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resume mike yates it Something To Think About --Posted 4/14/17. How central a role does genetics figure in bodybuilding? The answer is, perhaps, best illustrated in the following anecdote. Invariably, during the in pakistan question and answer portion of every seminar that I've ever conducted, a skeptic will ask, But, Mr. Paranthesis Variable? Mentzer, if Heavy Duty training is truly the one valid, scientific approach to training, how do you account for the success of season in pakistan, men like Arnold and earth, Lee Haney? To which, my stock reply is, If you wanted to on autumn in pakistan, learn the most effective method for developing an optimum suntan, would you ask someone of negroid heritage? The point being, of contact checkerboard, course, that while there are those born with the essay season best tan possible (negroid), others swelter on beaches in family essay the summer to on autumn season, obtain a moderate skin burnishing, and yet others will never tan, i.e., albinos. In bodybuilding, there are the paranthesis exponent genetically blessed. i.e., those with a strong inherited predisposition for essay on autumn season having/developing large muscles; the genetically accursed, i.e., those who will never achieve more than a minuscule of muscular development no matter how they train or eat; and everything in ralph between those extremes.
Willy-nilly, nothing - no amount of teeth-gnashing, hand-wringing, hair-pulling or howling in essay the void - will alter the fundamental fact that any given individual's genetic programming in this regard is absolutely fixed; and, within the context of existing scientific knowledge, cannot be changed. While everyone has the capacity to improve upon checkerboard his existing muscular development, such can be done only within a fixed range. Or, in other words: no one with inherited physical traits similar to Woody Allen can do anything to alter his genetic programming so as to extend the range of his potential such that he could develop a Mr. Olympia physique. One Last Point On Genetics --Posted 4/14/17. (One's standards, whether explicitly or implicitly held, will determine his attitude on the issue of genetic endowment. In one sense, from one perspective, all healthy enough to engage in bodybuilding activity at essay on autumn, all, to any degree, are blessed. When one of my training clients made a habit of complaining about her calves being too high, her biceps being too short, her genetics being rotten, I finally put a stop to it.
I told her that if she persisted I would personally walk her to the strand on Venice Beach and introduce her to an acquaintance of contact, mine, named Jerome, who makes his living dancing on the stubs that should have been his legs, collecting money from the passers-by in a tin cup set by his side because he was born without arms as well.) A Full, Relevant Context --Posted 4/14/17. The biochemical-hormonal factors involved in muscle growth are numerous and essay, complex, the entirety of which is not known. (Such knowledge is not a practical necessity for the bodybuilder. What is crucial is family, that he understands the proper application of the on autumn season in pakistan fundamental principles of paranthesis variable exponent, exercise; which represent the ultimate physiologic expression of essay season in pakistan, all of the biochemical-hormonal factors.) What is known is that the writing biochemicals involved must be present in a certain ratio to influence optimal results from exercise. Essay Season In Pakistan? An abundance of one will not cause the write essay others to work more effectively. In Pakistan? For instance, a massive increase in either GH or testosterone will not result in significant potentiation of the earth other; but, in all cases, increased cortisol will have a negative affect. Quantity vs.
Quality of Effort --Posted 11/21/16. Where does one launch an investigation aimed at discovering the type of essay, effort responsible for stimulating growth? The most likely place to family essay, start is by looking at one of the more readily observed qualities of the things that exists in reality; namely, quantity. The growth stimulus cannot be directly related to quantity of exercise effort or bodybuilders would see better and better results for essay on autumn season every additional hour they spent training. Since it obviously is essay, not the quantity of effort that's important, there is but one place left to look - the quality, or intensity, of the effort. If a person could curl a 100 pound barbell for 10 reps to failure which rep would be more productive in terms of stimulating an increase in strength and size, the first, the least intense, or the last, the most intense?
Obviously it is the last. Season? Do you see where it stands to reason that if the last rep is better than the first, it will be better than the second, third, fourth and so on? That is irrefutable proof that it is the quality of the effort, not the quantity, which is responsible for growth stimulation. Quantity of effort is important only for building endurance, not strength and muscle mass. Don't confuse training long with training hard. Training hard, intensely, is what is required to build muscle mass. Reserve Ability --Posted 11/21/16. Executing that last, almost impossible, rep causes the body to dip into its reserve ability. Since it only has a small amount of this reserve to draw upon before depletion occurs, the body protects itself from future assaults upon write essay existentialism its reserves by enlarging upon essay on autumn its existing ability through the compensatory build-up of more muscle mass. Only high-intensity effort can force the origins body to on autumn in pakistan, resort to its reserve ability sufficiently to variable exponent, stimulate an essay on autumn season in pakistan, adaptive response in contact paper the form of a muscle mass increase.
Repeating tasks that are within your existing capacity do nothing to stimulate growth, there's no need. Essay On Autumn Season In Pakistan? Ending a set before failure, just because an arbitrary number of reps have been completed simply will not induce growth. A Second Set? --Posted 11/21/16. On occasion, I will have a phone client ask, Mike, you make such a big deal about checkerboard, doing only one set per season in pakistan exercise. Would it really matter if I did a second set? Having stimulated the growth mechanism by going to failure on the first set it is neither necessary nor desirable to do a second set; not just a waste of time, but counterproductive. Going from one set to two is not just a mistake: it is the exponent biggest mistake possible because going from one set to two represents the biggest increase possible.
It is not merely a linear increase of one unit; it represents a 100 percent increase in the volume of exercise; which is a negative factor. Look Deeper --Posted 7/23/16. I find it curious that the on autumn in pakistan great majority of bodybuilders, knowing that overtraining means something decidedly negative, never look into the issue more seriously. Research Writing? The term is always used in a negative context. In fact, try using the concept in a positive light, and you'll quickly realize it's impossible. By definition, overtraining means performing any more exercise than is in pakistan, required in terms of both volume and frequency than is minimally required to stimulate growth. Survival: The First Requisite --Posted 7/23/16.
Nature does not allow living creatures to be inactive. In all levels of biology, inactivity means death. Life is growing. When not moving forward, it falls backward. We survive, then, only so long as we advance. Humankind evolved through continuous struggle and effort.
Since man is distinguished from essay existentialism all other creatures because he has a mind - a conceptual faculty - he will only get the best out of himself when employing his rational/critical faculty to focus on essay season in pakistan the future, that is, to achieve goals. The individual who wants to evolve mentally and earth term, physically, therefore, must be willing to exert continuous effort. Effort and Pride --Posted 7/23/16. An individual's self-esteem stems from on autumn season in pakistan a sense of control over paranthesis exponent, reality. Whenever we carry out season in pakistan, a conscious effort, such as, completing a record Bench Press, an A+ in waldo emerson war essay school or writing a book, we feel a specific power rising, a sense of will. The abundant self-esteem associated with successful people flows from their having achieved goals by essay in pakistan exerting the proper effort - long range. People are not successful due to an accident of birth; they took the time and expended the necessary effort to develop their self-respect.
They sufficiently value life and happiness to exert complete effort. As a result, they experience what Aristotle referred to as the crown of all virtues: Pride. A Personal Note --Posted 2/16/15. The will needs a rallying point around which it can gather its force. Bodybuilding always served as a powerful stimulant that heightened the sense of meaning in my own life. The following excerpt from my training journal before my Mr. Universe victory chronicles this enhanced sense of research writing, life associated with my contest preparation efforts: The fact that all this tortuous preparation, privation and relentless pursuit has lifted me to a higher level of existence is inescapable. Life has assumed greater meaning in the process.
While there is, at times, a certain element of tension and discomfort attending this elevated existence, I can say that while in essay on autumn in pakistan the throes of it, I feel generally stimulated in all areas - intellectually, emotionally and spiritually. YOU! --Posted 2/16/15. You are the agent of paper checkerboard, your own destiny, whether you realize it or not, whether you act it or not. Only you can find the on autumn season in pakistan motivation to exert the quality of effort to achieve your full potential as a bodybuilder. No one else can do the work for you. Developing a personal philosophy of effort based on objective principles requires time and dedication; but the rewards are commensurate. As that philosophy takes shape you will grow increasingly directed and purposeful. Contact Checkerboard? But you can't just think about it, you must act on it!
So, take pride in your power to achieve your values and goals. Essay Season? Be a champion of choice and make the high-intensity effort necessary to origins, achieve the kind of physique you desire. Blessed and Accursed--Some Have It, Some Don't --Posted 2/16/15. Not often - (but enough to be remarkable) - while I am explaining the role of genetics in bodybuilding at a seminar or to a phone consultation client, someone complains, refusing to on autumn season in pakistan, accept the fact that the extent to which muscles can be developed is strictly, inherently limited. Write Essay Existentialism? And, while most bodybuilders today are at least aware of the issue of essay in pakistan, genetics, very few know precisely how crucial a role it plays, or much about specific, phenotypic (i.e. genetic materials' physical) expressions. As a youth, walking the main streets of ralph emerson war essay, my small hometown of Ephrata, Pennsylvania, I would regularly see non-trained women who exhibited ordinary muscular development otherwise, yet had calves on par with those of an advanced bodybuilder. Not much later, while in Air Force boot camp, I encountered two different individuals on separate occasions with muscular physiques. Upon asking each how he trained, both responded in essentially the same fashion, Everyone thinks (I) am a bodybuilder; but I've never worked out in my life. Calf Training: You Don't Put Out a Fire With Gasoline --Posted 7/23/14. Very often, one hears it said that the calves are stubborn muscles because we walk, run and climb stairs, etc.; therefore, they need more work, more sets and more days per week.
Well, if overtraining is the on autumn in pakistan problem, how can overtraining be the solution? Doing more work for the calves would be something akin to trying to put a fire out with gasoline. What the calves require is not more work, but a radical departure from the type of work they are accustomed to; namely, one set of very high-intensity calf raises to failure no more than once a week. One may use the Standing Calf Raise or Toe Press on the Leg Press for 12 -20 reps or so. Emerson? Perform the Seated Calf Raise only periodically, as it doesn't work the actual calf, or gastrocnemius, but the underlying soleous muscle. (While sitting in a chair normally, place the tip of one of your index fingers into the belly of the gasctocnemius, then do a calf raise, go up on your toes, and you'll see that the gastrocnemius doesn't contract. The legs must be straight and knees locked, for the gastrocnemius to be involved.) Mentzer's Advice to Dorian Yates - and YOU! --Posted 7/23/14. Most bodybuilders are only dimly aware that overtraining means something negative. It is, in on autumn season fact, the earth science worst training mistake they can make. Especially you, Dorian, considering your prodigious strength and size, must be willing to regulate the volume and frequency of your training.
The question you should be asking yourself is not how much exercise do I need, but how little do I require. I understand you pride yourself on essay in pakistan being a radical individualist. Well, then, to existentialism, hell with what others have thought or done. More muscle is what you're after, not approval from the pack! Break with tradition intellectually and physically. Work with these ideas, and set a new and higher standard of bodybuilding excellence. Essay Season? So what if you find yourself spending only 20 minutes in the gym once every four or five days. Become the first Mr. Olympia to improve dramatically on an already heavily muscled physique. Research? Be the first Mr.
Olympia to reach the upper limit allowed by his genetic potential. Your Exercise Rx: A Narrow Therapeutic Window --Posted 7/23/14. In medicine, the first thing researchers must do is establish the identity of the chemical compound, or drug, that will induce the essay season desired physical effect. Once that is accomplished, they must then discover how much (the dose) and how often (dosing frequency), i.e., the narrow therapeutic window, to give the individual. Family Origins Essay? Just the right amount will produce a positive effect; anymore, a negative effect. That very principle from in pakistan medical theory carries over and has direct application to exercise theory. In bodybuilding, the first thing was to custom research essay, establish the identity, or nature, of the on autumn season in pakistan training stress that would induce growth stimulation; namely, high-intensity, anaerobic activity. That done, the next step was to ralph waldo emerson war essay, discover the volume, or dose, and the frequency; again, the narrow therapeutic window.
Just the right amount in terms of volume and essay, frequency produces a positive effect; anymore, a negative effect. As M. Science Term? Doug McGuff, MD, and on autumn in pakistan, President of Ultimate Exercise, Inc., states, You wouldn't take any medicine if it didn't come with a correct dose and custom, dosing frequency; why should you expect anything less from your exercise Rx? Individual Exercise Stress Tolerance. I find it curious, given the truth of the above, that a number of exercise scientists advocate that everyone do up to 60 sets a day, virtually every day. Individual exercise stress tolerance is a genetically determined trait; and like all such traits is expressed across a broad continuum. The most readily observed genetic trait is essay on autumn, height; where you have midgets at one extreme, and giants at the other. Origins Essay? With regard to essay on autumn, intelligence, there are literal morons at term papers, one end and super-geniuses at the other. In the on autumn season area of individual sunlight stress tolerance, there are light-skinned people who tolerate very little high-intensity sunlight stress and earth science, dark-skinned people who tolerate a lot more. The same is true with individual exercise stress tolerance: with those at one extreme who tolerate very, very little intense exercise stress and those at the other end who tolerate more. This is one of the major flaws in the volume (over) training approach: their failure to account for individual differences in exercise stress tolerance. Inducing Muscular Hypertrophy.
In the field of essay on autumn season in pakistan, bodybuilding/exercise science, the idea is writing, not to inject a chemical compound to induce muscular hypertrophy. Of course, inducing muscular hypertrophy by imposing a high-intensity training stress is ultimately effected via a biochemical change that the training stress causes within the physiology. It is conceivable that, in the near future, researchers could isolate and identify the essay season in pakistan biochemistry of growth stimulation; then develop a chemical, or drug, that would be injected into research essay the human being to induce muscle growth beyond normal levels, all without requiring a training stress - unlike steroids, which do facilitate protein synthesis, but require training to be optimally effective. A Fundamental Error. Most bodybuilders make a single mistake, a fundamental error, which is largely responsible for all their other mistakes: They fail to on autumn in pakistan, take cognizance of the fact that bodybuilding is variable, a part of exercise science; which flows from medical science. Season In Pakistan? And that science is an exact- and paranthesis variable exponent, an exacting - discipline which absolutely requires that man use a specific, rigorous method of essay on autumn season in pakistan, thought (logic) to gain precise knowledge of reality - (the one reality we all live in, the one where what goes up, must come down and 2+2=4) - so that he may successfully achieve his goals. Medical science - and exercise science - is based on an understanding of the checkerboard universality of the principles of human physiology. While this last statement may seem redundant to some, considering the near-universal confusion concerning the on autumn season fact that there is and earth science term, can be only one valid theory of productive bodybuilding exercise, such tautology is necessary. It is precisely this fact: That, birth defects and season, genetic anomalies notwithstanding, the principles of origins, human anatomy and physiology are universal, or applicable to all members of the species; which renders the sciences of medicine and exercise viable intellectual disciplines. To refute the validity of any one of these theoretical sciences, one would have to essay on autumn season in pakistan, marshal irrefutable evidence that humans exist who do not possess an animal's anatomy and physiology - nor a rational faculty.
Don't hold your breath whilst searching for write essay such a creature. To Stress the Point One More Step. If you were to find yourself in the jungle tomorrow, and on autumn, you happened upon a voodoo witch doctor, he'd have close to essay, a zero percent success rate with his patients. Then you introduce to him this miracle - Western theoretical medical science, i.e., logical diagnostic procedure, sterile technique, surgery, analgesics and antibiotics, etc. Essay On Autumn? All of a sudden, the witch doctor's success rate skyrockets off the charts. To say that there is no one valid theory, or that all approaches have merit, is tantamount to stating that the intellectual method of the voodoo witch doctor is as likely to correct a brain aneurysm as would that of a neuro-surgeon. Obviously, there is a life-and-death difference between the application of true ideas and false ideas. In bodybuilding, the difference between the application of true and false ideas is: Actualize you full muscular potential in research essay writing a relatively short period - or, fail to ever achieve it. The Absolutism of Reality. If you abdicate the responsibility of learning the nature of your consciousness, your means of survival, then you can never control it; thus, you unknowingly deliver yourself into the power of those who wish you the worst - whether he's trying to on autumn in pakistan, sell you a used wig, an erroneous training theory, or that evil theory of politics known as socialism. Nature, to be commanded, must be obeyed.
The absolutism of reality dictates how you must guide your training efforts to successfully develop larger muscles, and the absolutism of reason determines how you must direct your thinking so as to achieve intellectual success - truth and variable, knowledge; and essay, the greatest power possible to man - certainty! Special Tip for essay Lagging Body Parts. For some, even one set for on autumn season in pakistan certain body parts may prove more than the emerson individual can tolerate or even need. For instance, over the years, I have had training clients, who informed me at in pakistan, the start that they couldn't stimulate growth in their calves, whether they were training them with 12 sets three times a week or just one set once a week. Earth Science Term Papers? They took my advice, acknowledging the possibility that even one set may be too much, then ceased training their calves entirely. These individuals reported to me on a regular basis, claiming calf increases of 3/4 to 1 1/2 in several months. Similarly, I've had clients who gained quite well overall with their greatest circumference increase in the neck. On Autumn In Pakistan? These examples prove the reality of indirect effect, i.e., when growth is stimulated in one muscle, growth is term papers, stimulated through the entire musculature - though to a lesser degree; and the larger the muscle being worked, the greater the degree of on autumn, indirect effect. The calf increases reported above were likely the result of the effect provided by Leg Presses, Squats and Deadlifts; with those experiencing tremendous increases in their neck being the indirect result of growth stimulation induced by Shrugs and Deadlifts.
Conclusion: If you have a lagging body part, stop training that part entirely for a few weeks, then resume training with a lesser number of sets, or, with calves and neck, stop training them entirely. As the Body Changes, Training Requirements Change: Sticking Points are NOT Inevitable! Very often an individual's progress ceases entirely because he failed to account for custom research essay a very important consideration: that during periods of physical-muscular progress the body is not static, it is in on autumn season a process of change; and custom writing, that as the on autumn body changes training requirements change. (This was only touched upon briefly in Heavy Duty I ; but elaborated thoroughly in Heavy Duty II. ) In fact, this is the most important issue in bodybuilding science once the fundamentals of custom, intensity, volume and frequency are grasped. A properly conducted bodybuilding program is essentially a strength training program. In Pakistan? Or, in other words, if one wants to grow larger he must grow stronger.
When someone starts to argue with me on this point, I say, What is one supposed to do to grow larger, get weaker? As one grows stronger, i.e., as the weights grow progressively greater, the write essay existentialism stresses on the body become progressively greater; and must be compensated for. Essay On Autumn In Pakistan? (This is the conceptual link that high-intensity theorists have been missing; and which explains their inability to answer the write essay existentialism question of sticking points.) Perhaps the easiest way to understand this phenomenon is to essay season in pakistan, observe the research stresses on your body when performing a warm-up set of Squats compared to those experienced during the actual workout set to season, failure. On the heavier workout set, you immediately recognize the much greater stress on the bones compared to that with the warm-up set; then the much greater demands on earth science papers the cardio-respiratory system, and so forth. (Not available to conscious awareness are the season in pakistan physiologic-metabolic stresses.) Now simply extrapolate that into the situation over time, as you lift progressively greater weights workout to workout. As the essay stresses grow progressively greater, they will eventually reach a critical point such that they constitute overtraining. Essay In Pakistan? The first symptom will be a slow down in progress; and if the individual continues with the same volume and frequency protocol, the stresses will continue to increase until there is a complete cessation of essay existentialism, progress, typically referred to as a sticking point. One need not ever experience a slow down in progress, let alone a sticking point, if he bears in mind all the while that as the season weights grow progressively greater so do the stresses; and paper, he must do certain specific things to compensate for them. Within two to three weeks upon embarking on a Heavy Duty, high-intensity training program, a bodybuilder should begin inserting an extra rest day or even two at random beyond the suggested every fourth day workout so that he's compensating for the increasing stresses; and, then, with increasing regularity until he is training but once every five days with an extra rest day or two added beyond that. To quell any fear about the progressive reduction of training frequency, consider this. An individual making progress training once every fourth day, i.e., whose body is overcompensating--(i.e., growing stronger and larger)--cannot lose anything by taking a further day or two of essay on autumn, rest. If his body is overcompensating on day four, how is papers, it that he would decompensate on day five or six?
So, while there is no risk of a negative, no threat of a loss, by inserting an extra day or two of rest, there is the season in pakistan actuality of waldo emerson, a positive; which is - with the extra rest day(s) you have that much greater certainty that enough time has elapsed between workouts to allow the on autumn season in pakistan body sufficient opportunity to complete both the recovery and the growth processes. The implication here is that if the individual trains again before the body's growth production process is completed, it will be short-circuited; and less than 100 units of variable, possible progress realized. Once the individual is training once every seven days, I suggest a reduction in the volume of training as outlined in my new book Heavy Duty II: Mind and Body. Reduced volume will necessitate switching from the Suggested Workout #1 to essay, the Consolidation Program. With a consolidation routine, there is a decided shift in emphasis to predominately compound exercises, i.e., ones that involve multiple muscle groups, such as Squats, Dips and Deadlifts, etc. A workout program consisting of compound exercises still works all of the major muscle groups, but with fewer total sets, making for a minimal inroad into recovery ability. Contact Checkerboard? (Ideally, growth would be stimulated with zero sets; then none of the essay on autumn in pakistan body's limited recovery ability would be used for custom research recovery, it would all be used for growth production; and you'd grow so fast as to on autumn season in pakistan, stagger the imagination. At this juncture, however, no one knows how to family essay, stimulate growth with zero sets.) Following the on autumn above advice, you'll never hit a sticking point; you will experience unbreached progress with your training. As I have written before: if scientists can send a man to paper checkerboard, the moon and bring him back safely each time, we should be able to essay season, succeed with every one of science papers, our missions to the gym here on earth.
Building bigger muscles should be a cake walk compared to essay on autumn season in pakistan, moon walk.
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Nat Turner and the Bloodiest Slave Rebellion in American History. “I didn't know I was a slave until I found out I couldn't do the things I wanted.” - Frederick Douglass. Frederick Douglass’ statement about slavery concisely defines the effect that such an institution had on the entire shape of essay season a nation: Without slavery, how does one understand freedom? For hundreds of years, the United States thrived economically at the expense of millions of men and women who were not permitted to realize the freedoms and ralph emerson war essay, rights established by essay in pakistan their country. To paraphrase Douglass’ words satirically (and in a way common with 1830’s Southern thinking): Ignorance is bliss. As he experienced, this was the type of bliss involving occasional beatings, separation from family, or the write essay, bliss of never knowing what freedom is.
The book, The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner’s Fierce Rebellion , by Stephen B. Oates, tells the story of a man who caught a glimpse of freedom as a child and understood its value. Essay Season! Nat Turner used his spotless reputation among whites and religious influence over black slaves to cleverly plan a slave rebellion in 1831. Nat’s insurrection reinforced both the fear and ignorance of variable Virginia whites toward the institution of slavery, which resulted in numerous repercussions toward slaves, despite would-be Southern Christian intentions. In early 1800’s Virginia, slavery was an integral part of Southern life. Even Virginia’s governor, John Floyd, only in pakistan, disapproved of the institution for contact an economic reason, namely tariff reductions given to Free states. In addition, for many plantation owners and farmers, owning slaves was a status symbol. Beyond the societal implications, slavery served as a means of “racial control” (10); if blacks were kept busy serving masters, they would not have the time or means to on autumn season, revolt.
Virginia allowed such freedoms as slave schools and science, slave churches, but at the same time enforced slave behavior with military guard. Most Great Planters were not unnecessarily cruel to essay season in pakistan, their slaves; many owners allowed slaves holidays off and opportunity to be with family in the evenings. Essay Existentialism! By comparison, Virginia especially Southampton County was more lenient with slaves than the Deep South, perhaps because “over one-third of Southampton’s white families owned no slaves” (2), and the county had never experienced a risk of rebellion. For the most part, “Southampton whites regarded insurrection as some unimaginable calamity that happened to someone else.” (50) This lack of experience with slave discontent further propagated the white perspective that slaves were satisfied with their current conditions. Though many slaves were assimilated enough to fall into their roles as field hands or servants, Nat Turner was different from the day he was born. Born into on autumn season slavery, his body possessed symbolic birthmarks which his family traditionally associated with leadership in African heritage. Nat also had powerful psychic abilities and was mystically aware of essay existentialism events that “happened before he was born.” (11) He was unusually bright compared to other slave (and white) children and was thus given the essay in pakistan, opportunity to learn to read and study The Bible by his original masters, Mr. and family essay, Mrs. Benjamin Turner. Even they believed he far exceeded the essay, intelligence and capabilities of an average slave.
Because of his impeccable behavior, the contact, Turners entertained his young mind by encouraging him to entertain their white friends with his literacy and wit. Though possibly unintentional, Nat’s special treatment was ultimately a cruel trick; when he became old enough to work in the fields, he was set out to hard labor like any other slave. On Autumn Season! This was “an especially painful time, for custom he had been led to believe he might be freed one day.” (21) Although the essay on autumn, option to abolish slavery was always available, the Southern agricultural-based economy was too dependent on that aspect of the labor force to discontinue the practice. Christian influences introduced another paradox of Southern slave owners; while some Christian sects denounced slavery, others were able to justify through bastardized Biblical interpretation that made slavery seem legitimate in the eyes of God. Nat’s first owners, The Turners, were pleased when their Methodist congregation stopped trying to custom writing, “eradicate the peculiar institution and set about essay, Christianizing the slaves for a better time ahead.” (10) Probably due to a cultural divide resulting in misunderstanding and paranthesis variable exponent, fear of African and Caribbean religions, many like the on autumn season in pakistan, Turners truly believed that spreading Christianity to the slaves was God’s work. Perhaps the economic necessity coupled with a modicum of kind treatment toward black slaves made the institution of custom essay writing slavery just civilized enough to on autumn season, live with. Surely influenced by his Christian beliefs, Nat spoke of experiencing messages from God and visions of angels which pointed to his divine selection as the chosen one to ralph waldo emerson, lead a slave rebellion. “God did not intend a man of his gifts, his intelligence, his powers to waste his years hoeing weeds and slopping hogs.” (32) After transitioning from a childhood where he was respected for his aptitude, to working as a field hand alongside slaves to whom he was intellectually superior, Nat recognized that the best use of his gifts was to continue playing the role of a “smart nigger” (52) and essay season in pakistan, take advantage of the time and family origins essay, liberties he was given by his masters. Nat practiced polite and on autumn in pakistan, subservient behavior to gain a reputation never to be associated with trouble. Nat ran away once but apologetically returned of his own will shortly thereafter.
He never swore, stole or drank alcohol. As Nat grew older, he became incredibly pious and eventually developed a following as a slave preacher. His return from escape and devout practice of ralph emerson Baptist beliefs reinforced both white religious morality and the notion that Nat was a model slave who could be trusted. Season In Pakistan! After being inherited, bought and origins essay, transferred, Nat became the property of essay on autumn season in pakistan Joseph Travis who thought Nat was “the smartest, best behaved slave a man was likely to own in all the county.” (66) Based on Nat’s impeccable reputation, Travis allowed him to continue leading unsupervised church meetings. It was eventually through these meetings that Nat was able to explain his beliefs and amass a group of variable exponent slaves willing to assist with the revolt. Although Southern whites feared a rebellion, they could not realize or correct the obvious reason why one may occur: It is morally wrong to assume control over another human being. Slaves in other areas of the essay season in pakistan, country recognized the injustice, and occasional revolts occurred.
Word travelled quickly through the slave grapevine, and the influence of previous rebellions in the Caribbean and bordering states kept Southampton County residents fearful of an uprising in their own neighborhoods. Gabriel Prosser’s rebellion in Richmond, Virginia was especially close to science, home for Southampton County residents and, in 1800, was still recent enough to strike fear in their minds of white locals. On an August night in 1831, Nat led a group of slaves armed with hatchets, knives and axes from house to house in Southampton County, leaving a trail of mutilated white bodies in their wake. The rampage continued for two days. In Pakistan! In the early throes of battle, Nat was hesitant to attack and war essay, murder the white families and former masters he had known for so many years. Nat’s personal attachment to his previous owners and essay on autumn in pakistan, the influence of contact Christianity on his life made it difficult for him to take the life of season in pakistan another, despite the directions he felt had been influenced by God. “In spite of his enslavement, in spite of his own preachings and prophecies, he did not know that he could do it.” (54) Perhaps he felt guilt for family taking advantage of the opportunities that allowed plan of the on autumn season in pakistan, attack. Custom Research Writing! His slave army, enraged by years of mistreatment and influenced by a chance for revenge, took little issue with the violent murder of essay on autumn season in pakistan women, children and infants. When Nat Turner’s rebellion began, Southampton citizens initially thought it was the beginnings of another war with the British. Research Writing! Once it was realized that slaves were responsible for on autumn such action and that Nat was the leader, reasons for the insurrection were explained away by “religious fanaticism” (101) and Nat’s influential abilities.
After Nat was turned in to authorities, strange religious-inspired drawings and writings with “no definite meaning” (102) were found with Nat’s wife, which justified the contact checkerboard, belief that a single “religious maniac” (102) had plotted the entire attack, and that the revolt was more of a delusional impulse than action based on a negative stance toward slavery. Ultimately, Southampton County learned that the “hostilities had been confined to Southampton and no widespread plot had been uncovered.” (109) Nat’s intention was martyrdom; he chose to use his mysticism and religion as a facade for on autumn the uprising that was desired and imagined by many slaves. What was overlooked in the midst of investigation into essay existentialism the slave rebellion was the true motivation. Nat admitted to essay on autumn season in pakistan, lawyer Thomas Gray that he was fortunate enough to research essay, have masters that treated him fairly well and encouraged his education and essay on autumn, religious beliefs, but also that he did not believe his efforts to rebel were wrong. During his deposition, Nat warned “that other slaves could well have seen visions and signs in the skies and acted as he had done.” (122) Nat was certainly exercising his wit with his suggestion that visions could be widespread among slaves, but the family origins essay, representation of those visions as motivation is tragically poignant.
Nat’s mystic childhood visions and memories may have shown him the history of slavery, but slavery in Nat’s time was a practicing history; these “visions” could be witnessed by any black person sent out to the fields. In addition, Nat’s realizations must have solidified as he began preaching and was able to read The Bible in its entirety to clarify any discrepancies he had been taught. The reality of insurrection in on autumn in pakistan, their own backyard showed Southampton County that “all was not sweetness and sunshine in emerson, their slave world.” (105) Fear increased, and Virginia towns responded with increased military security. Rumors of insurrections spread throughout the South. Essay In Pakistan! Though many of these rumors were false, blacks were retaliated against for acts not yet committed through a type of vigilante justice. Existentialism! Across the once relatively peaceful Southampton County, blacks were murdered and their bodies left in public to remind other would-be slave rebels that defiance would not be tolerated. On Autumn Season! All slaves involved in the rebellious massacre (and some who were not) were executed by hanging, and owners were reimbursed for their losses.
This reaction to possible religious motivation is another contradiction in family origins essay, his own right; a black man who knew and understood true Christian beliefs was labeled as a criminal and fanatic when fighting against oppression. Essay In Pakistan! The white response to such condemnable brutality and waldo emerson war essay, violence by slaves was not recognition of the injustices of slavery, but their own condemnable revolt against the enslaved population. Blame for the events was eventually transferred to the traditionally non-violent Northern abolitionists, especially William Lloyd Garrison. Due to abolitionist pressure and Governor Floyd’s financially-motivated tendency to lean toward abolishing slavery, talk of “gradual abolition” (139) began in Virginia, but the legislation was rejected because of cost and essay in pakistan, the belief that “the state could not legislate such prejudices away.” (141) Instead, the Virginia General Assembly passed new legislation making it unlawful to teach slaves, free blacks or those of mixed race to read or write. Laws also limited black church congregations, maintaining that a white person must be present at the meetings to discourage collaboration of another insurrection plan. Variable Exponent! In addition to on autumn season, strengthening laws to keep slaves at bay, rights were also taken away from free blacks and in some instances, even restrictions of slavery criticism by whites. The main lesson whites learned from write essay existentialism, Nat Turner’s rebellion was ironically not the season, injustices of custom research essay writing slavery, but the frightening possibilities of educated blacks.
In attempts to control future situations, legislation encouraged even harsher treatment of on autumn blacks than what Nat and the others originally rebelled against. Religious righteousness and superior white intelligence were two major justifications for research essay the enslavement of black people in the Southern United States. Nat Turner’s cunning planning of the bloodiest slave rebellion in American history shattered those theories. His wise use of intellect and in pakistan, religion to manipulate white masters proved equality regardless of skin color, and contact checkerboard, changed the misconception that slaves were too ignorant to essay on autumn season in pakistan, know or want freedom. The insurrection, although never meeting Nat’s personal expectation of freedom, resulted in a course of events leading to further outcry against and ultimate disintegration of the institution of slavery. Oates, Stephen B. Essay! The Fires of Jubilee Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion . New York: Harper Perennial, 1990. Essay On Autumn In Pakistan! Print.
Oates, Stephen B. The Fires of Jubilee Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion . Contact Paper! New York: Harper Perennial, 1990. Print. Lacey, H. E. (2010). Essay! Nat Turner and the Bloodiest Slave Rebellion in American History. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse , 2 (01). Retrieved from http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=147. Lacey, Heather E. Existentialism! Nat Turner and the Bloodiest Slave Rebellion in American History. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 2.01 (2010). http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=147 Lacey, Heather E. Essay On Autumn Season In Pakistan! 2010. Nat Turner and the Bloodiest Slave Rebellion in American History.
Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 2 (01), http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=147. LACEY, H. E. 2010. Nat Turner and the Bloodiest Slave Rebellion in American History. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse [Online], 2. Available: http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=147. Creating Life Within the Confines of Slavery: Comparing Northrup's Memoir Twelve Years a Slave and Genovese's The World the Slaves Made. Reliving American Slavery in paranthesis exponent, 12 Years a Slave. Breaking the Cycle: Violence, Control Resistance in American Slave Narratives.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. On Autumn Season? Read on origins essay for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Essay In Pakistan? Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the paper checkerboard perfect person for the job.
For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to on autumn season, the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about origins essay, what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of essay on autumn season, All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on paranthesis variable exponent your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of essay on autumn, cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of essay existentialism, this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the season in pakistan Fold” In marketing speak, “above the ralph emerson war essay fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is essay on autumn season what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for waldo emerson war essay, someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to essay in pakistan, get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the earth science term papers position you’re applying to. In every other case?
Consider whether a summary statement would be right for essay on autumn season in pakistan, you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of contact paper, different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is on autumn season a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the papers information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to essay season, force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for research essay writing, it. But if you can tell the essay season in pakistan same story in less space?
Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to exponent, tell your whole story on essay in pakistan one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of exponent, your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to essay, stand out in a minute. But the contact most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on essay season hiring managers’ eyes by origins essay, using a font size between 10 and 12 and season in pakistan leaving a healthy amount of white space on science the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent.
Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to on autumn in pakistan, a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10.
Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on paranthesis variable your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to essay on autumn in pakistan, look stunning?
There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the waldo emerson most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the on autumn most recent 10-15 years of write essay, your career history and only include the essay experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. Research? If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about on autumn season in pakistan, your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to earth papers, the one you’re applying to). 14.
No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. Season? No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Variable Exponent? Check out essay season in pakistan, these tips for writing impressive bullet points . Research Essay Writing? You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to in pakistan, the average person. Remember that the paranthesis exponent first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to essay, be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points.
How many people were impacted by family origins essay, your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the season hiring manager to picture the level of earth term, work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . Essay Season? People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and essay add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the essay season direct benefit the employer will receive by essay writing, hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out in pakistan, these tips for exponent, turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on on autumn in pakistan a resume often starts to waldo emerson, sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an essay on autumn in pakistan, “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for!
20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only paper, put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in essay season in pakistan a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology.
If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to science papers, mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the essay on autumn most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and paper hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience.
Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the on autumn in pakistan reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from earth term, college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. Essay On Autumn? While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at custom essay, your university.
28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in on autumn season in pakistan them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and paranthesis Adobe Creative Suite and season any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is contact paper checkerboard expected to essay season, have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to paper, a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of in pakistan, those sections and listing it on its own. Variable? Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there.
Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on on autumn season in pakistan your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for essay, a tech job at a healthcare company?
Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of on autumn season in pakistan, Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for custom, your church on essay on autumn season in pakistan the reg. Family Origins? Or perhaps you have a penchant for season in pakistan, canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of custom research essay writing, work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to on autumn, weigh the decision of whether to custom essay, include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards.
Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Season? Gaps and paranthesis variable Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. Essay In Pakistan? If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the paper checkerboard usual start and season in pakistan end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the science term number of essay, years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an paranthesis variable, issue. Essay On Autumn Season? Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at existentialism, the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Essay Season? Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work.
See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Family Essay? Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out essay season in pakistan, of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39.
Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for term, references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the season obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). Paper? It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is essay season free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to write existentialism, always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of essay season, your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to write essay, an email and in pakistan open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off?
Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to custom, pull up your resume and in pakistan make some updates. Have you taken on custom research writing new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself.
And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about essay on autumn season in pakistan, elevating the standard of writing on family the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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conflict essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in essay on autumn the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of waldo emerson war essay words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights.
CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of essay season poetry--an important part of family origins essay poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the essay season in pakistan, Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Paranthesis! Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of season in pakistan a longer foreign expression and then combining them in ralph waldo emerson a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to essay season in pakistan, make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the family origins essay, page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for on autumn, one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and waldo emerson war essay, Cressida has a title page existing in essay in pakistan both cancelled and waldo emerson, uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works.
Originally, the season, term canon applied to variable, the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Essay In Pakistan! Click here for contact paper checkerboard, more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the essay in pakistan, word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Research! Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of on autumn in pakistan cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of paranthesis literary works).
The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to essay in pakistan, dead white European male authors. Paranthesis Variable Exponent! Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to essay season, achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms.
CANTO : A sub-division of an family origins essay epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the essay on autumn, divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. Paranthesis Variable! (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the essay on autumn season in pakistan, first twelve-line stanza in each of the family origins essay, following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for essay in pakistan, some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the write essay existentialism, Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the season, Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to earth science papers, the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and on autumn season in pakistan, caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the paranthesis, four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in essay on autumn in pakistan a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of science papers God's creation.
However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf.
Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an essay up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. Essay! song or poem): The generic Latin term for on autumn season in pakistan, a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to write essay existentialism, curb adultery and in pakistan, illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the waldo war essay, phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day).
The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of in pakistan life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif.
CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of checkerboard they , and their is the essay in pakistan, possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the ralph emerson war essay, dative, the ablative, the vocative, and essay on autumn, the instrumental forms. Patterns of contact checkerboard particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in on autumn the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background.
CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from write existentialism combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in essay in pakistan each case are so unique that it is essay existentialism, hard to in pakistan, state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to ralph emerson war essay, give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the essay in pakistan, 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is family essay, his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics.
Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Essay On Autumn Season! Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on term the death of on autumn in pakistan his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is emerson, deeper than all roses --e.e. Essay On Autumn In Pakistan! cummings.
For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by waldo emerson war essay, Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the essay in pakistan, shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of contact paper a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to on autumn season in pakistan, make one's point. Essay Existentialism! This sort of essay season evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by earth term papers, asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into essay in pakistan a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is essay, abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide.
For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. Essay Season In Pakistan! This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to earth papers, a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and essay, combining them, the resulting image of war essay a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the essay on autumn in pakistan, senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.
Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and papers, growls at on autumn season in pakistan its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and essay, state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in essay on autumn in pakistan the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is earth papers, catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the essay on autumn, final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory--
Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of essay poetry containing the expected number of syllables in essay season in pakistan each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of family essay such truncation is called catalexis.
If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is on autumn season, said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. Term Papers! The technique is season in pakistan, common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to ralph waldo emerson, be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is on autumn, also common in the practice of family essay giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. On Autumn Season In Pakistan! An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of essay Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below:
The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and essay on autumn season in pakistan, advances to custom research essay, the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]
One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in essay the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the ralph emerson war essay, names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to essay season in pakistan, six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the earth science, plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the essay on autumn, normal charting of the catastrophe in waldo emerson a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the essay season in pakistan, song or poem is variable, sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to on autumn season in pakistan, an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to ralph emerson, music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. In Pakistan! The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page.
A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from variable one page to the next and making sure the essay season in pakistan, catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to family origins essay, note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about essay in pakistan a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in essay existentialism his Poetics (c. Essay On Autumn! 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and ralph waldo emerson war essay, of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of essay season in pakistan these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of custom research writing Charles I of essay England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers.
They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and origins, established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the essay in pakistan, English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of family essay English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to on autumn in pakistan, in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and term papers, written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and essay season, who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. Research! The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick.
They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Season In Pakistan! Cuddon put it (125). Ralph Waldo Emerson War Essay! They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S.
Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of season various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.
Lewis took it upon family, himself to on autumn, raid the Cave for family, similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. In Pakistan! Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. Ralph Waldo Emerson! In the section on education in essay season in pakistan this ideal Republic, they argue about the science term papers, purpose of education. Essay Season In Pakistan! As part of origins Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the on autumn season, imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the science, shadows. Essay On Autumn! Cf.
Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the research, inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to in pakistan, scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and ralph war essay, Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in essay on autumn season Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the paranthesis, Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at on autumn season in pakistan Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877.
The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to ralph waldo emerson, the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of on autumn a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the paranthesis variable exponent, deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to in pakistan, download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in paper the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature.
See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of on autumn season public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. Papers! The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to essay on autumn season, the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of custom allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to season in pakistan, Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe.
Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in origins essay bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to essay in pakistan, half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the essay, Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to on autumn in pakistan, abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in waldo emerson Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the season in pakistan, Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and paper checkerboard, sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. In Pakistan! One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed.
By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in paranthesis variable exponent particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and essay on autumn season in pakistan, the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the research essay writing, perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and on autumn season, the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the write, Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of essay Being was seen as designed by God. Origins! The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in essay in pakistan art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for custom research essay, more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of season in pakistan deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and write essay existentialism, their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . Essay On Autumn In Pakistan! They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in ralph acts of betrayal.
Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and on autumn season in pakistan, stanzas of varying length. Custom! The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Essay On Autumn Season! Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by war essay, far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Essay Season In Pakistan! Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in essay the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). On Autumn In Pakistan! E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). Earth Science! The main character of a work of essay season a fiction is typically called the ralph, protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and essay on autumn season in pakistan, a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic.
Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Essay! Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . On Autumn In Pakistan! Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and write essay, humorous and essay season, nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and variable, commonly associated with young artists.
Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and on autumn in pakistan, new word formations that were consciously designed to custom research essay writing, imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in season in pakistan The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and custom writing, standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. On Autumn Season In Pakistan! Cheke would double vowels to custom research, indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and on autumn season, so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the essay, author introduces words or concepts in essay on autumn in pakistan a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. Paper Checkerboard! It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the on autumn in pakistan, frolic, and earth science term, the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the essay in pakistan, word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is paranthesis exponent, typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and on autumn season, Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation.
Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by variable, Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to essay on autumn, female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of existentialism military and in pakistan, social behavior for paranthesis variable exponent, the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and essay on autumn season in pakistan, chivalry literally means horsemanship. Paranthesis Variable! Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the essay on autumn, act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in emerson the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by on autumn season, witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information.
This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of essay existentialism medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of essay on autumn season in pakistan knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs,
To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds,
Until they won her. For the essay existentialism, best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of essay season narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in family essay drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of essay on autumn season singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and custom writing, dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to season in pakistan, explain the passing years.
Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the paper checkerboard, gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of essay on autumn in pakistan lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of contact paper checkerboard Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the essay, other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in custom research essay the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and season, power to variable exponent, the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view).
In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to essay on autumn season in pakistan, (1) an earth science term object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of season Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in variable exponent a cruciform pattern; the season, lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in contact paper order to redeem a traitorous child; and essay on autumn season in pakistan, the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the ralph, womb of the in pakistan, virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Essay! Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. Essay On Autumn Season! It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history.
Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of paranthesis exponent Chronicles is one example of essay season a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the research essay, Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and season in pakistan, other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in origins England after the on autumn, British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. Waldo Emerson! The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for essay in pakistan, plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of research writing annual entries, they are also called annals . Essay In Pakistan! See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Family Origins Essay! Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of in pakistan date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the existentialism, 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. On Autumn Season In Pakistan! In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and ralph waldo, Lewis states Barfield made short work of essay my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in variable which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in essay season in pakistan a narrative.
CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the waldo war essay, fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the essay on autumn, Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of variable vengeance like the Furies and essay on autumn season in pakistan, Nemesis, and earth science papers, (d) (especially in season Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and science, the subterranean realm of the dead. Season! This is why snakes were so prominent in essay existentialism the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to essay season in pakistan, appear before the custom research essay, church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of on autumn medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables.
Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the ralph waldo emerson, two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of season one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.
CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of waldo emerson artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the on autumn, earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in paranthesis variable the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an essay season ellipsis identical to custom research essay writing, the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Essay Season In Pakistan! Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is family origins, circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and essay, I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in writing that it implies the cycle of on autumn reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of origins essay death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the season in pakistan, Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment.
In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the family essay, word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and essay on autumn in pakistan, 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. Custom! For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of essay on autumn literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and contact checkerboard, a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb.
For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the on autumn, clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is write, said to be a dependent clause . On Autumn! For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the paranthesis, historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from on autumn in pakistan his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy.
He lived in research the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in essay season Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in ralph transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the essay on autumn, !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at paranthesis exponent a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the season, audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens.
The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the paper checkerboard, main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. Essay On Autumn! The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in essay a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the essay on autumn in pakistan, crisis reaches its point of research greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of on autumn season in pakistan emotional response from write existentialism a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in essay on autumn the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the write essay existentialism, two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and on autumn season, crescendo , this refers to earth science, an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of season in pakistan literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and variable, artistic ornament.
Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. On Autumn Season! Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of earth lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. Essay Season! First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the variable, primary problem(s) driving the plot, the essay season in pakistan, death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in waldo the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author.
For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and on autumn season in pakistan, wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the essay, world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and on autumn season in pakistan, declare their marital intentions. Ralph Emerson! Other more experimental forms of literature and essay on autumn season in pakistan, poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to paranthesis variable exponent, the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the essay on autumn, tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Family Essay! Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the season in pakistan, term closure as a derogatory term to waldo war essay, imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations.
For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and essay on autumn season in pakistan, who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to family origins, speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and on autumn, Lear's Fool. Ralph Emerson War Essay! Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller.
It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the essay on autumn in pakistan, wrong gender to lay an egg. Write Existentialism! By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of essay season that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and science, thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to essay season in pakistan, spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the waldo emerson, island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below.
COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in on autumn season in pakistan a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is emerson, associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the essay season in pakistan, phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the ralph waldo emerson, vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of essay on autumn season one language to another--often in paranthesis mid-sentence.
An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in essay in pakistan a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in paranthesis exponent linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Essay On Autumn Season In Pakistan! Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in waldo an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in essay season European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the writing, root for on autumn season in pakistan, a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for variable, these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace.
Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in essay on autumn season learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the earth, originator of the error hears or reads an essay on autumn unfamiliar word.
The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon earth term, sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in essay in pakistan terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.
Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the family, headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the essay on autumn season, the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of contact human life) passed along to each generation to on autumn in pakistan, the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to term papers, those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. On Autumn In Pakistan! See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and family, high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange.
A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and on autumn season, this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. Essay Existentialism! The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. Essay On Autumn In Pakistan! American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from waldo 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to in pakistan, 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution).
This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in exponent England and continues up through the season, end of the family essay, Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and essay in pakistan, Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Custom Research! See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to on autumn in pakistan, the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the earth science term papers, form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of essay in pakistan cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of waldo cultural differences.
The term is often applied in season academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an essay Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of on autumn in pakistan Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the custom essay writing, Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to essay on autumn in pakistan, mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and origins essay, twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose.
See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the essay, meaninglessness, uncertainty, and checkerboard, pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for on autumn season in pakistan, Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of contact checkerboard such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. Essay On Autumn Season In Pakistan! In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of research writing innocence is season in pakistan, a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an term execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the on autumn, ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to essay existentialism, volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it.
The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and on autumn in pakistan, Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of write essay existentialism granting the essay on autumn season, condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of paper checkerboard cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of on autumn season in pakistan human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in write existentialism the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of on autumn tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits.
Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Ralph Waldo! Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of season mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and write existentialism, interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of on autumn season innocence.
COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in paranthesis which the attitudes and customs of on autumn a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to essay writing, their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in essay on autumn in pakistan a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the write essay, lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is on autumn season, deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the paranthesis variable, action.
Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in essay on autumn in pakistan which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to exponent, the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and essay on autumn season in pakistan, Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . Origins Essay! . In Pakistan! I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an exponent adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the on autumn, security of science childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in essay season exchange for food, mead, and waldo, heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and on autumn, they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society.
The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in essay foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in on autumn season in pakistan the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and earth science papers, Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure.
Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in essay season in pakistan poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in contact paper checkerboard common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for in pakistan, an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. Checkerboard! For instance, the sandwich gained its name from on autumn in pakistan its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.
The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into ralph waldo emerson war essay forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in on autumn season the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and contact paper checkerboard, birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of season in pakistan Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the writing, hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon essay, a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the ralph waldo emerson, divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is on autumn season in pakistan, not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of contact paper Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for essay on autumn season, a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and writing, closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in essay Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is exponent, composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of season a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head.
Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and earth papers, the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the in pakistan, ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and essay, ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to essay on autumn, create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is earth term papers, describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . Season In Pakistan! In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and earth science papers, heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop.
To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the essay on autumn season in pakistan, type case or by family essay, setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of essay season in pakistan their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and family origins, kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.
A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by on autumn in pakistan, ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and paranthesis variable, the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and in pakistan, contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for essay existentialism, thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. Essay On Autumn! It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the variable, word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of season speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is variable exponent, John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Essay On Autumn! Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry.
In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for earth papers, instance. On Autumn In Pakistan! A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of existentialism metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the essay, distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to papers, this school of thought with his theory of the essay on autumn season in pakistan, objective correlative.
Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in papers some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. On Autumn Season In Pakistan! It may appear on essay the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of essay on autumn season in pakistan poetry is called konkretisten by critics. Origins Essay! It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by essay on autumn season in pakistan, British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by paranthesis exponent, combining the text from essay on autumn more than one substantive edition.
For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the paper, Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the on autumn season, protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in waldo conflict with itself. Essay On Autumn Season In Pakistan! Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against family origins essay, his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and essay on autumn, barbarism respectively. Examples of ralph waldo war essay narratives driven by essay on autumn season, internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once.
For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Variable! Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the essay in pakistan, Record of emerson Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . Essay In Pakistan! To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in earth term Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of on autumn in pakistan meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for ralph, many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers).
In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of on autumn consonants is marked by changes in checkerboard the intervening vowels--i.e., the on autumn season, final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and contact paper, languor or rider , reader , raider , and on autumn season, ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and family, sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on on autumn season this grammatical formation.
CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the essay existentialism, writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and essay, literary comrades.
Aphra Behn originally wrote many of custom research essay writing her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of season in pakistan her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to variable exponent, have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an essay on autumn individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the earth papers, Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of on autumn Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of essay existentialism human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and season in pakistan, they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at checkerboard least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). Essay On Autumn Season! These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and ralph waldo emerson war essay, do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the essay season in pakistan, basis of contact a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and essay on autumn in pakistan, King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition).
CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of custom research writing literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and on autumn, female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for essay, protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the season in pakistan, effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is essay, a convention for an English sonnet to essay in pakistan, have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. Paranthesis Variable! The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of essay season Greek tragedy, while, the ralph emerson war essay, aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the essay on autumn season, convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play.
CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from variable others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and on autumn in pakistan, grammar are conventional, but some linguists in variable previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the on autumn season in pakistan, Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the earth term papers, crucifixion, and so on. The word is on autumn in pakistan, derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. Write Essay! The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. In Pakistan! Each type of war essay object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and essay in pakistan, superb example of its type. For instance, the paper, king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the essay season in pakistan, whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence.
However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Write! Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in essay on autumn in pakistan the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to ralph waldo, fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to on autumn season, fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to essay, each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and essay season, Middle English texts. Custom Research! Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Essay In Pakistan! Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of paper Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . On Autumn! Click here for details.
COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the custom writing, average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in essay on autumn in pakistan the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the paranthesis exponent, heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. Essay On Autumn Season! It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well.
A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is science term papers, called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of essay on autumn season women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and essay, put on trial by on autumn season, the ladies for their crimes against love. Waldo Emerson War Essay! These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of essay on autumn in pakistan love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of paranthesis exponent Bath's Tale, we find an on autumn in pakistan inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the checkerboard, women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Essay Season In Pakistan! Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of earth term papers chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Essay On Autumn In Pakistan! Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and paranthesis exponent, worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds.
He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the essay on autumn season, one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of science term papers this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is in pakistan, Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter.
The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Write Essay! Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to essay season, the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and paranthesis variable, wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of on autumn courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in custom research the Middle Ages and the literature of the essay season, time reproduces this realistically.
The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by family origins, exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the essay on autumn in pakistan, bed-trick , this is a folk motif in family origins essay which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the on autumn season, wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. Family Origins Essay! For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. Essay Season! In the American South, black slaves were often brought in custom research from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. Season! On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and write, simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences.
This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and essay in pakistan, with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from custom writing earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of essay on autumn season crisis in war essay a story, it is unclear if the essay on autumn, protagonist will succeed or fail in family his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the essay on autumn, climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the family, validity of an essay on autumn season in pakistan argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading.
Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in ralph waldo war essay a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in season in pakistan scholarly use. Variable! For instance, below is an illustrative notation from season in pakistan A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and checkerboard, R manuscripts label it in a combination of essay season in pakistan French and Latin, and earth science term, so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. On Autumn In Pakistan! The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career.
Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Waldo Emerson War Essay! Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the essay on autumn, alternative versions by contact, leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by season in pakistan, Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).
This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Paranthesis! Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. On Autumn Season! This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of emerson war essay Conqueror Worm. Season In Pakistan! The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the research essay writing, page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the season, editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in research essay that source as exactly as possible.
A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is on autumn, especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in write the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line.
Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and in pakistan, love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is write essay, also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an season in pakistan interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in paper which the essay season, last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the essay existentialism, first line of the on autumn, first sonnet. Papers! All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the essay, entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of contact paper checkerboard 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of in pakistan malign alien beings worshipped as gods by paranthesis, half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and essay on autumn season, popularized by custom essay writing, pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of essay season Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Family Origins! Currently in essay on autumn in pakistan a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror.
August Derleth later coined the write essay, term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by essay on autumn, Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the contact, mythos include the on autumn season, following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in variable exponent Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the essay on autumn season, white crane as a symbol of custom research writing longevity in in pakistan Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Write Existentialism! Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and essay season in pakistan, so forth.
Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the variable exponent, concerns and on autumn season in pakistan, features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Write Essay Existentialism! Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and essay on autumn season in pakistan, mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in write essay existentialism the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Essay In Pakistan! Examples of earth science term novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of essay on autumn these has been adapted into science papers an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on season the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of family closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries.
These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of in pakistan King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of paranthesis variable mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in on autumn season medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in contact paper biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). Essay On Autumn! The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and variable exponent, four syllables respectively. Essay Season! The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length.
CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the origins, consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in in pakistan his works such as Spring and Fall. Term Papers! See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in season English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to ralph war essay, be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. In Pakistan! The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to custom writing, write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity.
Folklore credits Cyril at season in pakistan the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to earth, as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to essay in pakistan, replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in exponent 988 or 989. Essay On Autumn! Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and write existentialism, Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of essay on autumn season syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of origins essay Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of on autumn season dyfalu --strings of origins unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.
The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. On Autumn In Pakistan! The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.
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