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antigone flaw essay Some theorists define politics as who gets what, when and how. Alasdair MacIntyre defines it as civil war carried on by other means. I prefer a more hopeful definition, and lean toward Michael Oakeshott’s definition as attending to doctoral dissertations xiamen arrangements. Or, Claes Ryn’s definition—the peaceful settlement of disputes—especially since Ryn correlates politics at its best with community. Such an emphasis would require the student of politics to persuasive examine not just who gets what, but how individuals arrange things, and how each takes into consideration the others who are trying to buy a dissertations xiamen do the same. At the very least, the peaceful conduct of affairs would require some sort of agreement on capacity, the rules. Buy A Doctoral Dissertations University? To get that agreement without actual violence, participants might still use threats based on superior power (natural or supernatural), although eventually a challenge may require executing the essay friend or enemy, threat. Peaceful arrangements could also depend on deceit, bribes, persuasion and an endless variety of human tricks. The goal is to obtain sufficient agreement among enough of the individuals subject to the arrangements to give the rules stability. This is true even for political regimes based on some principle other than consent of the governed.

Failure leads to buy a doctoral dissertations xiamen chaos, rebellion, war or permanent and physical separation of contending factions. How to american and french essays attend to these arrangements and rearrangements? One choice is simply to vote, but the time-honored distrust of the tyranny of the majority would require something more. Ideally, the political community follows the advice of the buy a doctoral, wisest. But who is wisest?

Who decides who is wisest? Which decisions the wisest are to decide, which are for or enemy, individuals, which should be left to habit or custom? The difficulty in answering such questions has led many thinkers to identify deliberation as essential to the political process. Political deliberation requires listening and persuading, engaging and being engaged. Success depends, above all, on compromise. That is, it requires yielding here and there to the opposition, and winning some concession here and there in return. The greatest obstacle to this kind of deliberation is buy a doctoral university, hubris. It should be no surprise that the first to essay on science-mankind become aware of politics and identify it as a discipline—the Greeks—were also the first to doctoral dissertations university worry about hubris. As Hannah Arendt reminds us, hubris has a corresponding virtue: the old virtue of moderation, of keeping within bounds, is indeed one of the unicon capacity, political virtues par excellence, just as the political temptation par excellence is indeed hubris (as the Greeks, fully experienced in the potentialities of action, knew so well) and dissertations xiamen university, not the will to power, as we are inclined to believe. Implicit in friend or enemy, Arendt’s analysis, and in that of the Greeks, is the notion that politics is the peaceful tending to arrangements.

For those who prefer to take a cynical view, the will to power is both the chief political virtue and the chief political vice. Those who take such a view need not worry about the qualities that allow one to doctoral dissertations xiamen university engage in deliberation with others. Unicon Essay? For those who take the view adopted here, there is doctoral university, still much to be learned from the Greeks. Essay? Just as no one among the Greeks stated the case for moderation better than Aristotle, no one stated the case against hubris better than Sophocles. One might object that Sophocles did not have politics in mind, and that he presented only legendary familiar relationships. This would be selling Sophocles short, and it fails to understand how pervasive politics can be. Within the family and the clan much human action may appear to lie outside politics.

This is dissertations university, because such communities enjoy close and implicit agreement on kurt cobain thesis staement, basic premises and how they apply to most of the community’s routine. The basic arrangements are often invisible to the outsider. For the most part, tradition and habit prescribe the action the community should take. But even families and clans engage in politics. New circumstances can challenge even the most insular and tradition-bound peoples. External threats may require new or modified arrangements; new decisions must be taken. Factions spring up, discussion takes place, and politics emerges, albeit on a small scale. Even so-called primitive tribes have tribal councils and engage in extended and serious political discourse when faced with a new problem.

In larger democratic communities—those harboring individuals who differ in their fundamental approaches to living together—political discourse becomes yet more necessary, as well as more complex and more difficult. Sophocles, as I have said, was concerned with the political vice of dissertations xiamen hubris. Oedipus Rex provides the most familiar example. Upon hearing the Delphic prophecy of define assigned patricide and incest, the well-intentioned Oedipus took radical steps to thwart fate—fleeing his parents and his home in Corinth. He did well on his own in the world. Strong and cunning, he proved himself many times, most of all when he solved the riddle of the Sphinx and saved Thebes. After Oedipus became King of doctoral xiamen Thebes, Delphi spoke again, suggesting that the only way to end a severe blight plaguing Thebes was to avenge the murder of the former king, Laius.

With god-like certainty Oedipus set out to find the smoking, murderer and mete out justice. The question of who murdered Laius fades to insignificance as Oedipus’s search for truth unearths a history he never suspected, and would never want to know. The audience and all the doctoral, other characters in the play, even the blind Teiresias, see the appalling truth long before the proud and cunning Oedipus. Creon exclaims, I can see you are blind to unicon capacity truth. His mother-wife Jocasta cries, My poor child!

Those are the only words I shall ever have for you. No one has mastered dramatic irony better than Sophocles. Two frightened servants at last yield the pieces of the puzzle to Oedipus. The former Theban king, Laius, and his queen, Jocasta, also hoping to avoid the buy a university, Delphic prophecy, had abandoned their infant to die. A shepherd had rescued the child and sent him to Corinth. Oedipus killed a stranger on the highway; most likely, this was Laius. Unaware of his kinship, Oedipus claimed the widowed queen, Jocasta, as his wife. Oedipus the King believed that he could simply discover who killed Laius and essay violence, mete out appropriate justice. Hubris blinds him. When at last he sees the truth, he wishes only to be blind again. What is buy a doctoral xiamen university, Sophocles up to here?

An astute and early critic provides clues. According to Aristotle, tragedy requires, among other things, a character whom we admire greatly, but who possesses a flaw—hamartia, or some error in judgment. He falls from happiness into unicon capacity, misery as the play progresses through what is sometimes translated as serious action, action which is complete, noble, and buy a doctoral dissertations xiamen, poetical. The total effect invokes dismay and horror. Define Assigned? In the end comes the anagnorisis: the recognition or uncovering of the error. In the naive form, a hero or heroine recognizes a person or thing previously mistaken in identity, through some scar or mark or other sign. Iphegenia, for example, recognizes her brother as she is about to sacrifice him to the gods. In the buy a doctoral, more profound form of tragedy, the hero recognizes the flaw in himself and statement on banning smoking, faces it. Oedipus Rex inspired Aristotle’s theory of tragedy and exemplifies it perfectly. On seeing the truth, Oedipus gouges out his eyes.

The audience participates in the catharsis that follows. The human spirit prevails over the horror, accepts the truth and clings to a more humble bargain with fate. Oedipus gives up his determination to doctoral xiamen set the world straight and essay on science-mankind friend, accepts fate, retaining his noble qualities despite the buy a doctoral xiamen university, blows of bad fortune. The final irony may be the persuasive essay, triumph of Oedipus over fate itself, although not in a way he ever imagined. Dissertations University? We see him again, through Sophocles’s eyes, in define assigned, Oedipus at Colonus where he lives his last years in the company of buy a xiamen a loving daughter and dies a good death. Persuasive Essay On Gun? Antigone does not seem to fit the Aristotelian formula. Aristotle himself did not seem to know what to make of it. Dissertations? In the Poetica’s sole reference to the play Aristotle offers Antigone as an example of a poor plot for a tragedy. The least tragic plot, he avers, involves a character who resolves to unicon capacity essay do a fearful deed and does not do it. His example is buy a dissertations university, Haemon who seems ready to slay his father, Creon, and does not. This may be one of those rare cases where Aristotle misses the point.

First, after more than two millennia of experience with drama, one can imagine a situation where delay in capacity, doing the dread deed makes the tragedy. Nor is it clear that Haemon had resolved to doctoral dissertations kill his father; his veiled threat may have been to kill himself, an define assigned action which he finally takes. Most important, the conflict between Haemon and his father does not stir our emotions as much as the conflict swirling around Antigone. The play strikes us as a fine one—Hegel thought it was the supreme example of tragedy, prompting him to dissertations pose a different theory for the form. Hegel sees a dialectical clash between two ideals of justice.

A noble and wise Antigone fights for the justice of define assigned traditional belief, while a tyrannical Creon fights for a right based on doctoral, might. Irving Babbitt has suggested a more subtle variation of dialectic theory, hailing Antigone as the cobain, perfect example of the ethical imagination in contrast to her sister, Ismene, who knows merely the law of the community. Both Antigone and Ismene are ethical, but Ismene lacks ethical imagination. As Babbitt sees it: This law, the convention of a particular place and time, is always but a very imperfect image, a mere shadow indeed of the unwritten law which being above the ordinary rational level is . . . infinite and incapable of final formulation. While such interpretations no doubt are true—with each uncovering layers of buy a doctoral university meaning—alone they reduce Antigone to a morality play. Such interpretations fail to explain the play’s more complex and turbulent moods.

So what drives the dramatic tension in Antigone? Consider the define assigned, story anew: The two sons of Oedipus had shared the throne, alternating years as ruler. When Eteocles refused to turn over buy a doctoral xiamen, power at the end of his year, Polyneices attacked the city. Persuasive Essay Violence? The brothers died in single combat. Creon, their uncle, now king of Thebes, buried Eteocles with full honors as defender of the city.

He left the body of Polyneices to rot, unmourned, outside the gates and dissertations, decreed death to anyone who would honor the traitor with a burial. In the first lines of the play, Antigone has resolved to defy Creon’s decree. She has invited her sister to american revolution join her. Ismene has declined, recalling the family history of buy a tragic defiance of both fate and lawful order. The stage is set.

Alone, Antigone slips out and scatters funeral oil and earth over her brother’s body. Creon discovers the violation of his decree, and carries out its terms with one concession to Antigone’s position as member of the royal family. Cobain Thesis Staement? He does not execute her forthwith, but walls her up in a cave, to let the gods dispose of her as they will. In minor eddies within the play, the Aristotelian formula applies—especially to Creon, usually judged to be excessively harsh. Possibly, it also applies to Ismene, who may seem excessively timid.

Both are noble and buy a, both are flawed. Both reach a moment of truth and change course. Ismene wishes to stand by her sister’s side in essay on science-mankind friend, death. Creon softens his hard rule. But the play is not their story; Sophocles named the work Antigone. Antigone stands noblest and most heroic among all the characters, defiant of man’s rule and insisting on God’s justice. It is to her that we should look for the chief elements of the tragedy. And, if the Aristotelian formula applies, we must search for Antigone’s flaw. Doctoral University? The suggestion that Sophocles intended to present a flawed Antigone rubs against the grain.

She is the paragon. Define Assigned? The religion of the Greeks, like virtually all religions, required burial of the dead—even the enemy dead. The ancient tales in the Iliad, the bible to the Greeks, warn of the anger of the gods upon a failure to dissertations university honor the statement on banning smoking in public, dead. Besides, the restless shades of the doctoral dissertations xiamen, unburied could cause trouble. Antigone stands for all that is right and for opposition to tyranny.

Thus, we have only a play about Creon’s excessive harshness and his tragically delayed conversion. Yet, Sophocles provides a fair amount of american essays evidence that he intended to dissertations university create something more complex than a morality play. Consider first the define assigned, parallels between Antigone and Oedipus Rex. Both stories begin with a problem facing family and polis, and with the central character resolving to make things right. Antigone proceeds with unswerving resolution in her judgement of the buy a dissertations university, situation. She possesses complete confidence in her ability to kurt staement choose and execute a just action. She does not see the doctoral dissertations university, full situation; she is unicon essay, blind to key elements of the problem. She is like her father in most respects. Both Antigone and Oedipus claim to know justice with the certainty of a god. Buy A Doctoral Dissertations Xiamen University? Oedipus believes most in his cunning and on gun, strength, Antigone in her goodness. The flaw of hubris is easy to spot in doctoral dissertations university, Oedipus, but Antigone’s brilliance is so dazzling that we overlook her flaw.

After all, she has formulated a great and noble truth and maintains it with courage. She asserts God’s law over man’s law. Especially in our own time, where we formally recognize the superiority, within specified spheres, of individual right over the demands of overly broad laws, Antigone seems a genius beyond her time. Creon, by on banning in public contrast, understands the needs of the polis. Following a civil war, he has placed a premium on doctoral dissertations university, order. He will do whatever is necessary, including the on science-mankind friend, stern enforcement of harsh rules.

He faces another dilemma in his role as leader: he forbade the burial of Polyneices and decreed this harsh punishment before he was aware of Antigone’s guilt. To pardon his future daughter-in-law as his first serious act as ruler of Thebes would compromise all future claims to fairness in buy a doctoral, his rule. Yet Creon listens to the chorus of essay friend or enemy old men; he listens to the blind seer. After struggling with the issue, he reconsiders his judgment; he determines to bury the body of Polyneices and to unbury Antigone with his own hands. Antigone, on doctoral, the other hand, recognizes the demands of true justice and champions it. She spurns Ismene, who initially hesitated to assist her but soon after wished to thesis statement on banning share in university, her sister’s punishment and death. Antigone refuses the offer. When Ismene asks whether her sister has cast her aside, Antigone’s answer ignores Ismene’s change of heart: Yes.

For you chose to capacity live when I chose death. Dissertations? Antigone seems to speak not to spare Ismene, but to wound her to the quick. Unicon Essay? Antigone leaves Haemon, her betrothed, in the cold, as she left Ismene. She never seeks him out, nor even mentions his name.1 Yet Haemon is ready to buy a dissertations university defy his father for Antigone’s sake, and he refuses to live without her. Ironically, this may be what he must do to win her affection, for Antigone reveals no tenderness for anyone except those already dead. Despite the solicitous love of Ismene and the fierce love of unicon capacity Haemon, Antigone complains of being alone and friendless: I call upon Thebes’ grove in the armored plain, to dissertations xiamen be my witnesses, how with no friend’s mourning, by what decree I go to the fresh-made prison-tomb. She compares her fate to essay on gun Niobe’s—alluding to the stone image weeping on a cliff near Thebes.

Significantly, Antigone overlooks the buy a dissertations xiamen university, fact that hubris destroyed Niobe. Niobe had boasted that her six (in some versions seven) sons and six (or seven) daughters made her the essay friend or enemy, equal of the goddess Leto, mother of buy a doctoral dissertations xiamen university Apollo and Artemis. Apollo and Artemis took offense on on science-mankind friend, hearing of this interesting assertion of quantity over quality. They resolved the issue by killing the hapless children and turning Niobe to stone. The chorus, often the truth-sayer for doctoral university, Sophocles, provides more clues. Of Antigone, they tell us: The girl is bitter. She’s her father’s child. She cannot yield to trouble; nor could he. Essay On Gun? In perhaps the most revealing exchange, the chorus turns to Antigone and tells her, plainly: You showed respect for the dead. So we for you: but power. is not to be thwarted so.

Your self-sufficiency has brought you down. The last line is buy a xiamen, key: se d autognwtoV wles orga . The above quotation is from Wyckoff’s translation. But all translations seem to head in the same direction: A self-determined impulse hath undone thee (Campbell). You were self-willed. That has been your undoing (Townsend). And thee, thy stubborn mood, self-chosen, layeth low (students of the University of Notre Dame, 1983). In any translation, it seems the chorus has identified Antigone’s flaw. She follows a truth that springs only from her self: It is autognwtoV , or autognotos. She will not consult with others. We could call it self-certainty or, perhaps even better, self-righteousness. It is a form of define assigned hubris.

At another point, the chorus tells Antigone she is autonomos. Literally, this means a law unto yourself. The English word autonomy does not convey quite the right meaning, as individual autonomy was a condition the Greeks viewed with discomfort and suspicion. The autonomous being is either beast or god, living only within the horizons of its own laws. Most English translators of Antigone do not choose to place unfavorable connotations on the word. Doctoral Dissertations University? They tend to choose softer terms to define assigned describe the self-certain heroine. The best rendering is xiamen, probably from Wyckoff, who translates it as of your own motion you go. And French Essays? Antigone is the lone individual, refusing to sway or be swayed by any in the community.

She is doctoral dissertations university, autognotos and autonomos. For Antigone, both knowledge and judgment are an individual affair. Rather than see any flaw or limitation in her own understanding, Antigone only becomes more extreme in her certainty. Those who would make her a saint should reconsider her lack of perspective: And yet the wise will know my choice was right. Had I had children or their father dead, I’d let them moulder. I should not have chosen. in such a case to cross the state’s decree. What is the on banning smoking in public, law that lies behind these words? One husband gone, I might have found another, or a child from doctoral, a new man in the first child’s place, but with my parents hid away in death, no brother, ever, could spring up for me. Antigone has a single mission which excludes all else. She is also fully self-centered: Look, leaders of Thebes, I am the last of your royal line.

These final words deny the existence of the still-living Ismene. The movement of the drama follows that of Oedipus Rex with respect to most elements of the Aristotelian formulae. It deviates only in the continued blindness of Antigone. The stage shifts to Creon, who also suffers from hubris, or self-certainty, but who sees his error. It is and french essays, difficult to buy a doctoral identify any such clear moment of truth for Antigone. Or perhaps hamartia is not a key element of the Greek tragedy. Aristotle spoke of on science-mankind or enemy it only rarely (book 13: 1453a, 10, 16); nor did he emphasize the discovery of the error. On the other hand, the lyrical playwright Maxwell Anderson believes the notion is essentially correct; he believes one can find a recognition scene, if ever so subtle, in the plays we choose to buy a doctoral university remember. Perhaps the Aristotelian formula can encompass a shift from essay or enemy, one character to another. Or perhaps Antigone’s moment comes in these words as she nears her end: No marriage-bed, no marriage song for me, and since no wedding, so no child to rear. She begins to doctoral university understand that she has fallen victim to her own hubris.

She hints at the possibility that she may be wrong in some way. One must acknowledge, however, that she dismisses the idea at once. She ends on a harsh and vengeful note: But if it is the others who are wrong. I wish them no greater punishment than mine. Define Assigned? Our last view of her on buy a, stage comes as her guards lead her away. The chorus reminds her of three examples in which those imprisoned within the earth forbeared and ultimately survived their rocky prisons. She will pay no attention to their advice. Neither forbearance nor the ability to take advice is american and french essays, among her virtues.

Sophocles has told the story of both father and doctoral university, daughter, and more than once the chorus compares the two, in particular, their temper, their stubbornness, and their individuality. Both are strong; both self-certain. Both stories construct similar tensions—between rival claims of justice; between individual and familial claims and the needs of the american and french, polis; between human striving and human weakness; between human individual conscience and human communal judgment; between seeing and blindness. Sophocles created works that balance tensions in many dimensions. Doctoral Dissertations Xiamen University? Each drama is different, of course. The tragedy of Oedipus seems unavoidable. Political deliberation would not have helped him much; the drama serves only to reveal the extent to which hubris can blind one to the truth. Define Assigned? Antigone, on the other hand, might have avoided her tragic fate had she paid attention to and entered into discussion with others. To remain tragic, her story depended on a weak and buy a, inadequate recognition of her own failing. While they plainly ask what is justice?, the essay on science-mankind or enemy, tragedies of Sophocles also ask the yet more difficult question, how do we know it? If Sophocles is right, there is something to learn from Antigone’s fate.

When it comes to seeing the issues surrounding our understanding of justice, Creon may have something to offer after all. He believes justice requires him to give priority to the order of the polis, overruling individual judgments based on doctoral university, conscience. He believes in equal application of the laws, with no exceptions for the royal family. He is at least partly wrong, by the judgment of most. Yet, he is ready to discuss the issue, to listen, to question, to entertain self-doubt. Although he believes that in a time of emergency the order of the polis may require harsh punishment for define assigned, those who create disturbance, he is willing to reconsider. He listens to buy a university the chorus, to Teiresias, to others; and, although he seems adamant at times, he changes his mind. With his own hands he will unearth Antigone and bury the essay, body of university Polyneices. Antigone, on essay friend, the other hand, has found a higher justice. Most commentators agree that she is right.

But she will not discuss her judgment; she remains unyielding. She never doubts the wisdom of her course. She isolates herself. She acts under the illusion that only she is able to doctoral xiamen grasp the meaning of higher justice. She can only conclude that she does not belong in this world, which so misunderstands the nature of right action. Antigone’s self-certainty and self-isolation cut short all possibilities for full deliberation. Yet full deliberation was needed to persuade Creon to change his mind. Had Antigone not isolated herself from her sister, Ismene would have stood by her side. Had she sought out Haemon, she would have had another ally.

It seems likely that Eurydice, Haemon’s mother and Creon’s wife, would have joined the children’s revolt. She did register her objection to friend events in the end, through suicide. Had Antigone been ready to engage in doctoral xiamen, politics, Creon would find himself facing the open opposition of all whom he loved. Define Assigned? He has the dissertations xiamen, capacity, as we know from his actions in the play, to yield. Antigone’s belief that she and only she understood justice and how it must apply in the particular situation before her left her with no choice but martyrdom. If she had only some portion of self-doubt, she may have waited just a few moments before her suicide. In that event, Haemon would have rescued her. Statement In Public? Had she waited a few moments more, Creon would have done so.

A happy ending required her to consider the position of others, to adjust to their views, and to hold her individual judgment of justice with some humility. It required an Antigone who could anticipate the gradual acceptance of xiamen university her position by those around her. Her self-certainty brought her down. If all human beings suffer from short-sightedness, there is no certain source for a human grasp of truth. Define Assigned? The best humans can do is to share insights in the hope of gaining a larger view of truth.

The search for truth requires each to talk and consult with others, even such as come short . . . in capacity, quickness and penetration; for . . . no one sees all and we generally have different prospects of the same thing according to our different . . Xiamen? . positions to it.2 It is no accident that the essay or enemy, author of these words, John Locke, was a leading advocate of buy a xiamen university government by consent. His remarks formalize the american revolution, idea that mutual consultation is needed before formulating a vision of justice and choosing the buy a doctoral xiamen, right action for each particular case. Antigone’s flaw—the flaw of self-certainty—is the chief obstacle to this kind of deliberation. I probably do not need to essay on gun violence draw attention to the fact that politics in our time suffers from the same flaw. True believers, religious or secular, seek to replace deliberative politics with eternal principles. Such persons admit of just one right answer. Premises are beyond questioning. Defining political questions as exclusively governed by immutable principles of right eliminates all need for buy a xiamen university, further, often troublesome debate. Only the american, process of arriving at conclusions—whether the right principle was applied—can be questioned. It is easy to spot Antigone’s flaw in the character of an antagonist one believes to be dead wrong.

The rational mind easily identifies religious fundamentalists as blinded by self-righteousness. This same rational thinker may fail to perceive his own blind spots. Antigone’s flaw has a subtle quality. She has indeed discovered a great truth. We must agree with her.

We must admire her. We identify with her. Her story reminds us, however, of how difficult it is to recognize hubris in our heroes or in ourselves. Upon the discovery of a certain truth, there is a great temptation to believe one has access to all truth. To say it in traditional religious terms, it is a weakness of human beings to buy a doctoral dissertations xiamen university believe that, once they have access to define assigned one of God’s truths, they know the full mind of God. From here it becomes ever so easy to mistake one’s own will for the will of doctoral xiamen university God. Most true believers tend to enlarge their premises, leaving little to deduction. If one has determined that a particular action, and only that action, is the right thing to unicon capacity essay do, there is no choice but to take it, or to enter the realm of the immoral. Action based on doctoral dissertations xiamen university, such unquestioned belief lies beyond the realm of politics. I once suggested to a participant in what might be described as secular and left-leaning politics that a few leaders from that person’s organization hold a quiet, unpublicized retreat with selected leaders who are religious and right-leaning on on science-mankind, an issue of common concern: the public school curriculum. The response was, Whatever for?!

If I understand Sophocles correctly, such abrupt closing of the opportunity for conversation could lead to a contemporary tragedy. Buy A Xiamen University? If an individual as brilliant and noble as Antigone can succumb to hubris, anyone can. Antigone pursued goodness with a singular insight and courage. Discovering a flaw in a near-perfect character suggests a universal human weakness. Antigone’s flaw is a special kind of hubris that afflicts those who possess the greatest insights. Political modesty requires a recognition that one individual or group alone is likely to come up short in on gun violence, the search for doctoral xiamen, truth: something is left out which should go into the reckoning . . . Capacity Essay? . No one knows the whole truth, although each may know a part of buy a xiamen it. All human beings are shortsighted and very often see but one side of a matter . . . . From this defect . Thesis Statement Smoking In Public? . . no man is free. We see but in buy a xiamen, part and we know but in part, and in public, therefore it is no wonder we conclude not right from our partial views.3 Antigone’s flaw may be the plague of our times. *Patricia M. Lines, former Director of the Law and buy a, Education Center at the Education Commission of the States, is a Senior Fellow at the Discovery Institute and a Research Associate at unicon essay the U.S.

Department of Education's National Institute of Student Achievement. [Back] 1 There is one line that some translators, such as Townsend, attribute to Antigone that mentions Haemon, perhaps to soften her one-sidedness. Antigone , line 572: Poor Haemon! See how much your father cares. Wyckoff notes, however, that all extant Greek sources give the line to buy a doctoral dissertations xiamen university Ismene. Creon responds to the comment with a reference to thesis on banning in public your marriage which provides some argument for attributing the line to Antigone, but, as Wyckoff points out, Creon’s remark could mean the marriage of which you speak.

Wyckoff ed., 227. [Back] 2 John Locke, Of the Conduct of the Understanding § 3 (iii) .[Back] 3 Of the Conduct of the Understanding § 3 (iii). Buy A Doctoral University? [Back]

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How to Write a Good English Essay. Interesting little-known tips for how to write a better English Literature essay. How do you write a good English Literature essay? Although to an extent this depends on the particular subject you’re writing about, and on the nature of the question your essay is attempting to answer, there are a few general guidelines for how to write a convincing essay – just as there are a few guidelines for buy a doctoral dissertations xiamen university, writing well in any field. We at Interesting Literature call them ‘guidelines’ because we hesitate to use the word ‘rules’, which seems too programmatic. And as the writing habits of successful authors demonstrate, there is no one way to become a good writer – of essays, novels, poems, or whatever it is you’re setting out to write. The French writer Colette liked to begin her writing day by picking the fleas off her cat.

Edith Sitwell, by all accounts, liked to lie in an open coffin before she began her day’s writing. Friedrich von Schiller kept rotten apples in his desk, claiming he needed the scent of define assigned their decay to help him write. (For most student essay-writers, such an aroma is probably allowed to buy a doctoral dissertations arise in the writing-room more organically, over time.) We will address our suggestions for successful essay-writing to the average student of English Literature, whether at university or school level. There are many ways to approach the task of american revolution essay-writing, and these are just a few pointers for how to write a better English essay – and some of these pointers may also work for other disciplines and subjects, too. Of course, these guidelines are designed to be of buy a dissertations interest to the non-essay-writer too – people who have an interest in persuasive essay on gun violence the craft of writing in general. If this describes you, we hope you enjoy the list as well. Remember, though, everyone can find writing difficult: as Thomas Mann memorably put it, ‘A writer is someone for whom writing is xiamen, more difficult than it is for other people.’ Nora Ephron was briefer: ‘I think the hardest thing about writing is writing.’ So, the guidelines for successful essay-writing: 1. Planning is important, but don’t spend too long perfecting a structure that might end up changing. This may seem like odd advice to kick off with, but the truth is that different approaches work for persuasive essay on gun violence, different students and doctoral dissertations university, essayists. You need to find out which method works best for you.

It’s not a bad idea, regardless of unicon capacity whether you’re a big planner or not, to sketch out perhaps a few points on a sheet of buy a doctoral university paper before you start, but don’t be surprised if you end up moving away from it slightly – or considerably – when you start to define assigned write. Often the most extensively planned essays are the most mechanistic and dull in execution, precisely because the dissertations, writer has drawn up a plan and refused to deviate from it. Unicon? What is a more valuable skill is to be able to buy a xiamen sense when your argument may be starting to go off-topic, or your point is getting out of hand, as you write . (For help on this, see point 5 below.) We might even say that when it comes to kurt knowing how to write a good English Literature essay, practising is dissertations university, more important than planning. 2. Make room for persuasive on gun, close analysis of the text, or texts. Whilst it’s true that some first-class or A-grade essays will be impressive without containing any close reading as such, most of the highest-scoring and most sophisticated essays tend to zoom in on the text and examine its language and imagery closely in the course of the argument. (Close reading of literary texts arises from theology and the analysis of holy scripture, but really became a ‘thing’ in literary criticism in the early twentieth century, when T. S. Eliot, F. R. Leavis, William Empson, and other influential essayists started to subject the poem or novel to close scrutiny.) Close reading has two distinct advantages: it increases the xiamen, specificity of your argument (so you can’t be so easily accused of generalising a point), and it improves your chances of pointing up something about the text which none of the other essays your marker is on science-mankind friend, reading will have said. For instance, take In Memoriam (1850), which is doctoral dissertations university, a long Victorian poem by the poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson about his grief following the death of essay on science-mankind or enemy his close friend, Arthur Hallam, in the early 1830s. Dissertations University? When answering a question about the representation of religious faith in thesis smoking in public Tennyson’s poem In Memoriam (1850), how might you write a particularly brilliant essay about this theme? Anyone can make a general point about the poet’s crisis of faith; but to look closely at dissertations xiamen university, the language used gives you the chance to show how the poet portrays this. For instance, consider this stanza, which conveys the poet’s doubt: A solid and essay friend, perfectly competent essay might cite this stanza in support of the claim that Tennyson is finding it increasingly difficult to have faith in God (following the doctoral university, untimely and senseless death of his friend, Arthur Hallam). But there are several ways of then doing something more with it.

For instance, you might get close to the poem’s imagery, and show how Tennyson conveys this idea, through the image of the ‘altar-stairs’ associated with religious worship and the idea of the stairs leading ‘thro’ darkness’ towards God. In other words, Tennyson sees faith as a matter of groping through the darkness, trusting in God without having evidence that he is there. If you like, it’s a matter of ‘blind faith’. That would be a good reading. Now, here’s how to essay on gun make a good English essay on university, this subject even better: one might look at how the word ‘falter’ – which encapsulates Tennyson’s stumbling faith – disperses into ‘falling’ and ‘altar’ in the succeeding lines. Essays? The word ‘falter’, we might say, itself falters or falls apart. Dissertations Xiamen? That is essay on gun, doing more than just interpreting the words: it’s being a highly careful reader of the poetry and buy a doctoral university, showing how attentive to the language of the revolution essays, poetry you can be – all the while answering the question, about how the poem portrays the idea of faith. Buy A Dissertations Xiamen University? So, read and then reread the text you’re writing about – and be sensitive to such nuances of statement on banning language and style.

The best way to dissertations xiamen become attuned to such nuances is revealed in capacity essay point 5. We might summarise this point as follows: when it comes to knowing how to write a persuasive English Literature essay, it’s one thing to have a broad and overarching argument, but don’t be afraid to use the microscope as well as the telescope. 3. Buy A Dissertations Xiamen? Provide several pieces of evidence where possible. Many essays have a point to make and staement, make it, tacking on a single piece of evidence from the buy a doctoral university, text (or from beyond the text, e.g. a critical, historical, or biographical source) in the hope that this will be enough to make the point convincing. ‘State, quote, explain’ is the Holy Trinity of the Paragraph for many. What’s wrong with it? For one thing, this approach is too formulaic and basic for many arguments. Is one quotation enough to support a point? It’s often a matter of degree, and although one piece of essay evidence is better than none, two or three pieces will be even more persuasive.

After all, in a court of law a single eyewitness account won’t be enough to buy a xiamen university convict the unicon, accused of the crime, and buy a, even a confession from the accused would carry more weight if it comes supported by other, objective evidence (e.g. DNA, fingerprints, and so on). Let’s go back to the example about Tennyson’s faith in his poem In Memoriam mentioned above. Perhaps you don’t find the end of the poem convincing – when the define assigned, poet claims to doctoral xiamen have rediscovered his Christian faith and to have overcome his grief at cobain thesis staement, the loss of his friend. You can find examples from the end of the poem to suggest your reading of the poet’s insincerity may have validity, but looking at doctoral xiamen, sources beyond the poem – e.g. Kurt Cobain Staement? a good edition of the text, which will contain biographical and critical information – may help you to find a clinching piece of evidence to support your reading. And, sure enough, Tennyson is reported to doctoral dissertations xiamen have said of friend or enemy In Memoriam : ‘It’s too hopeful, this poem, more than I am myself.’ And there we have it: much more convincing than simply positing your reading of the poem with a few ambiguous quotations from the xiamen university, poem itself. Of course, this rule also works in define assigned reverse: if you want to argue, for instance, that T. University? S. Eliot‘s The Waste Land is overwhelmingly inspired by the poet’s unhappy marriage to his first wife, then using a decent biographical source makes sense – but if you didn’t show evidence for this idea from the poem itself (see point 2), all you’ve got is a vague, general link between the poet’s life and his work. Show how the unicon essay, poet’s marriage is reflected in buy a doctoral the work, e.g. through men and women’s relationships throughout the poem being shown as empty, soulless, and unhappy. In other words, when setting out to write a good English essay about any text, don’t be afraid to pile on friend or enemy, the evidence – though be sensible, a handful of doctoral dissertations quotations or examples should be more than enough to statement on banning smoking make your point convincing. 4. Avoid tentative or speculative phrasing.

Many essays tend to suffer from the above problem of a lack of evidence, so the doctoral, point fails to convince. This has a knock-on effect: often the american, student making the point doesn’t sound especially convinced by buy a dissertations xiamen it either. This leaks out in the telling use of, and reliance on, certain uncertain phrases: ‘Tennyson might have’ or ‘perhaps Harper Lee wrote this to portray’ or ‘it can be argued that’. An English university professor used to write in thesis on banning smoking the margins of an essay which used this last phrase, ‘What can’t be argued?’ This is a fair criticism: anything can be argued (badly), but it depends on what evidence you can bring to bear on dissertations, it (point 3) as to unicon capacity whether it will be a persuasive argument. (Arguing that the plays of buy a university Shakespeare were written by a Martian who came down to Earth and ingratiated himself with the thesis staement, world of Elizabethan theatre is a theory that can be argued, though few would take it seriously. We wish we could say ‘none’, but that’s a story for another day.) Many essay-writers, because they’re aware that texts are often open-ended and invite multiple interpretations (as almost all great works of literature invariably do), think that writing ‘it can be argued’ acknowledges the doctoral dissertations, text’s rich layering of meaning and is therefore valid. Whilst this is certainly a fact – texts are open-ended and can be read in persuasive essay on gun violence wildly different ways – the phrase ‘it can be argued’ is best used sparingly if at all. It should be taken as true that your interpretation is, at xiamen, bottom, probably unprovable. What would it mean to ‘prove’ a reading as correct, anyway? Because you found evidence that the author intended the on science-mankind, same thing as you’ve argued of their text?

Tennyson wrote in a letter, ‘I wrote In Memoriam because…’? But the author might have lied about it (e.g. in an attempt to dissuade people from buy a university looking too much into their private life), or they might have changed their mind (to go back to the example of revolution essays The Waste Land : T. Buy A Doctoral University? S. Eliot championed the idea of poetic impersonality in an essay of 1919, but years later he described The Waste Land as ‘only the relief of a personal and wholly insignificant grouse against life’ – hardly impersonal, then). Texts – and their writers – can often be contradictory, or cagey about their meaning. But we as critics have to act responsibly when writing about literary texts in any good English essay or exam answer. Unicon Essay? We need to argue honestly, and sincerely – and buy a doctoral dissertations xiamen university, not use what Wikipedia calls ‘weasel words’ or hedging expressions. So, if nothing is utterly provable, all that remains is to make the strongest possible case you can with the evidence available. You do this, not only unicon capacity essay through marshalling the doctoral university, evidence in an effective way, but by writing in a confident voice when making your case.

Fundamentally, ‘There is evidence to suggest that’ says more or less the same thing as ‘It can be argued’, but it foregrounds the thesis on banning, evidence rather than the argument, so is preferable as a phrase. This point might be summarised by doctoral dissertations saying: the best way to essay violence write a good English Literature essay is to be honest about the reading you’re putting forward, so you can be confident in your interpretation and use clear, bold language. (‘Bold’ is good, but don’t get too cocky, of course…) 5. Read the work of dissertations other critics. This might be viewed as the Holy Grail of good essay-writing tips, since it is perhaps the single most effective way to improve your own writing. Even if you’re writing an essay as part of school coursework rather than a university degree, and don’t need to research other critics for your essay, it’s worth finding a good writer of literary criticism and reading their work. Why is this worth doing? Published criticism has at least one thing in its favour, at least if it’s published by an academic press or has appeared in an academic journal, and that is american and french essays, that it’s most probably been peer-reviewed, meaning that other academics have read it, closely studied its argument, checked it for errors or inaccuracies, and helped to ensure that it is expressed in a fluent, clear, and effective way. If you’re serious about finding out how to write a better English essay, then you need to study how successful writers in the genre do it. And essay-writing is a genre, the doctoral dissertations, same as novel-writing or poetry. But why will reading criticism help you? Because the define assigned, critics you read can show you how to do all of the above: how to present a close reading of a poem, how to advance an argument that is not speculative or tentative yet not over-confident, how to use evidence from the text to doctoral dissertations university make your argument more persuasive.

And, the more you read of other critics – a page a night, say, over define assigned, a few months – the better you’ll get. It’s like textual osmosis: a little bit of their style will rub off on buy a, you, and every writer learns by the examples of other writers. As T. S. Eliot himself said, ‘The poem which is absolutely original is absolutely bad.’ Don’t get precious about in public your own distinctive writing style and become afraid you’ll lose it. You can’t gain a truly original style before you’ve looked at buy a doctoral dissertations university, other people’s and worked out what you like and what you can ‘steal’ for your own ends. We say ‘steal’, but this is not the same as saying that plagiarism is okay, of course. Essays? But consider this example. You read an accessible book on buy a doctoral xiamen university, Shakespeare’s language and the author makes a point about rhymes in statement smoking Shakespeare. When you’re working on doctoral dissertations xiamen university, your essay on the poetry of essay friend or enemy Christina Rossetti, you notice a similar use of rhyme, and remember the xiamen, point made by the Shakespeare critic. This is not plagiarising a point but applying it independently to another writer.

It shows independent interpretive skills and an ability to understand and apply what you have read. This is another of the advantages of reading critics, so this would be our final piece of advice for learning how to write a good English essay: find a critic whose style you like, and study their craft. If you’re looking for suggestions, we can recommend a few favourites: Christopher Ricks, whose The Force of Poetry is a tour de force; Jonathan Bate, whose The Genius of american essays Shakespeare , although written for a general rather than academic audience, is buy a, written by a leading Shakespeare scholar and academic; and essay on gun, Helen Gardner, whose The Art of T. S. Eliot , whilst dated (it came out in 1949), is a wonderfully lucid and articulate analysis of Eliot’s poetry. James Wood’s How Fiction Works is also a fine example of lucid prose and how to close-read literary texts. Buy A Doctoral Xiamen? Doubtless readers of Interesting Literature will have their own favourites to suggest in the comments, so do check those out, as these are just three personal favourites. What’s your favourite work of literary scholarship/criticism? Suggestions please. Much of all this may strike you as common sense, but even the most commonsensical advice can go out of persuasive on gun violence your mind when you have a piece of doctoral university coursework to unicon write, or an exam to revise for.

We hope these suggestions help to remind you of some of the key tenets of good essay-writing practice – though remember, these aren’t so much commandments as recommendations. No one can ‘tell’ you how to write a good English Literature essay as such. And remember, be interesting – find the things in the poems or plays or novels which really ignite your enthusiasm. As John Mortimer said, ‘The only buy a dissertations xiamen rule I have found to have any validity in persuasive writing is not to bore yourself.’ Finally, good luck – and happy writing!

Image (top): A child writing with a pen (2013, author: Mummelgrummel), Wikimedia Commons. Image (top middle): A Stipula fountain pen lying on a written piece of paper (2011, author: Antonio Litterio), Wikimedia Commons. Image (bottom middle): Writer (19th century, author Leonid Pasternak), Wikimedia Commons. Image (bottom): Cat with Book (Danny Ayers, 2004), Wikimedia Commons. You must have taken AP Literature. I’m always saying these same points to doctoral dissertations university my students. I also think a crucial part of excellent essay writing that too many students do not realize is that not every point or interpretation needs to thesis statement on banning smoking be addressed. When offered the chance to write your interpretation of buy a xiamen university a work of smoking in public literature, it is important to note that there of course are many but your essay should choose one and focus evidence on this one view rather than attempting to buy a doctoral dissertations university include all views and essay friend or enemy, evidence to back up each view. Not a bad effort…not at all! (Did you intend “subject” instead of doctoral “object” in numbered paragraph two, line seven?” Oops!

I did indeed – many thanks for spotting. Duly corrected ;) That’s what comes of writing about philosophy and the subject/object for another post at the same time! All of these are very good points – especially I like 2 and 5. I’d like to read the essay on the Martian who wrote Shakespeare’s plays). Reblogged this on Uniqely Mustered and commented: Dedicate this to all upcoming writers and kurt thesis, lovers of Writing!

I shall take this as my New Year boost in Writing Essays. Please try to visit often for corrections,advise and criticisms. All very good points, but numbers 2 and 4 are especially interesting. Reblogged this on DISTINCT CHARACTER and commented: Reblogged this on quirkywritingcorner and commented: This could be applied to novel or short story writing as well.

Reblogged this on rosetech67 and commented: Useful, albeit maybe a bit late for me :-) such a nice pieace of content you shared in dissertations xiamen this write up about american and french “How to Write a Good English Essay” going to share on another useful resource that is.

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Under this section, the writer writes the theories and basic description of the selected variables. Also, the author describes the basic concepts and theories of the accounting and the selected topics in this section. However, if the author fails to unicon capacity, find the theories of the selected articles, his paper is not complete and can be rejected by this reason even if all the things are in appropriate manner. In this portion of the chapter, the author seeks enough empirical or quantitative research past papers to provide evidence of his study and to support the buy a doctoral dissertations xiamen, problems statement that the thesis on banning smoking, gap which the author find is originally existing and therefore, the doctoral, author had to choose this topic. On Banning Smoking! Moreover, this chapter and specially this section of buy a dissertations university, Chapter 2 is the longest section of the whole dissertation since, this section requires almost 20-30 pieces of evidence with similar variables to prove the problem statement.

The most crucial chapter in the whole thesis, since, in this chapter the author has to describe and give full information about the Conceptual Framework, Research Model, Population of Study, Sample size, Research Technique, mode of Data collection and research hypothesis. It is the basic idea of the composition of dependent and independent variables, and also this section includes controlling variables if any. Moreover, in the conceptual framework the author has to mention clearly that which accounting factor has been choosing as the unicon essay, Dependent variable and what factors of accounting will be the independent variables and what will be the buy a xiamen university, control variables if any, afterward, a diagram shows the whole model and justify the statements. This section shows the mathematical equation and the composition of the research model through mathematical expression. However, this mathematical equation supports the conceptual framework and show how the author will apply the research technique on the data. Moreover, this equation justifies the composition of the Dependent and persuasive essay on gun violence, Independent variables. Under this portion the buy a dissertations xiamen, analyst describes the technique(s) which will be used in statement on banning in public the dissertation and also support the written technique(s) with past accounting papers. Moreover, this section shows the names of the buy a dissertations xiamen university, selected technique(s) and their effectiveness as well.

Shows the sector, industry, arena or other population on which the analyst want to essay violence, conduct the study for buy a doctoral xiamen example cement industry, FMCG industry, Food and Beverage Industry, etc. This section comprises of the techniques which will be used in the collection of the data Moreover, this means that in american essays this section the author writes that how he will collect the data either from internet resources, questionnaires, etc. moreover, in this sections the author also clarifies that the data would either be Primary or secondary. Generally, in accounting dissertations, secondary data is buy a xiamen university used. This includes the define assigned, number of respondents either regarding companies regarding secondary data while it could be concerning people regarding primary data. But the focus of this section should be towards the size of the sample in numbers. This is the most important section of doctoral xiamen university, this chapter since, the application techniques depend on upon the composition of hypothesis and if the hypothesis of any accounting dissertation are not appropriate the whole could be wasted, therefore, this section shows the claims of the researcher as per the literature and base papers and afterwards, the analyst transform those claims into hypothesis. Results and Interpretations. This chapter shows the results of all the essay, tests and techniques which have been used in the analysis. These techniques may be the correlation, regression, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, and doctoral dissertations xiamen university, so on.

This chapter only shows different results found from persuasive violence, different techniques. Conclusion, Limitations and Future Recommendations. In this chapter the xiamen, analyst first concludes the whole study and make discussions by analyzing the results of different authors for similar variables afterward, the author repeats the highlighted results and compare them with other authors’ results and give references. After that the author describes the limitations of the study it could be regarding data, resources, etc. and finally, the writer recommends some precautions and suggestion for researchers to prevent them from essay, ineffectiveness and to make those mistakes and error which he made during the study. Finally, from the ingredients of an Accounting Dissertation, it can be seen that how to write a wonderful accounting dissertation and what are the factors which are very crucial for the thesis. Moreover, it has also discussed in the study that what factors should be analyzed and studied by giving proper attention to them. Buy A Doctoral Dissertations! In the next section, the define assigned, analyst has given some potential area of interest for the accounting dissertation which can be used to write a new dissertation. Major Areas of Accounting Dissertation.

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Doing so, many educators argue, increases the likelihood of a quality product. Define Assigned! Kathleen Montgomery, in her article “Authentic Tasks And Rubrics: Going Beyond Traditional Assessments In College Teaching,” contends that traditional assessment practices used to grade papers, for xiamen example, are not helpful to the students struggling to write the paper: “The instructor’s comments on papers and tests are done after rather than before the on gun, writing, so they cannot serve as guidelines, compromising the value of writing comments at all.” Moreover, rubrics can help the buy a xiamen university, student with self-assessment; what is most important here is not the final product the american and french essays, students produce, but the habits of mind practiced in the act of self-assessment. However, for the student to successfully use a rubric this way, the dissertations xiamen university, criteria must be made clear to them and the jargon used must not only be understandable to the student but also be linked specifically to classroom instruction. Some educators advocate going beyond merely sharing rubrics with students. Rick Stiggins, of the Assessment Training Institute, contends that we ought to illicit student input when constructing rubrics: “Perhaps the greatest potential value of classroom assessment is realized when we open the assessment process up and welcome students into that process as full partners” (qtd. in Skillings and Ferrell). Friend Or Enemy! When students are full partners in the assessment process, as Mary Jo Skillings and Robin Ferrel illustrate in their study on university, student-generated rubrics, they tend to “think more deeply about their learning.” In any case, withholding assessment tools (whether they are rubrics or more nebulous modes of evaluation) from students is not only unfair and makes self-assessment more difficult, it maintains the traditional gap between what the teacher knows and essay on science-mankind friend or enemy, what the student knows.

When instructors do not explicitly delineate the qualities of thought that they are looking for doctoral dissertations xiamen while grading, they reduce learning to a hit or miss endeavor, where “assessment remains an isolated […] activity and the success of the learner is mostly incidental” (Montgomery). The result is many students struggle blindly, especially non-traditional, unsuccessful, or under-prepared students, who tend to miss many of the implied expectations of a college instructor, expectations that better prepared, traditional students readily internalize. As both institutional enrollment needs and social pressures for access raise the need of remediation (Soliday), rubrics become increasingly important to student success. Gisselle O. Martin-Kneep, in “Standards, Feedback, and Diversified Assessment: Addressing Equity Issues at the Classroom Level,” reports that extensive use of statement smoking in public, rubrics can help minimize students’ educational disparities and bring fairness into assessment on numerous levels: “In short, explicit performance criteria, along with supporting models of work, make it possible for students to use the attributes of exemplary work to monitor their own performance.” The argument against buy a dissertations xiamen university, using rubrics. While many educators make a compelling argument for sharing rubrics with students, others worry that doing so will encourage formulaic writing. That “rubric” is listed in most thesauruses as a synonym for “formula” does nothing to dismantle such fears. Well-designed rubrics, though, should not do this; unfortunately, most state issued rubrics used in secondary school standardized testing are poorly designed rubrics that list specific static elements encouraging students to simply make sure their essays have those features.

A rubric that tells students, as a typical example, that they will get an A for essay writing a 1000 word essay that “cites x number of sources and supports its thesis with at least three arguments” will lead students to perceive writing as a kind of “paint-by-number” endeavor (Mathews). The rubric debate has even made the popular news—not the buy a doctoral xiamen, prime time news, of course, but an article in the Washington Post , “Writing By the essay on science-mankind or enemy, Rules No Easy Task,” the publication of which reveals both how widely rubrics are used in standardized testing and how concerned educators are about doctoral xiamen, their potential to harm students learning. In the Washington Post article, Kenneth Bernstein, a high school social studies teacher “acknowledges that ‘some rubrics are dumb.’” He recounts, I once gave extra credit to a student who realized that without providing a shred of and french revolution essays, meaningful content she could meet all the requirements of buy a dissertations, a state writing rubric he posted in his classroom. As required she used the word “persuade” and essay on science-mankind friend or enemy, two synonyms, composed a clear topic sentence and closing sentence, and made no spelling or grammatical errors.

But she did it without saying anything coherent. Moreover, some teachers have noticed how students who were good writers become wooden when writing under the influence of a rubric. Dona Patrick, an elementary school teacher noticed that while her sixth grade students did well on their state writing test, those students who had been natural writers, those students who had “stylistic voices full of humor and surprises, produced less interesting essays when they followed the rules [as outlined in a rubric]” (Mathews). Similarly, Heidi Andrade, in her study, “The Effects of buy a dissertations university, Rubrics on persuasive, Learning to Write,” has found that, while rubrics increased her students’ knowledge of the grading criteria and helped most of buy a dissertations xiamen, her students (especially the young male students) do well on the state writing test, many of the on gun, young female students, who had been more expressive in previous writing assignments, wrote poorly when writing, as we might say, to the rubric . More conceptually, critics claim that rubrics, in effect, dehumanize the doctoral dissertations university, act of writing. According to Thomas Newkirk, an English professor at the University of New Hampshire, “rubrics promote ‘mechanical instruction in writing’ that bypasses ‘the human act of composing and the human gesture of response’” (Mathews). Capacity Essay! This overly scientific view of writing, Newkirk and others argue, stunts the learning process. Moreover, Judith Halden-Sullivan sees a disconnect between the learning goals of Writing Across the Curriculum programs and the rubrics often designed to assess that learning. Assessment of this sort seems at buy a dissertations xiamen university, odds with such concepts as “deep learning,” which implies a kind of learning that is beyond measurement, an elusive hard to describe enlightenment, but identifiable in kurt thesis staement, the same way good art is: teachers know deep learning when they see it. Rubrics, Halden-Sullivan contends, reduce “deep learning” to “checksheets.” However, these critics of rubrics, while their critiques should be considered, mistake the design of specific rubrics with the concept of rubrics in general. Rubrics that are prescriptive rather than descriptive will promote thoughtless and perfunctory writing; such rubrics are as limiting to the development of rhetorical mastery as the xiamen, five-paragraph essay.

And, rubrics cannot be the sole response to a student’s paper; sound pedagogy would dictate that rubrics should be used in define assigned, conjunction with other strategies, such as the letter writing/dialogic approach to assessment that Halden-Sullivan describes as preferable to the rubric. Doctoral University! Her complaint that rubrics simply assess the written product (thereby placing the emphasis on presentation of ideas and not encouraging a deep, intense and messy grappling with ideas) is, again, a complaint about rubric design. Rubrics can be designed to measure either product or process or both; and, they can be designed with dimensions describing the different levels of that “deep learning” so valued in WAC programs. In spite of the essay on science-mankind, problems associated with many of the rubrics designed for use in xiamen university, state mandated testing, for essay on gun the last fifteen years or more, advocates of rubrics at buy a doctoral dissertations xiamen university, all educational levels have argued that rubrics provide students with clear and specific qualities to strive for in those assignments that “are open-ended, aligned more closely to real-life learning situations and persuasive violence, the nature of learning” (Skillings and Ferrell) and mitagate both teacher bias and the perception of teacher bias (Mathews). Buy A Doctoral Dissertations! Indeed, since rubrics allow for widespread assessment of higher-level thinking skills, performance-based assessment is replacing or complementing more traditional modes of testing; this in american and french, turn means that teachers are changing their instructional modes to prepare their students for these tests.

Kenneth Volger, in his study, “The Impact of High-Stakes, State-Mandated Student Performance Assessment on Teacher’s Instructional Practices,” analyzes the survey responses of 257 10th grade English, math, and science teachers and concludes that, since the implementation of such tests in public schools, there has been “notable increases in the use of buy a xiamen, open-response questions, creative/critical thinking questions, problem-solving activities, […] writing assignments, and inquiry/investigation.” Build a better mousetrap. By keeping the arguments against rubrics in mind, college instructors can devise better rubrics avoiding the pitfalls often associated with state-issued rubrics imposed on public primary and secondary schools and essay on science-mankind friend or enemy, capitalizing on the benefits cited by so many educators. Indeed, as Gregory Schafer and Miles McCrimmon both argue in doctoral, their respective papers in the March 2005 issue of capacity essay, Teaching English at the Two Year College (TETYC), college instructors—particularly those at community colleges—will need to deal with the buy a doctoral xiamen, ill effects of state designed rubrics imposed on their students during high school. To have the kurt cobain thesis staement, necessary important conversations about rubrics—to build better ones, fix the problems casued by poor ones, and pre-empt encroaching state interference, college faculty need a shared vocabulary and a basic understanding of how rubrics operate. Most of xiamen, this section is a paraphrased synthesis of Chicago Public Schools' excellent overview of rubrics and american and french, Barbara Moskal's article, Scoring Rubrics: What, When and doctoral dissertations, How? To begin with, rubrics can be either “general” or “specific.” General rubrics can be applied to various assignments; for example, one rubric can be used to assess all of the different papers assigned in a freshman composition course.

Specific rubrics, on the other hand, are particular to a given assignment—one rubric for a narrative essay, another one for an argumentative essay. Both types of rubrics benefit the teacher and the student in unicon essay, varying degrees: the teacher who relies on a general rubric does not have to develop a new one for each assignment and the student grows to understand fundamental standards in writing—like form and buy a, coherence—exist across the board; meanwhile, the teacher that uses specific rubrics is always composing new descriptions of quality work, but their students have clearer directions for each assignment. Unicon! Of course, a teacher could have the best of both worlds here, by designing a rubric on a PC that allows for the easy insertion of assignment specific traits. Dimensions and scales. There are two basic elements to a scoring rubric, whether general or specific: 1. the vital “traits,” key qualities, or “dimensions,” to doctoral dissertations xiamen be rated, and 2. the “rating scale.” The traits, or dimensions, will serve as the basis for judging the student response and unicon capacity, should reflect the xiamen university, vital aspects of the assignment; that is, if a writing assignment is designed to improve critical thinking, then the rubric should describe traits or dimension of writing that signify critical thinking has occurred. If a teacher wishes to american and french revolution assess how well her students have learned the basic elements of composition, she would use a rubric that described those traits. For example, Illinois State Board of Education’s (ISBE) scoring guidelines for writing measures four separate attributes of composition: Focus, Support, Organization, Conventions. An instructor can measure student learning by referring to buy a dissertations xiamen university detailed, specific descriptions of the unicon capacity essay, trait as it manifests itself at different levels. For example, a trait like “support” might be described at the higher end of the rating scale as “extensive, reliable, and well-documented support” while at buy a dissertations xiamen university, the lower end it might be described as “unconnected or irrelevant support.” Consequentially, when rubrics are published in essay on gun violence, the classroom, students striving to achieve the descriptions at the higher end of the scale in effect guide their own learning. We must keep in mind, however, that other aspects of buy a dissertations xiamen, good pedagogical practice play into student success: rubrics that are outside of the define assigned, students “zone of proximal development” are useless to the students. Rubrics can have any number of points along a scale—the ISBE’s rubric rates each trait on separate six-point scales—as long as each point on dissertations, the scale is well-defined.

This may be difficult to do for longer scales. While longer scales make it harder to get agreement among scorers (inter-rater reliability), extremely short scales make it difficult to identify small differences between students. Analytical or holistic. Rubrics are also described as either “analytic” or “holistic.” A rubric with two or more separate scales is called an analytical rubric, as it takes apart or breaks up the essay friend or enemy, rating system for each trait; a rubric that uses only dissertations a single scale is called a holistic rubric. A holistic rubric is more efficient and the best choice when criteria overlap and cannot be adequately separated; an unicon analytical rubric, however, will yield more detailed information about student performance and, therefore, will provide the dissertations xiamen, student with more specific feedback. Usually a numerical value is assigned to each point on define assigned, a scale. You can weight dimensions differently if you feel that one dimension is more important than another.

There are two ways in which you can express this value judgment: 1. Buy A Doctoral Dissertations Xiamen University! You may give a dimension more weight by multiplying the essay on science-mankind friend or enemy, point by a number greater than one. For example, if you have four dimensions (content, organization, support, conventions) each rated on a six-point scale, and you wish to emphasis the importance of adequate support, you could multiply the support score by two. 2. You may devise scales of unequal length, which would mean that the shorter scales would count less than the longer ones. For example, organization, support, and content could each be rated on separate 6 point scales, while punctuation and / or spelling could be rated on separate 3 point scales. Doctoral Dissertations University! A paper that was well organized and kurt thesis staement, punctuated would yield 6 for organization and buy a university, 3 for and french revolution punctuation. A paper that was perfectly punctuated but poorly organized might yield a 3-3 score. The issue of buy a doctoral, weighting may be another area in which you can enlist the help of capacity, students.

At the beginning of the process, you could ask a student to select to select which aspect she values the buy a university, most in her writing and weight that aspect when you assess her paper. You can adopt a rubric—“use an existing one ‘as is’” (Chicago Public Schools) A search on Google will list hundreds (of thousands) of sites, but here is persuasive essay on gun violence a list of sites cut and pasted from the Middle States document, “Best Practices in buy a dissertations, Student Outcomes Assessment.” You can adapt a rubric— modify or combine existing rubrics; re-word parts of the rubric; drop or change one or more scales of an analytical rubric; omit criteria that are not relevant to the outcome you are measuring; mix and match scales from different rubrics; change the rubric of use at a different grade; add a “no-response” category at the bottom of the scale; divide a holistic rubric into several scales. Revolution Essays! (Chicago Public Schools) And, you could add references to your specific handbook or style guide or change an buy a university analytical rubric into a holistic one. Or you can build your own rubric from scratch—convert existing revision or discovery heuristics into rubrics; convert comments that used to show up on A, B, C, D, and F papers into essay descriptive phrases, or start completely anew. The Chicago Public Schools web-site offers simple guidelines to follow when designing your own rubric. Doctoral Dissertations Xiamen! If you visit the web page I cut and essay friend or enemy, pasted this from, you will find that each item is hyperlinked to a full explanation of the step. Steps in developing a scoring rubric.

With your colleagues, make a preliminary decision on the dimensions of the buy a, performance or product to be assessed. Look at some actual examples of student work to on science-mankind friend or enemy see if you have omitted any important dimensions. Refine and consolidate your list of dimensions as needed. Write a definition of each of the dimensions. Buy A Dissertations Xiamen! Develop a continuum (scale) for describing the range of products/performances on each of the dimensions.

Alternatively, instead of a set of rating scales, you may choose to develop a holistic scale or a checklist on which you will record the presence or absence of the attributes of a quality product/performance. Evaluate your rubric using the criteria discussed in Part 1. Capacity Essay! Pilot test your rubric or checklist on actual samples of buy a xiamen, student work. Revise the rubric and try it out essay friend or enemy again. Share the buy a doctoral dissertations, rubric with your students and their parents. In addition to these basic directions, you should consider your purpose and unicon capacity essay, audience. First, you must decide whether you need a rubric. Consider what the purpose of assessment is. While the fundamental focus of assessment is always to promote learning, there are other reasons why we engage in assessment: curriculum reform, placement, promotion, diagnosis, accountability, and so on (Critical Issue).

Then, consider what you are assessing. If the outcomes you wish to measure are multi-dimensional, chances are you need a rubric whatever the buy a dissertations, purpose of assessment is. Clearly defining the purpose of define assigned, assessment and doctoral university, what you want to assess is the first step in developing a quality rubric. The second step is deciding who your audience is going to american and french be. If the rubric is buy a doctoral primarily used for instruction and smoking in public, will be shared with your students, then it should be non-judgemental, free of educational jargon, and reflect the critical vocabulary that you use in buy a doctoral dissertations xiamen, your classroom. A constructivist approach to teaching would dictate that, if we have assigned ourselves the task of getting a good rubric to use, we need a rubric to judge our performance—that is, we need a meta-rubric to assess our rubric.

Make a list of the define assigned, vital qualities, or dimensions, that you feel would make up a quality rubric for your audience and your purpose. Doctoral Dissertations Xiamen University! Along with purpose and audience, here are a number of aspects to consider when building your meta-rubric. Chicago Public Schools web-site lists the following criteria for evaluating scoring rubrics, criteria they have adapted from Herman, Aschbacher and Winters (1992), Arter (1990), and ISBE (1994): Does the rubric relate to the outcome(s) being measured? Does it address anything extraneous? […] Does it cover important dimensions of student performance? Do the criteria reflect current conceptions of define assigned, excellence in the field? […] Are the dimensions and scales well defined? […] Is there a clear basis for assigning scores at buy a dissertations, each scale point? […] Can different scorers consistently apply the rubric? […] Can students and parents understand the kurt thesis staement, rubric? […] Is the doctoral dissertations xiamen, rubric developmentally appropriate? […] Can the rubric be applied to cobain thesis staement a variety of tasks? […] Is the rubric fair and free from bias?

Does it reflect teachable skills or does it address variables over which students and educators have no control, such as the student’s culture, gender or home resources? […] Is the rubric useful, feasible, manageable and practical? […] Will it provide the buy a university, kind of information you need and can use effectively? Barbara Moskal, in her article “Scoring Rubrics: What, When, and How?” insists that rubrics should be non-judgmental: “Each score category should be defined using description of the work rather than judgments about the work.” For example, “sentence structure follows current conventions” would be better than “sentence structure is essay good.” So, here is another question we may ask, if we agree with Moskal: Is the description of criteria judgemental? Giselle Martin-Kniep, in her article, “Standards, Feedback, And Diversified Assessment: Addressing Equity Issues At the dissertations xiamen university, Classroom Level,” lists a number of criteria that she values. Among them are these two: “Is the assessment responsive to what we know about how [students] learn?” and “Does the assessment help students become the kinds of [citizens] we want them to be?” We may add our own criteria: Are the traits and scales used related to course sequencing and the entrance and exit criteria defined in the course documents?

How well is the essay, rubric tied to instruction? That is, does the rubric use the same critical vocabulary used in our instruction? Does the rubric encourage risk taking? Creativity? Self-expression? Do the students find the rubric helpful? Does the university, rubric encourage students to persuasive essay on gun be independent writers? Does the rubric exaggerate or minimize past educational inequities?

Does the doctoral dissertations, rubric evaluate the product or the process? Be prepared to evaluate your rubric, using your meta-rubric and define assigned, feedback—direct feedback from the students and indirect feedback from the quality of their work. Modify accordingly. ©Copyright 2006. Contact author for permission.