,000+ his campaign had given to the ACORN front group Citizens' Services Inc. (an ACORN-dominated subsidiary whose headquarters were located at end of the paper, precisely the same address as ACORN's national headquarters in New Orleans, Louisiana) to fund his campaign's 2008 voter-registration efforts. To conceal the purpose of these payments to goldwater, ACORN and a mockingbird essay morals Citizens' Services Inc., the Obama campaign misidentified the $800,000+ payment as money that had been spent for election services. Well, first of all my relationship with ACORN is pretty straightforward. It’s probably 13 years ago when I was still practicing law, I represented ACORN and my partner in goldwater that investigation was the US Justice department in having Illinois implement what was called the motor voter law, to make sure people could go to DMV’s and a mockingbird essay driver license facilities to get registered. It wasn’t being implemented. That was my relationship and is my relationship to ACORN.
There is an essay tips ACORN organization in repor t Chicago. They’ve been active. Goldwater Essay Tips! As an to kill elected offiical, I’ve had interactions with them. But, they’re not advising my campaign. We’ve got the goldwater best voter registration in politics right now and we don’t need ACORN’s help. Obama's statements from the aforementioned debate and interview are contradicted, however, but the words he himself had spoken in other venues. American And French! For example, during his presidential campaign, Obama was a featured speaker at one particularly notable political event in which ACORN played a prominent role -- a December 1, 2007 forum exclusively for goldwater, thousands of community organizers from across the United States.
He was inroduced to the crowd by Deepak Bhargava, ACORN's leader of community reinvestment and fair housing (and Executive Director of the Center for Community Change). In his introductory remarks, Bhargava characterized America as a society that is still deeply structured by racism and sexism. When Obama took the to kill a mockingbird essay morals microphone (to thunderous applause), he did not refute Bhargava's comments in any way. He was then asked, If elected President of the goldwater essay United States, would you agree, in your first one-hundred days, to meet with a delegation of aziz ansari harris college essay representatives from these various community organizations . Obama replied: Yes, but let me even say, before I even get inaugurated, during the transition we're gonna be calling all of you in to help us shape the essay tips agenda. We're gonna be having meetings all across the country with community organizations so that you have input into the agenda for the next presidency of the United States of America. Similarly, in an interview with ACORN representatives in 2007, candidate Obama said the repor t following: You know you've got a friend in tips me.
And I definitely welcome ACORN's input. You don't have to mla essay book, ask me about that. I'm going to call you even if you didn't ask me. When I ran Project Vote, the voter registration drive in Illinois, ACORN was smack dab in the middle of it. Once I was elected, there wasn't a campaign that ACORN worked on down in Springfield that I wasn't right there with you. Since I have been in the United States Senate I've been always a partner with ACORN as well.
I've been fighting with ACORN, along side ACORN, on issues you care about my entire career. In 2008, Obama's presidential campaign furnished the ACORN affiliate Project Vote with a list of essay donors who had already contributed (to the campaign) the maximum amount of money permitted by law. Essay Questions! Anita Moncrief, a former Washington, DC staffer for Project Vote, later revealed that her organization had contacted these big donors and urged them to give money to Project Vote -- money which could then be funneled directly into the Obama campaign coffers, thereby evading election-law limits on campaign contributions. F oreign Contributions to Presidential Campaign: A Federal Election Commission (FEC) employee has reportedly been warning for months about goldwater essay evidence that the Obama campaign has received as much as $200 million, almost half of a mockingbird his total donations, in amounts less than $200.
That is below the threshold for donor information [which] Mr. Obama has chose[n] to goldwater essay tips, report to mla essay book, the FEC -- unlike the Clinton and McCain campaigns, which have reported all donor information. In August 2008, Pamela Geller wrote, in the American Thinker , that among the goldwater essay tips myriad foreign donations Obama had received was a $33,000 contribution from Palestinian brothers based in the Hamas-controlled Rafah refugee camp in at the Gaza, who had proudly declared their love for Obama. The Obama campaign claimed that it had returned that money to the brother donors, but the latter said they had never received such a return. Moreover, Geller catalogued several dozen of the foreign cities and nations from which illegal contributions to goldwater essay tips, the Obama campaign had originated. American And French Revolution! In many cases, the donors' names and goldwater essay tips contact information were fraudulent -- sometimes consisting of nothing more than letters arranged in essay random, nonsensical sequence. On October 30, 2008, Obama told a large crowd of cheering supporters: We are five days away from goldwater fundamentally transforming the United States of America. What makes Obama different is that he has also been a community organiser. He has read left literature, including my works, and he understands what socialism is. A lot of the people working with him are, indeed, socialists with backgrounds in the Communist Party or as independent Marxists.
There are a lot of people like that in Chicago who have worked with him for years. Obama’s Policy Positions and Voting Record as State Senator, U.S. Senator, and Presidential Candidate: During his eight-year career in the Illinois state senate, Barack Obama avoided making controversial votes approximately 130 times -- which, according to other Illinois state senators, is much higher than average. Rather than vote yea or nay on the legislation in question, Obama on mla essay book those occasions simply voted present. Goldwater Essay Tips! In the Illinois state senate, this was the equivalent of a nay vote when tallying up support or opposition to a given bill. But, as David Freddoso points out: [F]or rhetorical purposes, a 'present' vote is repor t different in that critics and journalists must discuss it differently. For example, Barack Obama did not vote against a bill to prevent pornographic book and video stores and strip clubs from goldwater tips setting up within 1,000 feet of schools and churches -- he just voted 'present.' Obama voted 'present' on an almost unanimously passed bill to prosecute students as adults if they fire guns on schol grounds. He voted 'present' on the partial-birth abortion ban and other contentious issues .  Obama favors racial preferences for minorities in thesis at the end of university admissions, public employment, and state contracting. “I still believe in affirmative action as a means of overcoming both historic and potentially current discrimination,” said Obama in April 2008.
[W]henever we define a pre-viable fetus as a person that is protected by the equal protection clause or other elements in the Constitution, what we're really saying is, in fact, that they are persons that are entitled to the kinds of goldwater essay tips protections that would be provided to a -- a child, a nine-month-old -- child that was delivered to essay questions, term. That determination, then, essentially, if it was accepted by a court, would forbid abortions to take place. For that reason, I think it would probably be found unconstitutional. As David Freddoso observes, Obama's argument: implies that babies born prematurely without abortions might not be 'persons.' They might have to be 'nine months old' before they count. [O]ne might even conclude from [his words] that he actually does think they are persons. But, he argues, we cannot legally recognize them as 'persons.' Because if we do, then somewhere down the road it might threaten someone's right to an abortion. Barack Obama's actions indicate he thinks that before any other rights are granted to tips, 'persons,' the Constitution exists to guarantee abortion rights. And French!  Though it did not in any way conflict with, or compromise, Roe v. Wade , Obama voted against this same legislation in 2003. As chair of the Health and Human Services Committee, he blocked another attempt to goldwater, bring the bill to the floor of the Illinois Senate.
As I understand it, this [bill] puts the burden on the attending physician who has determined, since they were performing this procedure, that, in fact, this is a nonviable fetus; that if that fetus, or child however way you want to essays, describe it is now outside the mother’s womb and the doctor continues to think that it’s nonviable but there’s, let’s say, movement or some indication that, in fact, they’re not just coming out limp and goldwater tips dead, that, in fact, they would then have to call a second physician to monitor and check off and make sure that this is ansari cousin harris college not a live child that could be saved. But Obama knew quite well that children were being born alive and were not looked after by the abortion doctors; that in 10 to 20 percent of the cases where induced labor abortion was practiced, the essay infants survived and aziz cousin harris college essay were then being left, uncared for, to goldwater essay, die; and that these facts were precisely what had prompted the essay legislation in the first place. In committee he took the opinion of the ACLU attorney and said that he thought that this would be something that would overturn Roe v. Wade , and he opposed it in committee, and then he took a leadership role opposing this to go on essay and be the sole senator to speak against at the, this bill on the Senate floor, not once, but two years in a row. And he brags on his Web site now that he strategized with Planned Parenthood to essay tips, defeat this bill. He said on at the end of the paper the Senate floor as a matter of fact that he thought that this would ultimately be considered unconstitutional, and he said that he strategized with Planned Parenthood to tips, vote present because in Illinois a present vote is the mla essay book same as a no vote.
And he thought by doing this that he would lure some squeamish senators who didn't really want to vote to endorse infanticide. In 2006 Obama voted “Yes” on a Senate Budget amendment allocating $100 million to: “increas[e] funding and access to family planning services”; “fun[d] legislation that requires equitable prescription coverage for goldwater, contraceptives under health plans”; and “fun[d] legislation that would create and expand teen pregnancy prevention programs and education programs concerning emergency contraceptives.”  Well, you know, I think that whether you're looking at it from a theological perspective or a scientific perspective, answering that question with specificity, you know, is above my pay grade. “Latinos have such a high dropout rate. Ansari! What you see consistently are children at a very early age are starting school already behind.
That’s why I’ve said that I’m going to put billions of dollars into early childhood education that makes sure that our African-American youth, Latino youth, poor youth of essay every race, are getting the kind of repor t help that they need so that they know their numbers, their colors, their letters.”  Obama opposed the Supreme Court’s 2007 split decision that invalidated programs in Seattle and Louisville (Kentucky) which sought to maintain “diversity” in local schools by factoring race into decisions about goldwater essay tips which students could be admitted to any particular school, or which students could be allowed to transfer from a mockingbird morals one school to another. Under these programs, parents were not free to send their children to the schools of goldwater essay tips their choice. Mla Essay Book! Instead they were obliged to abide by essay the quotas preordained by bureaucrats who had never met any of the children whose educational lives they sought to end of, micromanage. Both the Seattle and goldwater essay Louisville programs were representative of similar plans in hundreds of other school districts nationwide. In 1997 Obama opposed an Illinois welfare-reform bill, proposed by Republican senator Dave Syverson, which sought to move as many people as possible off the state welfare rolls and into mla essay book, paying jobs.
He tried to weaken the legislation by calling for exceptions not only to the requirement that welfare recipients make an effort to find employment, but also to the bill's proposed five-year limit on benefits. My commitment is to goldwater essay, make sure that we've got universal healthcare for all Americans by fences questions the end of my first term as President. I would hope that we can set up a system that allows those who can go through their employer to access a federal system or a state pool of goldwater tips some sort. But I don't think we're going to be able to morals, eliminate employer coverage immediately. There's going to tips, be, potentially, some transition process. I can envision a decade out, or 15 years out, or 20 years out. On April 3, 2007, Obama said:
Let's say that I proposed a plan that moved to a single payer system. Let's say Medicare Plus. It'd be essentially everybody can buy into repor t, Medicare for example. Transitioning a system is a very difficult and costly and lengthy enterprise. It's not like you can turn on goldwater tips a switch and american and french revolution you go from one system to another.
So it's possible that upfront you would need not just, I mean, you might need an additional $90 or $100 billion a year. On August 4, 2007, Obama said: This [health care] is a two-trillion dollar part of goldwater our economy. And it is my belief that, not just politically but also economically, it's better for us to start getting a system in place, a universal health care system signed into law by the end of my first term as president, and build off that system to further, to american and french essays, make it more rational. By the way, Canada did not start off immediately with a single payer system. They had a similar transition step. On November 21, 2007, Obama said he favored the implementation of a transitional system building on the existing systems that we have. Tips! He elaborated: [T]ransitional hopefully because the system currently is so, such a patchwork of inefficiency that over time I would want to a mockingbird essay, see Medicaid, Medicare, the children's health insurance program, SCHIP -- all those integrated more effectively. In the summer of goldwater essay tips 2008, when asked by the paper a campaign audience about single-payer healthcare, Obama said, If I were designing a system from scratch, I would probably go ahead with a single-payer [government-run] system . my attitude is let’s build up the system we got, let’s make it more efficient, we maybe over goldwater tips, time . decide that there are other ways for us to mla essay book, provide care more effectively. (Obama would sound this theme again in June 2009, when he told an goldwater unreceptive American Medical Association: I'll be honest, there are countries where a single-payer system works pretty well.) “It is hard to overstate the degree to which our addiction to oil undermines our future. A large portion of the $800 million we spend on foreign oil every day goes to fences questions, some of the world's most volatile regimes. And there are the environmental consequences.
Just about every scientist outside the White House believes climate change is real. We cannot drill our way out of the problem. Goldwater Essay Tips! Instead of subsidizing the oil industry, we should end every single tax break the industry currently receives and demand that 1% of the revenues from oil companies with over $1 billion in quarterly profits go toward financing alternative energy research and infrastructure.” At a July 30, 2008 campaign stop in Missouri, Obama said: “There are things that you can do individually . to save energy; making sure your tires are properly inflated, simple thing, but we could save all the oil that they’re talking about repor t getting off [from] drilling, if everybody was just inflating their tires and getting regular tune-ups. Tips! You could actually save just as much.” To produce five gallons of ethanol from corn, one must spend the energy equivalent of roughly four galons of ethanol for farming, shipping, and processing. (In other words, ethanol has a 25 percent net energy yield.) . America's entire 6.5 billion gallon ethanol production created the net energy equivalent of 2.2 days' worth of American gasoline consumption.  (Emphasis in repor t original) In exchange for that miniscule output, adds Freddoso, federal and state governments provide between $6.3 billion and $8.7 billion in annual direct and goldwater essay tips indirect subsidies. When government subsidized corn ethanol production in 2007, it was like spending $9.00 to create a gallon of gasoline, and doing it 853 million times. Aziz Cousin College Essay!  “When I was asked earlier about the issue of coal, you know, under my plan of a cap and trade system, electricity rates would necessarily skyrocket. Even regardless of what I say about whether coal is good or bad.
Because I’m capping greenhouse gases, coal power plants, you know, natural gas, you name it, whatever the plants were, whatever the goldwater tips industry was, uh, they would have to retrofit their operations. That will cost money. They will pass that money on to consumers.” “Global warming is real, is happening now and is the result of human activities. The number of Category 4 and 5 hurricanes has almost doubled in the last 30 years. Glaciers are melting faster; the polar ice caps are shrinking; trees are blooming earlier; oceans are becoming more acidic, threatening marine life; people are dying in heat waves; species are migrating, and american and french revolution essays eventually many will become extinct. Scientists predict that absent major emission reductions, climate change will worsen famine and drought in some of the poorest places in the world and wreak havoc across the globe. In the U.S., sea-level rise threatens to cause massive economic and ecological damage to goldwater tips, our populated coastal areas.”  During a 2008 campaign stop in Oregon, Obama called on the United States to “lead by example” on global warming. “We can’t drive our SUVs and eat as much as we want and keep our homes on 72 degrees at all times . and then just expect that other countries are going to say OK,” he said. “That’s not leadership. That’s not going to happen.”
In 2004 Obama spoke out against the Republican-led Congress' budgets generally, and against the 2001 anti-terrorism bill known as the and french Patriot Act specifically, suggesting that the Act infringed upon goldwater, Americans' civil liberties. Said Obama: When you rush these budgets that are a foot high, and nobody has any idea what's in them and nobody has read them . It gets rushed through without any clear deliberation or debate, then these kind of thesis end of things happen, and I think this is in some ways what happened to goldwater tips, the Patriot Act. I mean, you remember, there was no real debate about that. It was so quick after 9/11 that it was introduced, that people felt very intimidated by the [Bush] administration. Obama voted “No” on a bill to remove the college essay need for a FISA [Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act] warrant before the government may proceed with wiretapping in terrorism-related investigations of suspects in other countries. “Warrantless surveillance of American citizens, in defiance of goldwater essay FISA, is unlawful and unconstitutional,” said Obama.  “Why don’t we close Guantanamo and and french revolution restore the right of habeas corpus, because that’s how we lead, not with the might of our military, but the power of our ideals and the power of our values. It’s time to show the world we’re not a country that ships prisoners in the dead of night to be tortured in far off countries.” On June 19, 2008, political analyst Dick Morris described Obama's prescription for dealing with terrorism as follows: [Obama has] urged us to essay tips, go back to the era of criminal-justice prosecution of terror suspects, citing the successful efforts to imprison those who bombed the World Trade Center in 1993. [He said] 'It is my firm belief that we can crack down on a mockingbird essay morals threats against the United States, but we can do so within the constraints of our Constitution. In previous terrorist attacks -- for example, the essay first attack against the World Trade Center, we were able to arrest those responsible, put them on trial.
They are currently in U.S. Fences Essay! prisons, incapacitated.' The War in tips Afghanistan and the Iraq War: In July of '04 [you said]: 'I'm not privy to Senate intelligence reports. What would I have done? I don't know,' in repor t terms of how you would have voted on the war [in 2002].
In June 2006 Obama spoke out against the idea of setting a firm withdrawal date for U.S. troops in Iraq. Immediately after the midterm election five months later, however, Obama declared that it was vital to change our policy and to bring home all American troops. In January 2007 Obama proposed legislation calling for the withdrawal of all troops within 14 months. “. would immediately begin to essay tips, pull out troops engaged in combat operations at a pace of one or two brigades every month, to be completed by the end of . He would call for a new constitutional convention in Iraq, convened with the United Nations, which would not adjourn until Iraq’s leaders reach a new accord on mla essay book reconciliation. He would use presidential leadership to surge our diplomacy with all of the nations of the region on behalf of a new regional security compact.
And he would take immediate steps to essay, confront the humanitarian disaster in end of the paper Iraq, and to hold accountable any perpetrators of potential war crimes.” Claiming that the U.S. Goldwater Essay! presence in Iraq was “illegal,” Obama campaigned publicly in 2007 and 2008 for mla essay book, a speedy withdrawal of American troops from Iraq. But in a July 2008 discussion he held with Iraqi leaders in Baghdad, Obama privately tried to persuade them to delay an agreement on goldwater a timetable for such a withdrawal until after the mla essay book November elections. According to Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari, “He asked why we were not prepared to delay an agreement until after the U.S. elections and the formation of a new administration in Washington. However, as an tips Iraqi, I prefer to have a security agreement that regulates the activities of foreign troops, rather than keeping the matter open.” “Because . it's pretty straightforward. By us putting $10 billion to $12 billion a month, $200 billion, that's money that could have gone into Afghanistan. Those additional troops could have gone into Afghanistan. That money also could have been used to shore up a declining economic situation in the United States. That money could have been applied to having a serious energy security plan so that we were reducing our demand on oil, which is helping to fund the insurgents in many countries. So those are all factors that would be taken into consideration in my decision -- to deal with a specific tactic or strategy inside of Iraq.”
In mid-July 2008, the portions of Obama's campaign website that had emphasized his opposition to the troop surge and his statement that more troops would not change the course of the war, were suddenly removed. On the matter of using enhanced interrogation techniques (such as waterboarding) on high-level terrorist suspects, Obama emphatically pledged to end that practice: “This means ending the practices of shipping away prisoners in the dead of american night to be tortured in goldwater tips far-off countries, of detaining thousands without charge or trial, of maintaining a network of and french secret prisons to jail people beyond the goldwater reach of law. To Kill A Mockingbird Morals! That will be my position as president. That includes renditions.” Which passages of essay tips scripture should guide our public policy? Should we go with Leviticus, which suggests slavery is to kill morals OK and that eating shellfish is an goldwater essay abomination?
Or we could go with Deuteronomy which suggests stoning your child if he strays from the essays faith. Or should we just stick to Sermon on the Mount, a passage that is goldwater essay tips so radical that it's doubtful that our own Defense Department would survive its application. Obama has consistently opposed America's development of and french essays a missile defense system. In a February 2008 campaign ad, he stated: “I will cut tens of billions of essay dollars in wasteful spending. I will cut investments in unproven missile defense systems. I will not weaponize space. I will slow our development of thesis end of the paper future combat systems. I will institute an independent Defense Priorities Board to ensure that the Quadrennial Defense Review is not used to justify unnecessary defense spending. Goldwater Essay Tips! I will set a goal of a world without nuclear weapons. To seek that goal, I will not develop new nuclear weapons. I will seek a global ban on the production of a mockingbird morals fissile material.”
Redistribution of Wealth: You know, if you look at goldwater essay tips, the victories and failures of the to kill essay civil-rights movement, and essay its litigation strategy in at the the court, I think where it succeeded was to vest formal rights in previously dispossessed peoples. So that I would now have the right to tips, vote, I would now be able to sit at a lunch counter and order and to kill essay as long as I could pay for it, I’d be okay, but the Supreme Court never entered into the issues of redistribution of wealth, and sort of more basic issues of essay political and economic justice in this society. A caller then asked: “The gentleman [Obama] made the point that the Warren Court wasn’t terribly radical. Fences Essay Questions! My question is (with economic changes) my question is, is it too late for that kind of reparative work, economically, and is that the appropriate place for reparative economic work to change place?” You know, I’m not optimistic about bringing about major redistributive change through the courts.
The institution just isn’t structured that way. You start getting into all sorts of separation of essay powers issues, you know, in terms of the court monitoring or engaging in aziz ansari cousin college essay a process that essentially is administrative and takes a lot of tips time. You know, the mla essay book court is just not very good at it, and politically, it’s just very hard to legitimize opinions from the court in that regard. In October 2008, Bill Whittle of National Review Online analyzed Obama's words (from 2001) as follows: There is nothing vague or ambiguous about essay tips this. Aziz Harris College! Nothing.
His plan would boost the top marginal [income tax] rate to well over 55 percentbefore the inclusion of goldwater state and local taxesresulting in at the end of many individuals seeing their marginal tax rate double. Senator Obama would end the Bush tax cuts and allow the top two tax rates to goldwater tips, return to 36 and 39.6 percent. He also would allow personal exemptions and deductions to be phased out for ansari cousin college essay, those with income over $250,000 [and] would end the Social Security payroll tax cap for those over $250,000 in earnings. Goldwater Tips! (The cap is currently set at $102,000.) These individuals will then face a tax rate of 15.65 percent from payroll taxes and the top income tax rate of mla essay book 39.6 percent for a combined top rate of over 56 percent on goldwater each additional dollar earned. In an April 2008 Democratic primary debate, Obama was asked, by american and french revolution essays journalist Charlie Gibson, a question about goldwater essay his proposal to nearly double the capital gains tax (from 15 percent to 28 percent). Ansari College! Said Gibson: “ In each instance when the rate dropped [in the essay 1990s], revenues from the tax increased. The government took in more money. And in the 1980s, when the [capital gains] tax was increased to 28 percent, the end of revenues went down. So why raise it at all, especially given the fact that 100 million people in this country own stock and would be affected?” Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama’s plan to cut taxes on essay 95 percent of taxpayers would effectively increase government spending by an average of $64.8 billion a year and effectively raise income tax rates for a mockingbird essay, many Americans, even on goldwater tips some earning $20-$50,000 per year, according to the non-partisan Tax Policy Center. The net result of the tax plan, according to the figures above, will be to increase by more than 25 percent the number of households that pay no taxes at all, thereby effectively increasing the size of the welfare state. At an October 2008 campaign appearance in Ohio, Obama was approached by a man named Joe Wurzelbacher (who thereafter would become widely known in the media as “Joe the plumber”).
Wurzelbacher told Obama that he was planning to purchase a business which was projected to earn in excess of $250,000 per aziz college hear, and that Obama’s tax plan, which would raise taxes (by 8.5 percent) on all small businesses earning over goldwater, $250,000, would impose an unfair financial burden on him. Obama replied that the tax increase on fences essay questions businesses like his was justified because it would enable the government to goldwater essay tips, give tax breaks to people earning considerably less than $250,000. “I think when you spread the wealth around, it’s good for everybody,” said Obama. Earmarking refers to fences questions, the commonplace congressional practice of directing federal tax dollars to local projects which are often frivolous and goldwater essay of extremely limited utility. A Mockingbird! In fiscal year 2008, Obama was the sole Senate sponsor of 29 earmarks whose aggregate sum was $10.7 million. Earmarks are often informal quid pro goldwater essay tips quo arrangements, where recipients show gratitude by giving money to the political official who steered the earmarks their way. For example, after Obama inserted earmarks into to kill a mockingbird essay, a 2008 defense appropriations bill, the recipients sent $16,000 in contributions to Obama's presidential campaign. In 1998 Obama proposed the goldwater essay creation of a study panel to a mockingbird, examine the goldwater feasibility of having the government regulate and cap automobile insurance rates. In January 2000 he spoke out in favor of price controls for prescription drugs. A year later he called for the establishment of aziz cousin harris college essay a five-person government review board to place a cap on drug prices in Illinois. To read economist Thomas Sowell's explanation of why price controls have historically failed to goldwater, lower costs or improve products and services, click here. Cousin Essay! 
In September 2005, Obama sponsored Senate Concurrent Resolution 53, which expressed the goldwater sense of Congress that any effort to impose photo identification requirements for voting should be rejected. “I will never walk away from the 12 million undocumented immigrants who live, work, and the paper contribute to goldwater essay tips, our country every single day. In July 2008, Obama again spoke to NCLR. Among his remarks were the following: “The theme of aziz harris essay this [La Raza] conference is the goldwater essay work of mla essay book your lives: strengthening America together. It's been the work of this organization for four decades --lifting up families and transforming communities across America.
And for that, I honor you, I congratulate you, I thank you, and I wish you another forty years as extraordinary as your last. The U.S. Border Control (USBC), a nonprofit citizen's lobby dedicated to ending illegal immigration and securing America’s borders, reports that Obama’s immigration-related votes are consistent with USBC’s values only 8 percent of the time. By USBC’s definition, Obama’s stance on immigration qualifies him as an “open borders” advocate. Obama voted against goldwater, a bill to declare English the official language of the U.S. government. Under this bill, no person would be entitled to have the government communicate with him (or provide materials for him) in a mockingbird essay morals any language other than English. Essay! Nothing in the bill, however, prohibited the use of a language other than English. “When we get in a tussle, we appeal to the Founding Fathers and a mockingbird the Constitution’s ratifiers to give direction. Goldwater Essay Tips! Some, like Justice Scalia, conclude that the essay morals original understanding must be followed and goldwater essay tips if we obey this rule, democracy is respected. Others, like Justice Breyer, insist that sometimes the original understanding can take you only so far -- that on the truly big arguments, we have to take context, history, and mla essay book the practical outcomes of a decision into account.
I have to side with Justice Breyer’s view of the Constitution -- that it is not a static but rather a living document and must be read in the context of an ever-changing world.” When President Bush in 2005 nominated John Roberts to goldwater essay, be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Obama stated that few Supreme Court cases involve any controversy at all, “so that both a [conservative like] Scalia and a [leftist like] Ginsburg will arrive at the same place most of the fences questions time on tips those 95 percent of cases.” In the other 5 percent, he said, “the critical ingredient” was neither the law nor the a mockingbird Constitution says, but rather “what is in the judge’s heart.” “[W]hen I examined Judge Roberts’ record and history of public service, it is my personal estimation that he has far more often used his formidable skills on behalf of the strong in opposition to the weak. In his work in the White House and essay tips the Solicitor General’s Office, he seemed to have consistently sided with those who were dismissive of efforts to mla essay book, eradicate the goldwater remnants of racial discrimination in our political process. In these same positions, he seemed dismissive of concerns that it is repor t harder to make it in this world and in this economy when you are a woman rather than a man.” Obama was also “deeply troubled” by “the philosophy, ideology and record” of yet another Bush nominee to the Supreme Court, Samuel Alito. “There is no indication that he [Alito] is essay tips not a man of fine character,” Obama said in a floor speech on January 26, 2006. “But when you look at his record, when it comes to his understanding of the Constitution, I found that in almost every case he consistently sides on behalf of the powerful against the powerless.” “In contrast to his soaring campaign rhetoric about bringing America together, Obama’s Senate speeches against Roberts and Alito revealed a polarizing vision of America. Minorities, women, employees and criminal defendants were among the weak; majorities, men, employers and repor t prosecutors were among the goldwater strong.” In April 2007, newsman Wolf Blitzer asked Obama, Are there . Justices right now upon end of the paper, whom you would model [appointments to essay, the Supreme Court]? Obama replied, Well, you know, I think actually Justice [Stephen] Breyer, Justice [Ruth Bader] Ginsburg are very sensible judges. I think that Justice [David] Souter . is a sensible judge. We need somebody who's got the heart, the empathy, to recognize what it's like to be a young teenage mom, the empathy to understand what it's like to be poor or African-American or gay or disabled or old--and that's the criterion by which I'll be selecting my judges. I've spent my entire adult life working with SEIU.
I'm not a newcomer to mla essay book, this. Goldwater Tips! I didn't just suddenly discover SEIU. Your agenda's been my agenda in at the end of the paper the United States Senate. Before debating health care, I talked to [SEIU President] Andy Stern and SEIU members. Goldwater Tips! Before immigration debates took place in Washington, I talked with [SEIU Executive Vice President] Eliseo Medina and SEIU members. Before the EFCA [Employee Free Choice Act], I talked to SEIU. Obama supports an initiative known as the Global Poverty Act (GPA), which, if signed into law, would compel the revolution essays U.S. President to goldwater essay tips, develop “and implement” a policy to “cut extreme global poverty in half by 2015 through aid, trade, debt relief,” and other means. “With billions of american and french revolution people living on goldwater tips just dollars a day around the world, global poverty remains one of the mla essay book greatest challenges and tragedies the tips international community faces. Thesis The Paper! It must be a priority of American foreign policy to commit to eliminating extreme poverty and ensuring every child has food, shelter, and clean drinking water. Goldwater Essay! As we strive to rebuild America’s standing in the world, this important bill will demonstrate our promise and commitment to to kill essay, those in the developing world.
Our commitment to the global economy must extend beyond trade agreements that are more about increasing profits than about helping workers and small farmers everywhere.” According to goldwater essay, a February 2008 report by Accuracy in Media editor Cliff Kincaid, the adoption of the GPA could “result in the imposition of a global tax on the United States” and fences questions would make levels “of U.S. foreign aid spending subservient to the dictates of the United Nations.” Kincaid stated that the legislation would earmark some 0.7 percent of the U.S. gross national product to foreign aid, which over a 13-year period would amount to roughly $845 billion “over and above what the U.S. already spends.” During a July 2007 Democrat primary debate, Obama was asked: [W]ould you be willing to meet separately, without preconditions, during the goldwater tips first year of your administration, with the leaders of Iran, Syria, Venezuela, Cuba and to kill a mockingbird morals North Korea, in order to goldwater, bridge the gap that divides our countries? In January 2008 the National Journal published its rankings of all U.S. senators -- based on how they had voted on a host of repor t foreign and goldwater domestic policy bills -- and rated Barack Obama “the most liberal Senator of 2007.” “Obama’s [foreign policy] liberal score of 92 and conservative score of 7 indicate that he was more liberal in that issue area than 92 percent of the senators and more conservative than 7 percent,” the aziz cousin college researchers explained. Tips! In the area of domestic policy voting, the cousin harris college essay study found that “Obama voted the liberal position on 65 of the 66 key votes on which he voted [and] garnered perfect liberal scores in both the economic and social categories.” President Barack Obama:
On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama was elected President of the essay tips United States. He defeated Republican opponent John McCain, capturing 364 electoral votes vs. A Mockingbird Essay Morals! McCain's 162. Obama received a total of goldwater essay 64,538,980 votes (52.5%), vs. McCain's 56,802,609 (46.2%).  David Horowitz and a mockingbird essay Jacob Laksin, The New Leviathan (2012), Chapter 2.  Rezko had initially met Obama in 1990, when the former was a low-income housing developer in Chicago and the latter was a Harvard Law School student. In fact, Rezko offered Obama a job with his company, Rezmar Corporation, but Obama turned it down. When Obama announced in 1995 that he was running for an Illinois Senate seat (which would be up for grabs in 1996), two of Tony Rezko’s companies donated a total of $2,000 to goldwater tips, Obama’s campaign. Over the course of the entire primary season, Rezko raised between $10,000 and repor t $15,000 of the roughly $100,000 Obama collected overall. Obama won the November 1996 election, and the district he represented included 11 of essay Rezko's 30 low-income housing projects.
Rezko served on the campaign committee for Obama’s failed congressional run against U.S. Rep. Bobby Rush in 2000, raising between $50,000 and aziz harris college essay $75,000 of the estimated $600,000 Obama collected for that race. In 2001 Rezko’s Rezmar Corporation stopped making its mortgage payments on the old nursing home it had converted into apartments, and the state of Illinois foreclosed on the building, which was located in Obama's Senate district. In 2003 Obama announced that he would run for an Illinois seat in the U.S. Tips! Senate which would be open the following year. He again named Rezko to repor t, his campaign finance committee. It is estimated that Rezko raised some $160,000 for Obama during the Senate primary season.
In November 2004 Obama was elected U.S. Senator. A few months later, he and tips Rezko's wife, Rita, purchased adjacent pieces of a mockingbird essay morals property in Chicago's Kenwood neighborhood. Obama’s portion of the goldwater tips deal involved a mansion for ansari essay, which he paid $1.65 million -- $300,000 below the seller’s asking price. Meanwhile, Rezko's wife (who earned only $37,000 per year and owned few assets) paid the full asking price -- $625,000 -- for essay tips, a vacant lot adjacent to Obama’s mansion. At this time, Mr. Rezko was being pursued by creditors seeking more than $10 million which Rezko owed on repor t defaulted loans and failed business ventures. Essay Tips! At least 12 lawsuits had been filed against Rezko and his businesses from November 2002 to american essays, January 2005, including one by the G.E. Commercial Finance Corporation, which had extended more than $5 million in loans for Rezko’s 17 Papa Johns’ Pizza parlors in Detroit, Chicago and Milwaukee.
In November 2004, G.E. obtained a court judgment against Mr. Rezko for the $3.5 million that it said was outstanding on its loans. Obama says he does not know why the goldwater Rezkos decided to purchase the vacant lot at that time. But the Rezkos’ involvement was crucial because the owners of the house and the lot had stipulated that neither property could be sold unless a deal for the other also closed on american and french revolution essays the same day. Both deals indeed closed on the same day in June 2005. At the time of the purchase, Mr. Rezko was ostensibly destitute; that is why his wife was named officially as the goldwater essay tips sole purchaser of the vacant lot. In December 2005 Obama paid Rita Rezko $104,500 for the paper, a strip that constituted one-sixth of her newly acquired lot, so that he could increase the width of goldwater essay tips his yard by ten feet.
At the time of a mockingbird essay morals this deal, Tony Rezko was under federal investigation on charges that he had solicited kickbacks from companies seeking state pension business under his friend, Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich, for whom Rezko reportedly had raised as much as $500,000. For more than two years before the property purchases, news articles also had raised questions about Mr. Goldwater Essay Tips! Rezko’s influence over state appointments and contracts. American And French Revolution Essays! Moreover, reports swirled that the FBI was investigating accusations of a shakedown scheme in which Mr. Goldwater Tips! Rezko had suggested appointments to a state hospital board. Obama rejects any suggestion that the Rezkos, by paying full price for the vacant lot, had enabled him to save $300,000 on his home’s purchase price and were perhaps seeking political favors in return. “Frankly, I don’t think he [Mr. Rezko] was doing me a favor,” Obama has said. In October 2006, Mr. Rezko was indicted on extortion charges. According to federal prosecutors, Rezko had funneled $10,000 in kickback fees to mla essay book, Obama's 2004 Senate campaign. Rezko remained free on bail until January 28, 2008, when a U.S.
District Judge jailed him for having disobeyed a court order to keep the Judge apprised of his (Rezko’s) financial status. Most notably, Rezko had failed to tell the judge about a $3.5 million loan he had received (in mid-2005) from goldwater London-based Iraqi billionaire Nadhmi Auchi -- a loan that Auchi later forgave in exchange for shares in a prime slice of Chicago real estate. According to the Associated Press, Rezko “gave $700,000 of the [$3.5 million] to mla essay book, his wife [for the purchase of the vacant lot adjacent to Obama’s mansion] and used the rest to pay legal bills and funnel cash to essay, various supporters.”  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 116.  Such an approach to “pregnancy prevention” had been tried before, with disastrous results. In the 1960s, leftists in politics and to kill a mockingbird essay academia demanded that sex education be added to goldwater tips, public-school curricula nationwide, and that government-funded “family planning” (abortion) services be made more widely available. Mla Essay Book! By 1968, almost half of all U.S. schoolspublic and tips private, religious and secularhad instituted sex education programs for their students; these programs continued to spread widely throughout the American educational system in the 1970s. “Family planning” clinics also proliferated exponentially from the mid-Sixties to to kill essay, the mid-Seventies.
Between the goldwater essay late Sixties and 1978, federal expenditures for “family planning” and “population” legislation grew from $16 million annually to $279 million. Whereas in 1969 fewer than 250,000 teenagers used the essay questions services provided by essay tips abortion clinics, by 1976 their number had risen to 1.2 million. End Of! Between 1970 and goldwater 1980, the pregnancy rate among 15- to 19-year-olds rose by more than 40 percent. And French! Among unmarried girls aged 15 to tips, 17, birth rates rose 29 percent between 1970 and 1984even as the number of abortions more than doubled during the repor t same period.  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 203.  These rules to goldwater, deter racial profiling, say critics, lead to “de-policing.” To avoid charges of racism if they question or arrest too many minority suspects, police find it easier to protect their careers by turning a blind eye and leaving minority criminals alone.  Obama’s premise of a discriminatory justice system is entirely mistaken, as Manhattan Institute scholar Heather MacDonald points out: “Let’s start with the idea that cops over-arrest blacks and ignore white criminals. Mla Essay Book! In fact, the race of criminals reported by crime victims matches arrest data.
As long ago as 1978, a study of robbery and goldwater essay aggravated assault in repor t eight cities found parity between the race of assailants in victim identifications and in goldwater essay arrestsa finding replicated many times since, across a range of crimes. No one has ever come up with a plausible argument as to why crime victims would be biased in their reports. “Moving up the enforcement chain, the campaign against the criminal-justice system next claims that prosecutors overcharge and judges oversentence blacks. In 1997, criminologists Robert Sampson and essay morals Janet Lauritsen reviewed the massive literature on charging and sentencing. They concluded that ‘large racial differences in goldwater essay criminal offending,’ not racism, explained why more blacks were in mla essay book prison proportionately than whites and for longer terms. A 1987 analysis of Georgia felony convictions, for example, found that blacks frequently received disproportionately lenient punishment. Essay Tips! A 1990 study of 11,000 California cases found that slight racial disparities in sentence length resulted from blacks’ prior records and other legally relevant variables. A 1994 Justice Department survey of essays felony cases from the country’s 75 largest urban areas discovered that blacks actually had a lower chance of prosecution following a felony than whites did, and that they [blacks] were less likely to be found guilty at trial.
Following conviction, blacks were more likely to receive prison sentences, howeveran outcome that reflected the gravity of their offenses as well as their criminal records. “Another criminologisteasily as liberal as Sampsonreached the same conclusion in 1995: ‘Racial differences in essay tips patterns of offending, not racial bias by police and other officials, are the principal reason that such greater proportions of blacks than whites are arrested, prosecuted, convicted and imprisoned,’ Michael Tonry wrote in Malign Neglect . The media’s favorite criminologist, Alfred Blumstein, found in to kill a mockingbird essay 1993 that blacks were significantly underrepresented in prison for homicide compared with their presence in arrest.”  Many critics of the Court’s decision contended that it had undone the landmark Brown v. Board of Education ruling of 1954. But these charges were untrue. The Brown case addressed the issue of mandatory racial segregation in America’s public schools, an issue which had become an international embarrassment for the United States. The case centered around a black third-grader named Linda Brown who had been denied admission to an all-white school located just a few blocks from goldwater essay her home in and french revolution Topeka, Kansas, and goldwater essay tips was forced instead to repor t, take a bus to tips, an all-black school in a more distant neighborhood. Aziz Cousin Harris! Because millions of other blacks nationwide faced the goldwater essay same dilemma, her case had far-reaching, monumental implications. Miss Brown’s father successfully sued the Topeka Board of Education on grounds that, contrary to a previous Supreme Court ruling in mla essay book Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), segregated schools were separate but not equal and thus failed to fulfill the tips Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of equal protection under the laws. On May 17, 1954, the and french revolution essays Court handed down a 9-0 decision which stated unequivocally: “Where a State has undertaken to provide an opportunity for an education in its public schools, such an opportunity is goldwater tips a right which must be made available to all on equal terms.” In other words, Brown overturned the notion that it was permissible to use race as the basis for denying students the right to thesis at the, attend the schools they preferred. Like the 1964 Civil Rights Act that would become law ten years later, Brown was intended to remove barriers to integration by goldwater essay outlawing de jure segregation, but it issued no mandate for measures (like busing or racial quotas) to forcibly integrate America’s schools or workplaces.  Hoover Institution fellow and Stanford University sociologist Thomas Sowell, who has studied this matter in great depth, explains that the “‘compelling’ benefits of fences essay questions ‘diversity’ are “as invisible as the goldwater proverbial emperor’s new clothes”; that “[n]ot only is there no hard evidence that mixing and matching black and white kids in school produces either educational or social benefits, there have been a number of studies of all-black schools whose educational performances equal or exceed the national average”; that “[s]ome black students -- in fact, whole schools of them -- have performed dramatically better than other black students and fences questions exceeded the norms in white schools,” and that this phenomenon dates back as far as the late 19th century; that black students who have been bussed into white schools have seen no discernible rise in their standardized test scores -- “not even after decades of bussing”; and essay tips that “[n]ot only is there no hard evidence” for the dogma “that there needs to be a ‘critical mass’ of questions black students in a given school or college in order for them to perform up to tips, standard,” but that “such hard evidence as there is points in the opposite repor t, direction.
Bright black kids have benefited from being in classes with other bright kids, regardless of the other kids’ color.”  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 114.  Contrary to goldwater, Obama’s claim, in May 2008 it was announced that more than 31,000 scientists across the U.S. -- including more than 9,000 Ph.D.s in fields such as atmospheric science, climatology, Earth science, environment and dozens of other specialties -- had signed a petition rejecting the claim that the human production of greenhouse gases is causing global warming that damages the Earth's climate. There is no convincing scientific evidence that human release of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gases is thesis causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the Earth's atmosphere and goldwater essay tips disruption of the Earth's climate, the petition stated. Moreover, there is mla essay book substantial scientific evidence that increases in goldwater essay tips atmospheric carbon dioxide produce many beneficial effects upon the natural plant and animal environments of the Earth.  Most legal scholars believe the president has inherent constitutional authority to conduct warrantless wiretaps to collect foreign intelligence, and no statute -- including FISA -- can reverse that. Citing a 22-year-old precedent, the Federal Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review ruled in at the end of the paper 2002 that “the president did have inherent authority to conduct warrantless searches to obtain foreign intelligence information.
We take for granted that the president does have that authority and, assuming that is so, FISA could not encroach on the president’s constitutional power.” John Schmidt, President Clinton’s associate attorney general from 1994-97, wrote that NSA [National Security Agency] surveillance against al-Qaeda “is consistent with court decisions and with the positions of the Justice Department under prior presidents”; FISA, he explained, “did not alter the constitutional situation.” Schmidt quoted Clinton Deputy Attorney General Jamie Gorelick’s 1994 testimony before the Senate Intelligence Committee: “The Department of Justice believes, and essay the case law supports, that the president has inherent authority to conduct warrantless physical searches for foreign intelligence purposes.”  Obama and his fellow critics of military commissions accuse such tribunals of trampling on repor t the civil rights and liberties of defendants who, the critics contend, should be entitled to all the rights and goldwater essay protections afforded by the American criminal court system -- where the standards that govern the admissibility of evidence are considerably stricter than the counterpart standards in military tribunals. In November 2006 Congress passed the Military Commissions Act of 2006, formally authorizing the adjudication of repor t war crimes and terrorism cases in military courts. The House of Representatives vote was 253 to 168 (Republicans voted 219 to goldwater, 7 in favor, Democrats 160 to 34 against); the overall Senate margin was 65 to 34 in at the end of favor. According to the Defense Department, military tribunals, where military officers serve as the judges and jurors, are designed to deal with offenses committed in the context of goldwater warfare including pillaging; terrorism; willfully killing or attacking civilians; taking hostages; employing poison or analogous weapons; using civilians as human shields; torture; mutilation or maiming; improperly using a flag of ansari harris college surrender; desecrating or abusing a dead body; rape; hijacking or hazarding a vessel or aircraft; aiding the enemy; spying; providing false testimony or perjury; soliciting others to commit offenses that are triable by military jurisprudence; and intending or conspiring to goldwater essay tips, commit, or to aid in the commission of, such crimes.
The issue of whether it is appropriate to try someone accused of the aforementioned transgressions in a military court depends upon how one answers a single overriding question: Is terrorism a matter of war, or is it a legal issue where redress should be pursued via the criminal-justice system like robbery, vandalism, or murder.  “Our government, the Supreme Court has ruled, “by thus defining lawful belligerents entitled to be treated as prisoners of war, has recognized that there is a class of unlawful belligerents not entitled to that privilege, including those who, though combatants, do not wear ‘fixed and distinctive emblems.’” Apart from the repor t question of whether military tribunals are a good idea philosophically, trying terrorists and goldwater war criminals in civilian rather than military courts poses a number of serious problems from a practical standpoint. For one thing, the rules defining admissible and revolution inadmissible evidence in goldwater tips each venue differ dramatically. In civilian trials, neither coerced testimony, nor confessions made in the absence of a Miranda warning, nor hearsay evidence can presented to the court; in military tribunals the opposite is true, provided that the court determines such evidence to have “probative value to a reasonable person.” Attorneys Spencer J. Crona and Neal A. Richardson explain the profound significance of this: “A relaxation of the hearsay rule might become critical in a prosecution for terrorism where it may be impossible to repor t, produce live witnesses to goldwater tips, an event which occurred years earlier in aziz ansari harris college a foreign country. For example, the indictment in goldwater tips the Pan Am Flight 103 case details the alleged purchase of clothing, by Libyan intelligence agent Abdel Bassett, for placement in the suitcase with the bomb. The clothing was used to disguise the mla essay book contents of the suitcase containing the goldwater tips bomb, which was placed inside a radio-cassette player. Under the rules of evidence applicable in U.S.
District Court, the prosecution would have to produce in person the Maltese shopkeeper to identify Abdel Bassett as the at the end of the paper man who allegedly purchased the clothing back in essay 1988, as opposed to producing the investigator who tracked down the shopkeeper and showed him a photograph of Abdel Bassett. Essay Morals! Even if we assume that the shopkeeper could be located six years or more after the fact, we recognize that it is goldwater essay nearly impossible to secure involuntary testimony from a witness who is a citizen of a foreign country, especially one that historically has been less than sympathetic to the United States. Essay Questions! The reach of a federal court subpoena simply does not extend to Malta.” Another exceedingly significant weakness inherent in civilian trials for terrorists is the fact that in goldwater such proceedings, there exists a high likelihood that classified intelligence sources will be compromised. If the government wishes to fences essay questions, present certain incriminating evidence in a civilian trial, which is open to the public, it must disclose its sources as well as the essay tips techniques it used for obtaining the aziz ansari college information from them.
This obviously would place those sources in grave danger and would quickly lead to the non-cooperation or disappearance of many of them to say nothing of the future potential informants who would undoubtedly choose to avoid placing themselves in similar peril. Essay Tips! Moreover, the effectiveness of american revolution any publicly disclosed information-gathering techniques would thereafter be permanently compromised. By contrast, military tribunals permit incriminating evidence to be presented to the judge and jury, while being kept secret from the public as well as from the goldwater tips defendant and american and french essays his attorney. For those who are concerned about legal precedent, it must be understood that the goldwater essay tips use of military tribunals for the adjudication of war crimes is in no way a departure from past practices. military commissions were used commonly during the Civil War. Prior to to kill essay morals, that, General George Washington employed such tribunals during the American Revolution in essay tips the late 18th century. Mla Essay Book! In the goldwater tips era following the ratification of the U.S. Essay! Constitution, military tribunals were first convened by Major General Winfield Scott during the goldwater essay Mexican-American War of 1846-48, to thesis at the end of the paper, adjudicate the alleged war crimes of American troops and Mexican guerrilla fighters alike. World War II also saw the use of military courts, the most famous case involving eight marines of the Third Reich (one of whom was an goldwater American citizen named Herbert Haupt ) who rode a Nazi U-boat to the east coast of the United States, where, laden with explosives, they disembarked and set off toward various locations with the intent of bombing railroads, hydroelectric plants, factories, department stores, and defense facilities across the country.
The saboteurs were wearing no military uniforms or identifying emblems when they were captured, meaning that they were, in mla essay book the eyes of the law (as defined by essay tips the Supreme Court in Ex parte Quirin , quoted earlier in questions this article), “unlawful combatants.” Refusing to essay tips, grant the perpetrators civilian jury trials, President Franklin D. Roosevelt quickly created a secret military commission to hear their cases. All eight were convicted and sentenced to death, though two turncoats later had their sentences commuted to fences questions, life in prison.  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 96.  Thomas Sowell, Price Controls, Capitalism (November 16, 2005). Dr. Sowell writes:
It so happens there is goldwater tips a history of price controls and their consequences in countries around the world, going back literally thousands of repor t years. Goldwater! But most people who advocate price controls are unaware of, and uninterested in, that history .  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama, pp. 205-206. ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT FEATURES: Since Feb 14, 2005 --Hits: 61,630,061 --Visitors: 7,024,052.
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My Senior Thesis: How Can Great Charities Raise More Money? I haven#8217;t written a blog post for nearly a full season. One-third of this phenomenon is the fault of essay my senior thesis: It#8217;s a very long thesis, and you probably shouldn#8217;t read the whole thing. I conducted my final round of editing over the course of 38 hours in late April, during which I did not sleep. It#8217;s kind of a slog. Here#8217;s a PDF of the repor t, five pages where I summarize everything I learned and make recommendations to tips, charities: In the rest of this post, I#8217;ve explained my motivation for actually writing this thing, and fences questions squeezed my key findings into goldwater tips a pair of to kill a mockingbird essay morals summaries: One that#8217;s a hundred words long, one that#8217;s quite a bit longer. Americans only give about 2% of their income to charity, and most of that money goes to charities that don#8217;t do an especially good job of essay tips helping people. How can the most effective charities (and other charities) raise more money?
There are many different techniques that have been shown to work well in multiple studies, but evidence on to kill a mockingbird essay most techniques is still very mixed, and some popular techniques in the real world have no experimental evidence behind them. Charities really ought to run more experiments to essay tips, figure out repor t which techniques will work for them. In the meantime, some general advice for all charities: Tell donors what their donation will accomplish (be specific!). Tell stories about individual people you#8217;ve helped, Make donors feel like they#8217;re on a winning team with lots of other cool donors, making real progress on an important problem. Also, run experiments. I can#8217;t emphasize that enough. This year, I began to essay tips, study the nonprofit sector, because I#8217;m convinced that giving money to the right causes is one of the best ways for an average person to improve the world . Fences Questions? I#8217;d seen a lot of goldwater essay tips studies on fundraising techniques , and on techniques for persuading people in mla essay book general , but it wasn#8217;t easy to find a lot of essay tips studies in one place, and it was especially tough to figure out whether any particular techniques had super-strong evidence behind them, or whether some techniques were overvalued thanks to the results of repor t a single study that wouldn#8217;t necessarily generalize to goldwater essay, most nonprofits. So I did something a little bit foolish.
I decided that my senior thesis would attempt to review every experimental study ever conducted on a charitable fundraising technique. To ensure that I was saying something original, I added a special section on techniques that would apply especially to #8220;effective#8221; charities: Those which could present strong evidence to donors that they were actually making the world a better place (and doing so more efficiently than most other charities). This isn#8217;t the best-written literature review of fundraising techniques, nor the most comprehensive. But it is probably the repor t, most comprehensive review of studies conducted specifically using participants who actually gave money. This is actually a major problem in the fundraising literature: About half the studies I found didn#8217;t measure the impact of a technique on real donations. Instead, researchers measured how much money the participants claimed they would give if someone asked them, or whether they gave tokens to people playing an #8220;economic game#8221; with them, or whether they helped a clumsy research assistant clean up spilled coffee. (To make an uncharitable comparison, it#8217;s as though Stanley Milgram had conducted his famous obedience experiment by asking participants whether they would be willing to shock the goldwater essay tips, person on the other side of the to kill morals, curtain if he asked nicely.) I excluded any study that didn#8217;t measure real monetary donations, unless it dealt in some way with evidence-based giving #8212; very little has been written in that domain, so I had to be a bit less selective. Take everything I say with a grain of salt: I was an undergraduate when I wrote this, and goldwater tips I probably missed some important points in many of these papers. Almost every study here involves a single request for money, even though donor retention is more important for repor t, most charities than getting new donors who only give once. Including donor retention would have made this thesis almost impossible to write, but it#8217;s still an important topic. ( Adrian Sargeant has some great papers on building long-term relationships with donors.) There#8217;s not a lot of research on most of the techniques I covered, with a few exceptions. I found about five studies per technique, on goldwater average, of which at least one was methodologically flawed.
Sample sizes and effect sizes varied drastically, and the sheer number of techniques meant that running a meta-analysis wouldn#8217;t have made sense. For that matter, nearly everything about these studies varied drastically: The context in which a request was made, the relationship of the participants to the charity, the size of the charity, and so on. What I wound up with, in the end, were a few solid general rules and a lot of results hinting that certain approaches might be effective. Still, it#8217;s better to have hints than to have nothing, and aziz ansari harris college essay most nonprofit organizations aren#8217;t using all that much science when they try to raise money. Charitable giving is probably a net positive, as far as social phenomena go. And even if it isn#8217;t, the most efficient, data-driven forms of giving are certainly good. (This is goldwater essay tips my first thesis, so I#8217;m defending even the most basic assertions.) The latter form of repor t giving, or #8220;effective altruism#8221;, clearly helps the recipients of donations, but it#8217;s not entirely clear whether giving actually makes people happier. There#8217;s a good chance that happy people give more, or that people claim to be happy after giving so experimenters will like them. But it#8217;s also quite possible that giving money makes us happier than spending it, especially once we#8217;ve spent a certain amount on ourselves. But even though charitable giving is goldwater a very good thing, we don#8217;t give very much, and to kill a mockingbird essay the rate at essay which we give hasn#8217;t really changed since 1970. For some reason, charities are struggling to convince people to give money away.
But science can help! This literature review aims to to kill a mockingbird essay morals, summarize research on the efficacy of various fundraising techniques #8212; particularly those which could be useful to goldwater tips, the most effective charities. By the way, some charities are more effective than others! Why are some charities #8220;overpriced#8221; for the amount of good they do? Because charities aren#8217;t like soap: When we give, we spend money on something we don#8217;t use ourselves, and we rarely learn how well the repor t, charity is goldwater helping recipients. It#8217;s as though we bought someone else a bar of soap on Amazon and then tried to review it without ever speaking to them.
This wouldn#8217;t work very well. Similarly, despite the existence of charity-rating websites, most people give without knowing much about the and french, impact of the charity they support, much less how it compares to other charities. I read hundreds of pages of goldwater essay tips Google Scholar and ansari essay lots of books and more pages in a few specialized databases and the reference sections of some truly epic literature reviews (which are linked at the end of goldwater tips this post). Some of the techniques I reviewed could be used by just about essays, any charity. Goldwater? Others should be especially useful for repor t, charities that have something in common with the goldwater essay, most effective charities #8212; that is, they help people in mla essay book other countries, help lots of goldwater people, measure their results, etc. With a few exceptions, I only reviewed studies where participants actually gave real money to charity, because most other ways of predicting giving behavior in the real world don#8217;t seem very effective, and we really want to predict giving behavior! Prediction is the name of the mla essay book, game. I#8217;m also not measuring religious gifts or gifts to colleges, because #8220;giving back#8221; to an institution that helped you isn#8217;t quite the same as the goldwater essay tips, giving I#8217;d like to measure. What motivates people to give money away? I#8217;m not going to say #8220;System One#8221; and #8220;System Two#8221;, because that#8217;s cliche, so instead I#8217;ll say #8220;warm giving#8221; and #8220;cool giving#8221; to reflect the fact that giving is driven by ansari college, a mix of essay #8220;cool#8221; motivations (an abstract desire to do good, careful calculation of your impact, strategic giving that will make people like you) and #8220;warm#8221; motivations (empathy toward the recipient, personal connections to the charity, a habit of giving a dollar to anyone who asks). Thesis At The End Of The Paper? Yes, this is really just System One and System Two.
You came here for a literature review, not a philosophical analysis of altruistic behavior. Essay Tips? This section is somewhat lazy. Thesis At The End Of? Anyway, who gives the most money away? Sometimes men give more than women, and sometimes the goldwater tips, reverse it true. Older people give more until around the time they retire. Richer people give more, but perhaps less money as a percentage of income. Religious people might give more, but it#8217;s really difficult to tell because 1/3 of all U.S. donations go toward churches, which only spend a fraction of their income on traditional #8220;charitable#8221; activities.
Fundraising Techniques that Probably Help. #8220;Legitimizing paltry contributions#8221;: Tell donors that #8220;even a penny will help#8221; (or something like that), and aziz ansari harris essay they#8217;ll usually be more likely to give without giving much less. I have a bunch of theories about why this happens, but we have many more techniques to cover, so let#8217;s move on! Anchoring: Suggesting that donors give $20 tends to bring in more than suggesting they give $10, but a very high anchor scares donors away. Use experiments to figure out the optimal suggestion! Dialogue: Ask someone how they#8217;re doing, wait for them to answer, and tips then ask for money. This is cousin essay a much better idea than asking right away, but so far we#8217;ve only seen it work in person, not over the phone. Bonus points if you mention having something in goldwater tips common with the donor! (In my favorite #8220;similarity#8221; study, the to kill essay morals, experimenter lied about having the same birthday as the participant. Goldwater? I can#8217;t believe the to kill a mockingbird, IRB let them get away with that.) Publicity: When someone#8217;s donations will be made public (or even seen by just a single experimenter), they tend to give more.
This may not hold true for Muslims or other religious groups where quiet, private giving is a virtue. But that#8217;s a minor exception hypothesized from a single study: Mostly, publicity is a good strategy in the context of these experiments. Photographs: Adding pictures to donation materials tends to make them more effective, though it#8217;s unclear whether sad children are better than happy children. Especially sad or upsetting photos could backfire. Goldwater Essay? Individuals: We really like helping individuals, possibly because it#8217;s easier to empathize with one person than with a whole group of people. Rather than talking about the sheer scope of the problem your charity deals with, it#8217;s generally best to talk about how a donation has helped, or could help, a single sympathetic person. In fact, people will literally give more money to save the life of one child than to save the lives of mla essay book eight, even when eight lives can be saved for the price of one!
This is a troubling result, but one team of researchers may have discovered how to goldwater essay tips, reverse it with something called #8220;the unit asking effect#8221;. (That paper might be my favorite in the entire thesis #8212; check it out if you can.) Follow the Leader: Potential donors give more after they learn about the gifts of past donors, especially those who were very generous or who resembled the aziz ansari essay, potential donor in some way. This also works if the potential donor sees another donation happen, or is told that the essay tips, amount they donate will be known by another person (so that they have the ansari college, chance to become #8220;leaders#8221; themselves). Goldwater Essay Tips? Matching donations: Ben Kuhn is better at statistics than I am, and his summary of the literature on matching is very rigorous. If you really care about donation-matching, you should read it. Mla Essay Book? My shorter summary: If you have some money lying around, you might be able to use it to goldwater tips, increase donations by thesis end of, #8220;matching#8221; the gifts of future donors, so that people feel like they can do more good for the same #8220;price#8221; (as though your nonprofit was having a buy-one-get-one-free sale). Ben Kuhn points out that most of the essay, research on thesis matching is sketchy, but it#8217;s no sketchier than the rest of the tips, research on fundraising. Also, matching is #8220;free#8221;, since your charity gets the matching dollars either way, so you might as well experiment. Seed donations: Announce that you#8217;d like to raise a set amount, then #8220;seed#8221; part of that amount so that #8220;success#8221; seems more likely. Mla Essay Book? Donors like giving to specific campaigns that seem like they will meet their goals, and essay seed donations work about as well as matching in head-to-head experiments. On the other hand, if you have money you could use to seed a campaign or match donations, you could also try#8230; Overhead coverage: When a charity announces that donors#8217; gifts will only cover #8220;programs#8221; (like giving mosquito nets to families) rather than #8220;overhead#8221; (like paying the salaries of professional fundraisers ), donors give quite a bit more.
This phenomenon can be hacked if a charity uses leftover funds to #8220;cover#8221; its own overhead, or convinces one particular donor to cover all of the overhead so that most donors never have to think about it. Which is kind of weird, since this is all just accounting trickery #8212; the questions, amount spent on overhead isn#8217;t changing #8212; but if it works, why not? Donors seem to prefer charities with lower overhead even when the overhead isn#8217;t #8220;covered#8221;, but it#8217;s unclear whether that#8217;s true independent of donors#8217; fear that their own money will pay for overhead rather than programs. Goldwater Tips? Many nonprofits claim that #8220;overhead doesn#8217;t matter#8221; , because forcing charities not to a mockingbird morals, spend on goldwater essay tips overhead keeps them from growing or innovating. Revolution Essays? This is tips partly true, though especially high overhead is a clear warning sign. What really matters is how much good each dollar does, however the charity spends it. (Still, donors speak the language of overhead, so charities may have to do the mla essay book, same.)
This summary is long enough already, so I#8217;ll skip talking about techniques that only goldwater essay, work sporadically, or don#8217;t seem to work at all. A Mockingbird Essay Morals? With one exception: Offering gifts or prizes in tips exchange for donations works very badly in every study that tries to american and french essays, do it. This may not be the goldwater essay tips, case for morals, gifts #8220;related#8221; to goldwater, the nonprofit (like a PBS tote bag), but telling people you#8217;ll give them random chocolate if they donate is a terrible idea. On the other hand, telling donors they#8217;ll feel great after they give works pretty well, despite playing on the same selfish motivation. And giving people gifts before you ask them to give leads to aziz ansari college, amazing results (at least in the fourth study mentioned on page 20 of goldwater this paper ). Really Obvious Helpful Techniques.
Here are some brief, simple things that all nonprofits should probably be doing: Talk about your beneficiaries a lot. Make them sound like nice, hardworking people who have a lot in common with the fences, donor. Talk about the progress your organization has been making, not the enormous scope of the problem (or, at tips the very least, talk about both). People want to cousin, be on the winning team. Look good. Dress nicely. Tips? Be attractive and high-status (donors can be shallow, especially male donors talking to cute female fundraisers). It might even help to a mockingbird essay, play catchy music and smell good, though that study has yet to goldwater tips, be funded. If someone signs up for ansari cousin college, your mailing list, send them an email right away, and ask them to donate soon after.
As of 2014, some of the goldwater essay, largest charities in the U.S. Repor T? didn#8217;t send a single email to new subscribes within 30 days #8212; the perfect amount of time for essay tips, a potential donor to completely forget about them. Mla Essay Book? Use simple, visual language. Goldwater Essay? One clever study took issue with the fact that newspapers tend to use the fences essay, word #8220;affected#8221; to describe the goldwater essay, people who survive natural disasters. Referring to thesis, these people as #8220;homeless#8221; (which is what #8220;affected#8221; really means in this context) substantially increases the amount donors are willing to give to them. Goldwater Tips? This isn#8217;t surprising: I don#8217;t know what an essay questions #8220;affected#8221; person looks like, but I can picture a #8220;homeless#8221; person without difficulty, and goldwater essay tips being able to imagine someone is an important step toward caring about them.
Visual language is important. When we consider the to kill a mockingbird morals, size and sociological importance of the nonprofit sector, it becomes clear that we need more research on fundraising techniques! Yes, like any person who researches a topic in goldwater great depth, I conclude that more research is needed. On the other hand, I#8217;m not going to grad school, so I#8217;m not biased by the need to churn out more papers on things I already know about. You can trust me on this one. There are a few topics I think would be especially neat to research in more depth, but I talk about those within the thesis. For the rest of this summary, all I#8217;d like to say is that charities should be running more experiments, and publicizing their results. Note: The below is mostly uninformed speculation, and I could be very misguided. One cool thing about the nonprofit sector is that it isn#8217;t a zero-sum game. It#8217;s true that charity money is limited, and that someone who donates a lot to one charity will typically give less to others as a result. But if we somehow raise charitable spending from at the end of the paper, 2% to essay, 3% of the mla essay book, U.S.
GDP, the essay, gains from that will dwarf the aziz ansari cousin college, pain of goldwater tips charitable competition. And one of the ways charities can raise the repor t, national giving rate is to work together to figure out better fundraising techniques. What would happen if charities with excellent websites #8212; like Kiva or Acumen or charity: water #8212; shared the goldwater tips, results of their A/B testing with the at the, rest of the nonprofit world? What if the five largest charities in America pooled funds to hire a couple of full-time researchers who could run a dozen experimental replications of goldwater essay tips important studies over the next year, and begin to figure out which techniques consistently had large effects on and french charitable giving? What if the hundred largest charities in America hired a couple of essay tips extra lobbyists to push for a U.S. version of Gift Aid, which could push the giving rate from aziz ansari essay, 2% to 2.5% within a couple of years? I don#8217;t know if any of this would help, but it seems like it would be worthwhile to try.
Fundraising experiments are easy to run, and can even be profitable. Tips? Even small charities can pull off an experiment once in a while, especially if they collaborate with academics. Essay Questions? Many of the studies I examined found that some techniques can boost donations by goldwater tips, 50% or more. Either these results don#8217;t carry over to the real world, or charities can profit enormously from experimentation; I#8217;d really like to know which one is true. It may be that no technique or set of techniques, however clever, is going to push the 2% giving rate to 3% or higher. If so, we#8217;ll need to figure out other ways to do more good with our charitable giving. This is why I#8217;m so excited about effective altruism: The movement is built around organizations like GiveWell , which help people do as much good as possible with their limited donations, and mla essay book organizations like Giving What We Can , which encourages people to ignore fundraising #8220;techniques#8221; and instead make a habit of giving generously to organizations they#8217;ve researched themselves. Essay? Both organizations are at the forefront of a very positive cultural shift in the nonprofit world, and I hope that they #8212; and at the the paper other nonprofits like them #8212; might benefit in goldwater tips some small way from the work I#8217;ve presented here. Aziz? (It#8217;s not exactly likely that they#8217;ll read the thesis, but I#8217;m in regular contact with people who work for EA nonprofits, and goldwater there#8217;s a good chance I#8217;ll work for one myself some day. Hopefully, writing this thesis has given me the tools I need to contribute something to thesis end of, the movement.) Interesting Papers and Other Links.
As I discovered while writing this thesis, the science of fundraising isn#8217;t very rigorous yet. The team at Charity Science explains why. The Behavioural Insights team designs very cool experiments, many of which use subconscious #8220;nudges#8221; to boost charitable giving. One of the deepest threats to essay tips, effective giving is #8220;psychic numbing#8221;: The more suffering we know about, the less likely we are to take an objective approach to dealing with it. When one person is in fences essay questions danger, we#8217;ll make an enormous effort to goldwater essay, save them; when hundreds of thousands are in danger, we often fall into despair and stop trying to help. Aziz Ansari Cousin Essay? Paul Slovic explains.
In 2010, a group of nonprofit foundations published the essay tips, Money for Good study, which surveyed thousands of high-income donors in thesis at the an attempt to figure out how people might be convinced to give more money, and give more to the #8220;highest-performing nonprofits#8221;. The results are fascinating, and a little sad: Only 35% of participants ever did research on goldwater essay tips their favorite charities, and only 10% of those people used neutral sources rather than the charities#8217; websites. Why did I focus on giving advice to especially #8220;effective#8221; charities? Partly because I#8217;m not sure I want charities that don#8217;t keep good records to raise more money. This sad article on the Red Cross is mla essay book one example of how even big-name charities go off the rails.
Also: I#8217;d never have finished this thesis without the help of my wonderful advisor, Hedy Kober . I#8217;d also like to thank Dean Karlan , my second reader, whose work helped inspire me to pursue this topic in the first place.
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