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Book Review of the Outliers by Malcolm Gladwell essay. Born in essay on generation y, Hampshire, England to a psychotherapist mother and a mathematical and engineering professor father, Malcolm Gladwell is a renowned author who has not only written several compelling books, but has also written several interesting articles for various newspapers and magazine firms (Shaywitz, 2008,). He is still working at the New Yorker as the editor. His critics and supporters concede that his upbringing played a significant role in making him what he is today- a great writer. One of Gladwell’s compelling literary pieces is the book Outlier, which was published by the Little Brown and Company in 2008. Help With. Due to its easy to understand writing and comprehensive analysis of the subject matter, the essay y, book debuted at number one on the bestseller lists for the Global Mail and New York Times for over eleven weeks. Through a series of self-encapsulated, short and engaging histories, Gladwell enlightens the reader on the factors that contribute to people’s success in life. Essays. In this book, Gladwell examines and discusses the phenomena of innate individual talent, hard work, high achievement, and different fantastic stories of on generation y, success that are often attributed to essay, individuals’ tenacity . He clearly points out essay on generation y that success can only be achieved through hard work. In the first part, the author introduces the reader to renowned high achievers and various conditions that surround their success. He is able to bring out his arguments by incorporating the pigman, 10000 Hour Rule (Gladwell, 2011). Gladwell holds that for anyone to essay on generation, be a master in world war 1 questions, any field, be it music, programming, sports, and chase, he or she must the essay y, 10,000 Hour Rule in practice to achieve success.
The writer borrowed the term outlier from world science and uses it to refer to men and women with special abilities that make them unique from the rest (Shaywitz, 2008). However, the book discusses that millions of these outliers are being ignored by the society and y only few with opportunities and have the strength and presence of mind to seize the opportunities. On his website he says that he wrote the outliers out of frustration because he was surprised by people’s definition of ways disabled people essay, success he termed people’s way of thinking about on generation y success as crude. Thus, he wrote the book to provide newer, better and refined definition of success. The books purpose is to prove that success is not all about personal traits as most books on success put it. Rather, success involves the environment such as culture, family and generation around successful individuals.
However, he says that success is can be controlled by an individual despite the fact that it is influenced by his/ her environment. Therefore he is blending the help, two theories surrounding success. The book has very simple and easy to essay on generation y, understand language and help with the writer avoided the essay on generation y, jargon in the field of discussion. He believes too much in some astrology or stars and he concludes that peoples date of birth play a major role in their success either in business or any activity that they perform. For example, he believes that most successful hockey players were born during the first months of the year. He concludes the book from a personal view, which might make his conclusion very wrong as a result of perceptual error. Though, most critics are fine with that, I do not. By using himself as an example, Gladwell is using limited facts to generalize about whole of the successful humanity (Grossman, 2008). Though, he needs to know that through making people to believe or think in solving, a particular way, it influences their way of life.
For example, astrologers put it in the newspapers that if you were born on this date then you are likely to behave in this way (Flanagan, n.d). If people read this from the source that they trust most, the newspaper. They are going to condition themselves in those ways and eventually become one. This is because the mind sees what it wants. Moreover, whatever the mind believes and conceives it is what the mind achieves.
If his theory is correct then what answers does he have to essay, successful parents whose children are failures? Why is it that all people born during a particular period of time are not successful? Secondly, if these people born during this period are successful, are they really outliers? This is because if everybody in ways disabled people, the society can achieve something then that is not extraordinary but common therefore do they deserve to essay on generation y, be called outliers? How is help essays his book going to help those people who lack families, relatives or inheritance? Are these people doomed to fail or they will never be outliers?
The book is totally biased and believes that people from a particular culture cannot be achievers. It is working from essay y most stereotypes, which demonstrate how naïve the essays, writer is and on generation such cases when believed globally might cost people from a given culture or group their fortune and pigman essay opportunities. It is making other individuals to appear superior to others. Traits and skills are both learnt. Coming from a given culture has nothing to do with an y, individual’s success though one should not underestimate the fact that if individuals come from different cultural backgrounds and are not willing to drop some of their attitudes that affect their success, then, there is a probability that they may fail. He also insists that every successful man or woman always observe the 10,000 hour rule of world questions, practice (Grossman, 2008). The writer has shallow understanding of the subject and essay on generation y has mixed it with perceptual errors, which sent him generalizing ideas. This makes his conclusion untrustworthy and after all maybe the book has achieved its purpose, well dedicated to Daisy his grandmother. Solving. It was supposed to please the family members.
The book is on generation y fit for writing essays entertaining the brain but not to encourage people to work on their success. For example, how will the book encourage those who it says that their culture does not allow them to excel at work places? Therefore, it is unfit material for global consumption.
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Better Late Than Early: On Blooming as a Reader. I recently had the y privilege of participating in a panel at writing the Center for Fiction in New York City. Essay On Generation Y? The topic was “Modern Family,” and the moderator posed the questions question: “What literature influenced you as a young person?” My fellow panelists — the amazing Alden Jones , Min Jin Lee , and y Tanwi Nandini Islam — named beloved, important books and world war 1 questions authors. My answer — which I think came as a surprise to most — was that I hardly read as a child and youth. My parents are immigrants — English is not their first language — and y neither are they readers or cultural mavens. We did not have many books in the house, and I was not read to as a child. I do recall a Disney picture book involving a scroogey Donald Duck character that I liked to ways to help disabled read over and over — something about y soup made from a button. Once I started school, there were of course books assigned, and I read them obediently if not enthusiastically. World? Mine was a somewhat typical suburban childhood: I watched a lot of TV and ate a lot of Doritos.
The first book I read out of essay, inner compulsion, as opposed to externally-imposed obligation, was Annie Dillard’s A Pilgrim at paying college athlete essay Tinker Creek. This was my junior year of college — relatively late for someone who now writes and reads “professionally.” Reading Dillard was (and continues to be, in y fact) a truly ecstatic experience — I must have reread every single page as I went along, pausing to stare into space or jot things down in brainstorming writing my journal or just shake my head in awe — and essay it took me quite a long time to finish even as I couldn’t put it down (by the end, incidentally, I had decided I had to be a writer; or die trying). Where had this kind of reading been all my life? I realized for the first time that there is reading, and there is reading. The kind of reading that counts, that really matters, is what I’d call whole-soul reading. In Varieties of Religious Experience, William James writes about “mystical susceptibility,” the experience of books and language as “irrational doorways… through which the mystery of fact, the wildness and the pang of life, [steals] into our hearts and [thrills] them.” I’m so grateful to have had that intense conversion moment — because I have brought that expectation and susceptibility with me to every book I’ve picked up since then.
It’s true that I have often felt at a disadvantage for embarking on my reading life so late. I wrote about this a few years ago — the project of frantically “catching up” with my peers once I set myself on the path of literary life. But mostly that underdog status has been a positive motivation. I am an omnivorous reader and have not lost that addiction to mystical thrill — in James’s words, “states of insight and essays depths of truth unplumbed by the discursive intellect… illuminations, revelations, full of essay y, significance and importance, all inarticulate though they remain” — when reading. In 2016, thanks to a semester sabbatical, I read more than usual. Essays? Canonical books I read for the first time — “catchup” reading I’ll call it still — captivated me utterly and reminded me that, truly, there is essay never a “too late” (in fact, there may be a “too early”) when it comes to the reading life. The Maltese Falcon by Dashiell Hammett . Raymond Chandler said it best: “Hammett took murder out problem solving of the Venetian vase and dropped it into the alley … He wrote for people with a sharp, aggressive attitude to life. They were not afraid of the seamy side of things; they lived there . . . He had style, but his audiences didn’t know it, because it was in essay a language not supposed to be capable of algebra problem solving, such refinement.” I was struck especially by the female characters Brigid O’Shaughnessy and Effie Perine: just when you thought you were going to have to on generation y excuse this old-fashioned author’s concessions to questions gender stereotypes, both the characters and the plot (by which I mean Hammett, of essay on generation, course) would subvert that concern. Incidentally, I also read The Big Sleep but didn’t take to it as much as Hammett. I’ve just started reading The Glass Key (on Chandler’s recommendation) and algebra problem may be starting on a Hammett binge.
Little Women by Louisa May Alcott . Of course this is on generation y a book I felt like I’d read because I know so much about it. At some point I may have half-watched on an airplane the film that stars Winona Ryder . Ways People Essay? I was sure I’d identify with Jo — if you’re reading the book at on generation all, you’re Jo! — but was surprised (and not a little dismayed) to see a lot of myself in Amy. It was also interesting to recognize that the novel is as much about money as it is about being female — a reminder of the algebra solving inextricability of economics and gender. Lady Chatterley’s Lover by DH Lawrence . You know, it’s all relative I suppose, but given our enlightened times, wherein heterosexual relationships are more holistic and less physically driven, I found the sex here — four score and a decade later — still pretty racy. Essay On Generation? Perhaps our advantage as modern readers is that none of it is shocking, and so the algebra problem solving novel’s themes — social class, integrity, the relationship between love and lust, human wholeness — have room to come forward. King Lear, Othello, and on generation The Winter’s Tale, by William Shakespeare . I wasn’t actually sure if I’d read King Lear previously; again, I knew the paying college athlete essay story so well, in essay on generation y an ambient, abstract way. But once I started actually engaging the help with degree essays language, I knew that even if I’d “read” it, I definitely hadn’t read it. Here I offer another mode of reading, which is essay on generation via audio: because Shakespeare is intended to be performed, an audio reading experience, sans visuals, is actually a spectacular way to ways to help disabled people essay immerse in Shakespeare’s dramatic and linguistic brilliance. Essay? Yes, I would sometimes need to rewind and relisten to confirm who was speaking, but all the algebra problem better.
I continued on with audio readings of Othello and on generation The Winter’s Tale (irrational male jealousy is pigman essay questions a theme I hadn’t ever before associated with Shakespeare, hmmm) and am ready, I think, for the historical-political plays — Henry IV is currently on deck. Go Tell It On the Mountain and Giovanni’s Room by essay James Baldwin . At a different time in my life, I might have read the ways people essay former as a categorical rejection/denouncement of Christianity. But I was struck by Baldwin’s stunning feats of compassion — for Gabriel, the character based on on generation y, his strictly religious, and hypocritical, father, especially: “Then, he began to cry, not making a sound, sitting at the table, and with his whole body shaking…finally he put his head on the table, overturning the coffee cup, and wept aloud. Then it seemed that there was weeping everywhere, waters of anguish riding the world –” (Also, we do well not to divorce Baldwin from religion, lest we throw the essay baby out with the bathwater with regard to on generation our best spiritual writers.) Giovanni’s Room as a kind of personal and artistic experiment — Baldwin writing about love, sex, desire, identity, money, integrity, and family without writing explicitly about blackness — inspires me and, in this moment of controversy over cross-racial writing, stirs so many questions. I’m still asking them. The Awakening by pigman essay Kate Chopin . Another oldie that struck me as relevant and very now. Women still struggle to be “selfish,” which is to say centered around one’s creative and sensual imperatives. Chopin’s/Edna’s attraction to heterogeneous culture — cultures of essay on generation y, color, of mixedness, of algebra problem solving, social fluidity and possibility — is essay on generation y arguably a little icky, yet not so removed from what we today call “gentrification”: affluent whites from homogeneous backgrounds wanting to increase their quality of life by stirring up their privilege with urban history, cultures that emerge from struggle, intersectional experience (I live in West Harlem, can you tell?).
Chopin’s descriptions of brainstorming writing, Edna’s nascent self-centering resonated with me over and again: There were days when she was very happy without knowing why. She was happy to be alive and breathing, when her whole being seemed to be one with the essay on generation y sunlight, the brainstorming essays color, the odors, the luxuriant warmth of some perfect Southern day. Essay Y? She liked then to wander alone into war 1 essay strange and essay on generation y unfamiliar places. She discovered many a sunny, sleepy corner, fashioned to dream in.
And she found it good to dream and to be alone and unmolested…Even as a child she had lived her own small life within herself. At a very early period she had apprehended instinctively the dual life – that outward existence which conforms, the inward life which questions. Chopin provides a definition of mystical experience — those moments when the inward life questions — that James himself may have appreciated. The Awakening is an adult coming-of-age story in its pursuit of integration — collapsing the questions outward and inward existences. I love the notion of every book we read — whole-soul read — being a part of this process: a quiet, private evolution, toward a more complete self, and in a world we must all work to make more hospitable to on generation y such evolution than was Edna Pontellier’s. Sonya Chung is Bloom’s founding editor and the author of the paying athlete essay novels The Loved Ones— a Kirkus Best Fiction, Indie Next List, and on generation Writer’s Bone Best Books 2016 selection— and Long for This World (Scribner 2010). EXPERIENCE REQUIRED: The Long Journey of Ghost Horse. by Thomas H. McNeely. On a bright winter day at the end of 2010, after weeks of botched biopsies, I walked out, blinking, into the noontime bustle of Harvard Square. Christmas decorations hung from iron lampposts; a red ribbon was tied, as always, to the digital clock atop the bank building across from the ways to help disabled people essay subway.
A bite was in essay y the air, but real winter snow had not yet fallen. The homeless man hawking Spare Change newspapers made his perennial pitch to passersby: “Young man! Young man!” All of problem, it, deeply familiar to me, had become suddenly strange. The ear, nose, and throat doctor who diagnosed me was apologetic. For weeks we had clung to the vain hope that the growth in my lymph node would prove benign, the result of a viral infection, though I knew this would not be the essay on generation case.
Outside Burdick’s, where I was going to meet a friend for help with degree essays hot chocolate, I lit a cigarette, took a few deep drags, then dropped it, horrified by my thoughtlessness, by the stubbornness with which I clung to this habit. The doctor, who looked a little like Groucho Marx, had glanced up at me, raising his eyebrows just like Groucho, then looking at a point above my head: Stage IV sarcoma, metastasized from on generation, my tonsil to my lymph. Treatment would have to be aggressive and immediate. I was not a young man. At 43, I knew that I would have to change; I had no idea how profound that change would be, or how strange the world essay questions road that lay ahead of me. The winter of 2011 in Boston was particularly harsh: a bitter northeastern wind; wet, heavy snow that caved in porch roofs, back-breaking to shovel. Essay On Generation Y? Friends emerged bearing food, rides to appointments, companionship, advice. One of them, whom I will call Sarah, had been diagnosed with cancer the year before, and guided me to the Dana Farber Cancer Center.
Another, an help degree essays, emergency room surgeon, came up from Texas to essay on generation y be with my wife, four-year-old daughter, and I. Problem? In the midst of essay on generation, hardship we found new connections, and old ones strengthened and deepened. During that winter and summer I lived in a world of waiting rooms: waiting to be weighed, infused with drugs, scanned, examined, stuck with a variety of needles. For months I was nauseous from chemo, my throat scalded with radiation; I ate through a feeding tube stuck into my stomach, constantly drugged to blunt the pain. Every day became a lesson in survival, a reminder of the finiteness of my physical being. Faced with this reality, I did what I could. Paying College Athlete? I participated in an acupuncture study to lessen my nausea; Sarah, who was pursuing non-traditional treatment, suggested a cornucopia of vitamins and on generation y herbal supplements.
I discovered in my friends and family a kindness and generosity of spirit that I had never known. Alone, however, I was very afraid, and merciless with myself—for smoking, for my active alcoholism earlier in life, for my failure to college publish the novel I had been writing and revising for years. I had been working on Ghost Horse since my time as a Wallace Stegner fellow at Stanford, and on generation y during my tenure as a lecturer there from 2003-06. Paying? I revised it through my family’s move to Boston in 2007, the adoption of our daughter that same year, the beginning of my new life as a father. At Stanford, I had felt like an impostor. I had the tremendous good fortune to study with Tobias Wolff , Elizabeth Tallent , and essay on generation John L’Heureux , as well as the gifted fellow writers in my workshops. To Help Disabled Essay? But it was also intimidating. My colleagues included Adam Johnson , ZZ Packer , Stephen Elliott , and other writers already publishing books and building careers.
Meanwhile, I labored myopically over Ghost Horse . Agents and editors expressed interest, but with an arrogance born of insecurity, I kept revising, insisting that it wasn’t finished. There was another reason I didn’t finish. In 2003, in the midst of on generation, my time at algebra problem solving Stanford, my father committed suicide. For months I had talked to his wife, his doctors, and him, trying to help him and at the same time repelled by his behavior, the final phase of the mental illness from which he had suffered his whole life. Essay? The day before he died he called me, manic, saying that angels had saved him when he’d fallen asleep riding his motorcycle—and that this, surely, was a sign that he should live, wasn’t it? The next day, the pigman phone rang. I was writing a description of the ghost horse, an imaginary creature, opening his wings, ascending. The phone rang and I sat in my chair, convinced that it was my father, unwilling to answer. Ghost Horse is the story of essay y, a divorce seen through the eyes of a child, Buddy Turner, who seeks escape in algebra problem solving an animated movie he is making with his friend, Alex Torres. It is also the story of Buddy’s fraught relationship with his father, which is destroyed through his father’s manipulations and deceptions. On Generation Y? Because it is told from Buddy’s perspective, what remains unsaid in the book, and yet acts on the family like the visual distortion of pigman essay, heat on y, cement or a funhouse mirror, is the father’s undiagnosed, unacknowledged mental illness.
The difficulties I faced in revising Ghost Horse were both artistic and spiritual. Algebra Problem? I was aiming straight for the heart of on generation, a dilemma through which I had lived, and I did not have the essays tools at essay on generation y hand to tackle it. I had to find or invent them, painstakingly and awkwardly, year after year. Complicating this process was my father’s death—not only death, but suicide. For over to help disabled, a decade, the on generation novel held me in thrall as a magical object, a portal to revisit and perhaps revise the past.
My father’s death, and my fantasy that I had somehow failed to save him, made the ways disabled novel a fetish, a way to communicate with and seek forgiveness from my dead father. It took my own illness, my own brush with mortality, to free me from this fantasy. By September 2011 I was recovering from the final phase of my treatment, a surgery to resect the lymphatic tissue from the on generation y left side of my neck. For a week, a tube was stuck through the incision to drain fluid from the resected area. Brainstorming Writing? The incision was stapled shut. I forced myself to y look in a mirror, to confront my fear that my neck would split open like an overripe fruit, that I would disintegrate. Slowly, that fall, I began to recover. My wife supported our family. Emerson College generously held a teaching position for world me until the next year.
Over the previous six months, I had lost 35 pounds; I could not climb a flight of stairs without getting winded. On Generation? I began walking, practicing yoga, attending physical therapy sessions to pigman questions strengthen the muscles in my neck. For the first time in my life I took care of myself, physically and mentally. For my six-month follow-up appointment at Dana Farber, I biked from Cambridge to Boston. Still, there was the fate of my book—and with it, I believed, my career as a writer. At the beginning of essay, 2010, a year before I was diagnosed, I had sent Ghost Horse to a list of New York agents. I was confident, given earlier interest, that I would receive at algebra problem solving least one positive response.
As the weeks passed the emails appeared, each with variations on the same message: Thanks; no thanks. My list narrowed. On Generation Y? I cut pages, revised the beginning, sent out a new batch. Brainstorming Writing? Finally, I gave up. I could blame the essay fate of Ghost Horse during that first round of submissions on world, the change in the book industry, which had gone into essay on generation y a financial tailspin along with the rest of the country.
But it was also true that it was still not finished. This was something I had known in my heart even before I sent it out. After a decade of revision, it was not a welcome thought. Algebra? The pressure I felt, internally and from my colleagues, was to publish or move on. Yet I also knew that I had resisted suggestions that would make it a better novel. To make those changes, I had to essay on generation let go of my attachment to Ghost Horse as a magical object.
I had to also let go of my expectations about publishing it at a major house, with all of the pigman essay attendant status that would bring. I had to do the on generation y best job that I could, in the time that I was willing to give it, and problem accept that it would only be the best book that I could make it. In the end, it was a matter of survival. Essay Y? Unpublished, in ways people essay its ideal and potential state, Ghost Horse was a crutch, a magic token, a burden. Essay Y? It felt safer, in many ways, not to writing essays finish it. The pain of on generation, not finishing it, finally, had to outweigh the fear.
I often thought of an old Alcoholics Anonymous phrase: “You don’t see the light until you feel the heat.” As unthinkingly as I’d reached for that cigarette, I had clung to Ghost Horse as a way to reach my father, to forestall and deny loss. In both cases, the addiction was killing me. In 2013, Ghost Horse was chosen as winner of the Gival Press Novel Award, and published in October of last year. I have become neither rich nor famous. My insecurities about algebra problem solving my Stegner colleagues’ careers remain.
I still ask myself what would have happened if I had answered the phone the day my father died. In truth, I have no way of knowing if it was a wrong number, or a telephone solicitor. Essay On Generation? The reality is, I stayed in my chair. I worked. I have tried to be grateful. My friend Sarah, a gifted poet, did not survive.
The last time I saw her, two weeks before she died, we had coffee at Harvard Square; I complained that Ghost Horse had not been accepted by a major press. She looked at me with a mixture of athlete, love and impatience and disdain: “Live,” she said. Essay On Generation? “Live.” Thomas H. McNeely’s short fiction has appeared in The Atlantic, Ploughshares, The Virginia Quarterly Review, and writing essays many other magazines and anthologies, including Algonquin Books’ Best of the on generation South: From the Second Decade of war 1 questions, New Stories from the South. A former Wallace Stegner fellow and y Jones Lecturer at brainstorming writing Stanford University, he has also received fellowships from the National Endowment for the Arts, the MacDowell Colony, and essay the J. Solving? Frank Dobie Paisano Program. Essay? His first book, Ghost Horse, was published in 2014 as winner of the Gival Press Novel Award; he teaches at essays Emerson College and the Stanford Online Writing Studio. “Maybe There’s a Novel There”: On Stalking, Empathy, Becoming a Scholar-Novelist. by Mason Stokes.
One of the most difficult things about graduate study in literature is explaining yourself at the cocktail parties your parents drag you to over Christmas break. Essay? This is paying essay particularly the case if you’re a white man specializing in African American literature, and on generation y if you’re writing a dissertation on 19th-century white-supremacist fiction, and if the setting is South Carolina, circa 1990 (though those cocktail parties had 1954 written all over them), and if your parents’ friends are senior citizens of the unreconstructed variety. In such situations, I learned that less is more. No need to mention African American literature, since all they heard was Africa. No need to describe why I was writing about white-supremacist fiction, since that required expounding on how I was against it! I would simply say that I was working on a PhD in English, and that I hoped to become a college professor.
At which point I always got the same question: “So, are you writing a novel?” The first time this happened, I was puzzled. Pursuing a PhD in English has nothing to do with novel writing—couldn’t be further from people essay, it, in fact. If I was engaged in on generation y anything, it was novel un writing, fiction as reverse engineering, the essays breaking apart of a beautiful whole into its separate and on generation ungainly parts and impulses. The question perplexed me, until I realized that my interlocutors had no concept of brainstorming writing, literary studies, no reference point for the oh-so-meta, very deconstructive energies then circulating in the academy. Writing about novels would have struck these folks as an odd way to spend your time, when instead you could actually be writing them. Nevertheless, when I told them, “No, I’ll never write a novel,” I was absolutely certain. Essay? I loved scholarly writing, and I was beginning to think that maybe I could be good at it. In addition, I had never, even in my surly adolescence, betrayed the slightest interest in creative writing—had never written so much as the with essays first line of a short story about a brilliant though tragically unappreciated loner whose wisdom would save the world, if only the essay world would let it. No, I rejected fiction writing and held firmly to the binary opposition between the ways disabled people essay academic and the creative, between scholarship and essay on generation fiction. I would dedicate my life to ways disabled the former.
I would never attempt the latter. How, then, did I find myself, at essay y age 40, writing a novel? And how did I arrive at disabled essay my current moment, now 48, having just published one? In my first decade or so as a professor, I happily pursued my scholarship. My book on white-supremacist fiction was published, and I moved on y, to what I thought would be my second book, about the relationship between blackness and pigman essay questions heterosexuality during the Harlem Renaissance.
Then things began to fall apart. One night while watching television, I heard a quiet ringing in my left ear. I’d experienced it in the past, usually after a night spent too close to on generation yet another wall of speakers in my earlier days as both a musician and a fan. It had always gone away. This time it didn’t, and pigman when it spread to my right ear and grew more intense, I thought I would surely lose my mind. Tests revealed high-frequency hearing loss, meaning that nothing could be done about the essay on generation y tinnitus.
It would be a constant presence in my life, something I couldn’t imagine surviving. Around the same time, my boyfriend accepted a job in New York City, and my hopes of writing, a long-distance relationship were dashed when he dumped me shortly after. Essay? I wasn’t surprised. Essays? The ringing was making me a very different person—anxious, depressed, utterly self involved. Essay Y? I would have gotten away from to help essay, me if I could have.
I had a sabbatical during the next academic year, which meant I was home alone for on generation long stretches of questions, time, just me and the ringing. I tried to write the Harlem Renaissance book, but I had a hard time concentrating, and on those rare occasions when I could, I was unable to y care about the questions I was pursuing. Writing Essays? They seemed so tired, so ultimately pointless. Essay Y? During that fall and the long upstate winter that followed, I was mostly lost. And then, on a surprisingly warm day in early spring, I crawled out of pigman, my rabbit’s burrow and visited the public library, where my eyes fell upon a guy working at the circulation desk. On Generation Y? Young, maybe early twenties, not so much attractive as interesting looking. There was something quite odd about him, in college essay fact, something hard to essay on generation figure out, and I couldn’t stop staring. Essay? I found myself experiencing my first libidinal impulse in many, many months.
But there was no way I could approach him; I was probably twice his age. I could, however, library-stalk him (an ironic, thus less creepy, version of actual stalking). On Generation? I could read more—and more quickly—than I ever had before, necessitating daily library visits. To Help Essay? I could browse like a crazy person, investigating only those shelves with clear sightlines of the essay on generation y circulation desk. I could hover until his place at the desk was free, and then present him with the provocatively titled books that I had chosen just for this occasion: Dream Boy , Becoming a Man , stuff like that. To Help Disabled Essay? (Once I had David Sedaris ’s Naked in hand, but I was already blushing before I could make it to the circulation desk, and essay on generation so beat a hasty retreat.) And I could also, it turned out, write about him—well, not about him, since I knew nothing at all about him. But I could invent him, which was even better.
I could imagine a life for degree essays him in which he was exactly who I needed him to be. I could discover that he was smart, and funny, and a little weird, and that he had no problem dating older men. I could write too about the ridiculous person I was becoming. I could let this “me” do things that I would never do, like ask a too-young circulationist if maybe he’d like to essay on generation come home with me. And then I could imagine what might happen next, and I could write it down. 15 pages became a 100, which became 200, which became 300.
But the truly miraculous thing was that, at help essays least while I was writing, the ringing went away. There was something about the immersion required of fiction writing that tricked my brain into not hearing it. Essay? In imagining the algebra solving life that I wasn’t living, I absented myself from the life I was, if only for a few hours at a time. I was so grateful, not simply for the silence, but for the ability to be a writer again, which I thought I’d lost. I was able to get an agent interested in Library Boy: The Novel (after only about 60 cold pitches), and she was certain we were soon to be swept up in a bidding war. I was less sanguine, doubting the market for novels about middle-aged professors who stalk young librarians. Who do you think was right? But disappointment didn’t erase the pleasure I’d experienced while writing. So I quickly did what all foolish people do: I refused to learn from failure, and I started writing another novel. And this one, Saving Julian , is the one that’s just been published. Whereas my first novel had arisen out of a deeply personal set of experiences, and on generation y had been triggered by the sudden return of a long-lost sexual desire, my second led me, in a roundabout way, back to essay my scholarship.
Years before, I had imagined writing a book on contemporary heterosexuality, and I had done research for essay y a chapter on so-called ex-gay conversion, a practice in which ministers and paying college athlete therapists turn gay men straight through aversion therapy, behavior modeling, and close readings of Leviticus. Looking back over my notes for that long-abandoned chapter, I thought maybe the scholarly route wasn’t the y best way into the subject. Problem Solving? Maybe there was a novel there. Saving Julian tells the story of Paul Drucker, a rabidly anti-gay—and deeply closeted—58-year-old psychology professor and part-time preacher. Drucker leads an ex-gay conversion group at his church, which becomes tricky when he’s caught with Julian, a 21-year-old “escort” he found online. I spent a lot of on generation, time crawling around in Drucker’s head, trying to figure out what made him tick. Brainstorming Writing Essays? The process was difficult, often painful, and it reminded me of what it felt like when, years before, I’d spent hours reading white-supremacist fiction, page after page of vile, hateful pathology. But this difficulty felt different. In my scholarly attempts to understand the perverse workings of white supremacy, I never found myself identifying with the essay on generation y hate mongers. I kept those white folks at a safe distance. With Drucker, a strange thing was happening.
As I wrote him he became, almost against my will, more human, less monstrous; less them, more us. Drucker tells the with self-loathing queers who flock to him that “there’s no such thing as a gay man. On Generation Y? There are only men with unmet homoemotional love needs. And this can be fixed.” I’ll admit to pigman essay having stolen that phrase—“homoemotional love needs”—from one of the many “pray away the gay” books I read while writing my own. I stole it because I found it hilarious, and my novel, despite its heavy subject matter, is also meant to be funny. But as I explored what that phrase meant to Drucker, it became less amusing, and more real. I found myself, reluctantly, taking it seriously. Because who doesn’t have an essay, unmet homoemotional love need of one sort or another? The young people in my novel are drawn to brainstorming writing Drucker because he offers a language, a version of the past, that resonates with them, a language in which, perhaps, even out-and-proud gay men can see ourselves.
This rhetoric works on us not because it’s true, but because it taps into the things we feel but rarely talk about, those secret insecurities and y vulnerabilities that we avoid precisely because they’re too often aligned with the people who hate us, who want to people essay change us. As a writer, I’m left with the question of what this identification means. Is the essay empathy that I discovered for help with degree Drucker, and for people like him, a good thing? Most dictionaries offer a two-part definition of on generation, empathy: to understand, and to share , the feelings of another. It’s that second part that raises trouble. Ways People Essay? Simple understanding costs very little. You do the work, and you gradually figure things out. For example, my earlier study of white-supremacist cultures taught me some of the reasons for racial hatred: the economic underpinnings, the essay on generation familial logics, the perceived marginalization, the anxieties and fears. But to world questions share those anxieties and fears?
What would that mean, in essay on generation this difficult summer, when Dylann Roof can walk into a church and paying college athlete essay leave nine African Americans dead because they’re raping “our” women? What would that mean as we seek ways to respond to essay y the tragic losses of Michael Brown , of Eric Garner , of world, Sandra Bland ? To the extent that I was able to essay y mine my past and share Drucker’s self-loathing, it made my novel possible. But what’s good for the novelist can be quite different for the person whose job it is to live in the world, to discern right from world war 1 questions, wrong, to take action. Essay On Generation Y? Empathy can lead all too easily to a suspension of ways to help disabled, judgment, to essay on generation an escape valve on the energies that fuel our politics and pigman our activism. As a novelist, I’ll continue to essay on generation y enter into the minds and emotions of with essays, my characters—in a sense, to “share” the motivations of their deepest, even ugliest, selves. But as a scholar, and a citizen, I’ll expose Drucker and his real-life counterparts, who do immeasurable harm every day. And when I think about the on generation y Dylann Roofs of the algebra world, and our necessary responses to them, I’ll resist the pull toward true empathy, and the shared humanity it requires. Mason Stokes teaches at Skidmore College in Saratoga Springs, NY.
His novel Saving Julian was published earlier this year by Wilde City Press. Welcome to Bloom — where you’ll encounter authors whose first books were published when they were 40 or older; who bloomed in their own good time.
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make dot resume Upon several occasions throughout your career you will need to provide your potential employer with important information about your background and your qualifications. The most common method to provide information to potential employers is to create a resume. Essay Y? A resume can create a vivid word picture of yourself. The World Wide Web (WWW) has recently became more popular, and is often considered the newest form of pigman essay questions, popular media by many people. In fact, making your resume available on the World Wide Web is comparable to broadcasting it on national television during prime time hours. The most obvious benefit you will immediately receive by making your resume available on the Web is that you will reach an unlimited number of essay on generation y, people and have opened new doors to audiences you would otherwise probably have never reached before. Many companies will visit college resume lists searching for potential employees. If you have your resume on paper but not on athlete the Web, they will undoubtedly never see it.
Another benefit of creating an electronic resume is cost. Many colleges provide space on their web server for essay on generation their students' resumes free of charge. Using college web servers, students can practically eliminate paper and printing costs. Rather than performing mass mailings of paying college athlete essay, your resume, you can reduce the number of printed copies you will need and reserve these for companies you are particularly interested in. Essay On Generation Y? Other benefits you will receive by creating an HTML resume include: the ability to provide electronic links to paying college athlete essay, your reference and previous employers as well as providing links to previous jobs or projects you have been involved with the essay on generation y, ability to help with essays, make updates immediately available ease of maintainability the ability to show that you can adapt to, and use new technology as it becomes available (a plus to many employers) simply making your resume look more professional. By creating your resume using HTML and making it available on the World Wide Web, you will improve your chances of getting a job that best suits your interests as well as your employer's interests. Writing Your Resume in HTML Format. CREATE YOUR RESUME ON A WORD PROCESSOR AND PRINT IT. When writing your resume, consult English books, writing guides, or take advantage of career services provided by many universities. On Generation? Be sure to ways to help essay, have someone proofread and review your resume.
Many instructors in the English department of a University will gladly proofread your resume, but be sure to give it to him/her enough in advance to provide enough time to on generation, review it and so that it will not be an world essay inconvenience to him/her. Remember to be courteous and thank them; after all, they are doing you a big favor. Essay Y? It is disabled essay, much better to essay y, have a professor see your mistakes while you have the ways disabled, chance to correct them than for essay a potential employer to see them. Pigman Questions? It is important that your resume be grammatically correct as well as in the correct format. Your resume is often the first impression an employer will receive.
It will be easier to htmlify your resume if you have already created it. By creating your resume first you can focus on formatting it rather than trying to create it and format it at the same time. SAVE YOUR WORD-PROCESSED RESUME IN TEXT (.txt) FORMAT. This can usually be done by using the save as option found under the file utilities of your favorite word processor. If you are unable to locate a save as feature for your word processor consult your user's manual or contact customer support. After selecting save as choose text or Ascii text from the available list of formats. By saving your resume in text form, you will be able to add HTML formatting tags more easily. Although you could save your file in other formats, saving in text format will make it easier to edit because text file format does not save any formatting information. Other file formats embed formatting information like boldface, italics, and indentations as part of the essay, file. When you view or edit word processor formatted files you will see formatting information that is essay, unreadable by HTML browsers, thus you will need to delete it before you will be able to proceed. Editors allow you to essay on generation, change files without embedding formatting options such as boldface, italics and underscoring into the file.
Many editors are available to use. Some of the most common are: edit on DOS machines and PCs; emacs and vi on UNIX workstations; and edit on VAX/VMS machines. You can also use your favorite word processor to open a text file. For more information on the editor you will use, consult your system administrator or read your user's manual. Which editor you should use depends upon algebra solving the type of system you are using and your preference between the editors on your system. Make sure you use an y editor that you are familiar with. By using an unfamiliar editor you will find yourself spending most of your time trying to learn to use the writing essays, editor rather than actually creating your resume. On Generation Y? Throughout the essay, remainder of this document I will base the steps on the DOS editor and essay on generation a generic word processor. To open your resume, first open the editor by typing edit at a DOS prompt, or the appropriate command for the editor you intend to use. Paying? Next, choose the on generation, Open File option from the FILE menu. World? Fill in y the filename you choose earlier or use the paying college essay, browse feature to essay, locate the file.
Elements of an HTML document are denoted using HTML tags. An HTML tag usually consists of help, a left angle bracket ( ). Tags are also usually paired (e.g. ltP and essay lt/P), the first is used to brainstorming writing, identify the y, beginning of the element and brainstorming the second (usually lt/tagname) identifies the end of the element. Some tags may also contain additional information. This information should be placed inside the angle brackets. For example, to display a paragraph using full justification use ltP ALIGN=justifygt.
HTML documents have a minimum requirement of tags. These tags are required by HTML browsers in order to recognize a file as a HTML file. The following is a summary of the required HTML tags: The required HTML tags must be placed in the appropriate order inside and HTML file. The following HTML is a simple example of the minimum HTML document. Using indentation can greatly improve the looks of your HTML, make it easier to read, and make it much easier to maintain. Essay? Although indentation is not required, you should always use it to improve your HTML. War 1 Essay? The benefits greatly outweigh the extra time it takes to write your HTML. HTML browsers ignore extra white-space therefore the indentation will not be visible when the document is viewed using a HTML browser. Essay? Here is the previous example written using indentation to make it easier to read. ADD ADDITIONAL HTML FORMATTING TAGS AS NECESSARY.
The use of essay questions, additional HTML tags will greatly enhance the essay, appearance of your resume. People Essay? HTML contains numerous tags to use, in addition many new tags will be added in the future. I could not possibly cover every tag here. However, I will briefly describe some of the essay y, commonly used and ways to help essay most useful tags. For advanced options, or a more detailed list you should obtain a copy of the latest HTML reference manual. This manual can be found on the world wide web at http://www.sandia.gov/sci_compute/html_ref.html. The following table contains many of the most common and most useful HTML tags. You can use any of essay, these tags by brainstorming essays simply placing the begin tag, the text to format, and the end tag directly in your HTML document. You will find it useful to view your document as you make changes. Essay Y? See step 9 for brainstorming writing instructions on how to view your current HTML document. Essay On Generation? By doing this, you will become familiar with the effects of the world essay, tags.
In order to ensure no word processor formatting options are saved into essay on generation y your file you should save your resume as a text file. However, when you choose your filename you should give it the .html or .htm extension. Problem? To do this choose save as from the file menu. Next you should choose the text or ASCII text format from the available format list. On Generation? Finally, type your filename in the filename input box as filename.html or filename.htm where filename is the name you wish to writing essays, call your file (e.g. resume.html). CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME. While creating images can be very fun and exciting, it is also very time consuming.
There are many tools available to help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and MsPaint. For information on on generation y how to use these tools you should consult your user's manual. An alternative to creating custom images is to find a non-copyrighted image on the world wide web and copy it. One method of locating useful and writing free images is to essay y, view clipart collections available on the web such as Caboodles of Clipart. Another method of locating useful images is to use the Yahoo search engine and search for the image. To do this simply type image:keyword in the Yahoo's search box and click on the search button. This type of searching is problem, very time consuming and often does not result in essay any useful images. If you are unable to create or locate the image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to create the image for brainstorming writing you. Although images can improve the appearance of your resume, you should use them sparingly. Often the quality of your resume decreases proportionally with an increase in essay the number of images you add.
Any graphics you use (except for a background) should be relatively small in help with degree essays size. Essay On Generation Y? Most web developers agree that large images take longer to load and will in turn drive impatient viewers away from your page. In addition, you should keep the content of your images on a professional level unless the image directly relates to your job qualification. Writing? For example it is acceptable to have cartoons you've created on your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist. However, you should consider placing any such images on a second page and creating a link to it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6). To insert an image into your HTML resume open your resume in your editor, then use the ltIMG SRCgt tag to specify the location and filename of essay y, your image. For example, to display an image called computer.gif that is 32x45 in size, use the following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt. All images should be in to help essay the .GIF or .JPG file format.
If you see a gray box with three small dots in it rather than your image, then the browser was unable to load your image. On Generation? Possible causes of this problem are: you used an incompatible file format, the image does not exist, you did not specify the correct filename or had a typographical error in the directory/filename, or the file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the file permissions of an image to 770. See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for help with setting file permissions). Be sure to save your resume after you make any changes. OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER.
Open your HTML browser by clicking on its Windows Icon, or by typing its execution command at the command prompt. Help With? There are many browsers available for use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and ICOMM. Consult your user's manual for help with using your HTML browser. Open your resume by clicking on the Open File option on essay the File menu. Next, type the filename you choose earlier in the filename input box or using the browse feature to locate the file, then click on the ok button.
Your resume should be displayed in essay the browser window. Viewing your resume in an HTML browser is an excellent way to ensure the content of your resume. REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and make any necessary changes. Once you are familiar with the essay on generation y, process of ways essay, creating a HTML document, most of these steps can be performed as necessary in any order. Essay On Generation? You should get your resume to a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. In order to ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on each of the links you've created using your HTML browser. Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links. Broken links are highly unprofessional and will affect the impression a potential employer has on your resume. Paying College Athlete? Broken links are usually the result of on generation y, a typographical error or a link to a web site that no longer exists. Because the web is constantly changing, you should only create hypertext links to sites that are relatively stable.
In order for your resume to pigman essay questions, be visible to the rest of the world, you must have current internet provider. Many universities provide the resources for students to install their resumes. Contact your University Webmaster to y, obtain information. With Essays? You can often locate the essay, Webmaster through an email address on the universities main web page. After you have completed your HTML resume, copy it and to help essay all of the images you have used to essay on generation, the directory your web provider specifies. After installing your HTML resume you should always test it. Visit the URL your web provider supplies to insure it was installed properly. You should always respond to potential employers that contact you as soon as possible.
In addition you should always mail a paper copy of your resume to any potential employers. By showing sincere interest, you will increase an employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Java Report . March/April 1996. Java Report is a relatively new magazine for software developers using the Java environment. Java is a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and delivering interactive content across the Web. Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and corporate issues to bring the reader a broader range of help, information. In one of the articles Philip David Meese does an excellent job of explaining to the reader how to create his/her first Java application. On Generation? His article was well written and was equivalent in content to a small course. The article The Java Tutor provides clear and concise information as well as easy to understand example code. I strongly agree with Mr.
Meese's confidant statement by the time you finish reading this article, you'll be able to develop a Java application. An entire section of Java Report is devoted to paying college, Product Review. In this section the authors review Java related products and essay on generation y provide information to the reader. This information was the equivalent of ways, a Consumer Reports article. This section is a great source of information about on generation y individual products. In general, Java Report is a great source of information relating to the use and development of Java applications for any software developer. However, some of the algebra solving, technical articles may be beyond the scope of the average reader.
Rampe, David. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt. The New York Times . 3 February 1997, sec. Essay? C6. In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the advantages and disadvantages of an HTML resume. Algebra Problem Solving? The article, which appeared in y The New York Times' Taking In the Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes. With Essays? Some of the topics Mr. Rampe discusses includes the searchability of essay y, HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and the dehumanization of the process. Mr. Rampe also discusses the war 1 questions, importance of writing your HTML resume in the proper fashion, to the computer.
He states that you must resolve mentally to address your resume to 'Dear Computer. ' and just ignore the y, dehumanization of it all. In addition, the article provides the essay questions, URLs for eleven electronic sources to help the on generation, reader get started. Each of the sources listed are excellent sources of information and should be reviewed by anyone who decides to create and HTML resume. Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on the World Wide Web to essay, help the essay on generation y, least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr. Rampe provides an ample amount of information and resources necessary to with degree, create an HTML resume. Rampe provides both the pros and the cons of an HTML resume in on generation an unbiased fashion, leaving the reader to decide the necessity of an HTML resume. Sandia National Laboratories.
HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in my opinion, the most complete and useful source of HTML information. Although the manual is currently over a year old, the information it contains is accurate, precise and very helpful. The HTML Reference Manual begins with and college athlete essay introduction to HTML in general, then lists important terms and definitions. Essay On Generation? Next the authors validate the to help essay, document's content by discussing the conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to as HTML Version 2. The authors also discuss the importance of Sandia requirements for essay on generation y specific HTML elements. Next the authors discuss the college athlete, general breakdown of HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and essay Internal Icons. Finally, the authors break down over one hundred HTML elements into a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in content of, and variations. In addition the document contains an easy to use index which allows the reader to jump directly to any element of interest. The HTML Reference Manual provides the most complete reference manual available.
In addition it is well written, well organized and world war 1 essay questions very easy to use. On Generation Y? This document is an excellent source of pigman essay questions, information for both the novice and expert HTML programmers. Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by their respective owners.
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2012 Person of the Year: Barack Obama, the President. The campaign wasn’t pretty, and essay y, the economy worse. but he reasserted himself as a potent architect for a changing America. Twenty-seven years after driving from New York City to Chicago in ways disabled people essay, a $2,000 Honda Civic for on generation, a job that probably wouldn’t amount to much, Barack Obama, in better shape but with grayer hair, stood in help with degree essays, the presidential suite on the top floor of the Fairmont Millennium Park hotel as flat screens announced his re-election as President of the essay y, United States. The networks called Ohio earlier than predicted, so his aides had to hightail it down the hall to problem, join his family and friends. On Generation! They encountered a room of high fives and fist pumps, hugs and relief. Ways People Essay! The final days of any campaign can alter the psyches of even the on generation, most experienced political pros.
At some point, there is nothing to do but wait. Members of Obama’s team responded in the only rational way available to them — by acting irrationally. They turned neckties into magic charms and facial hair into essay questions, a talisman and compulsively repeated past behaviors so as not to jinx what seemed to be working. In Boca Raton, Fla., before the last debate, they dispatched advance staff to find a greasy-spoon diner because they had eaten at a similar joint before the second debate, on New York’s Long Island. They sent senior strategist David Axelrod a photograph of the essay on generation, tie he had to find to paying college essay, wear on election night: the same one he wore in 2008. Several staffers on Air Force One stopped shaving, like big-league hitters in the playoffs. Even the President succumbed, playing basketball on Election Day at the same court he played on before winning in 2008. But now it was done, and reason had returned. Ever since the campaign computers started raising the odds of essay on generation victory from solving, near even to something like surefire, Obama had been thinking a lot about what it meant to win without the lightning-in-a-bottle quality of essay on generation that first national campaign. The Obama effect was not ephemeral anymore, no longer reducible to what had once been mocked as “that hopey-changey stuff.” It could be measured — in wars stopped and started; industries saved, restructured or reregulated; tax cuts extended; debt levels inflated; terrorists killed; the health-insurance system reimagined; and gay service members who could walk in uniform with their partners.
It could be seen in the new faces who waited hours to vote and in algebra problem, the new ways campaigns are run. America debated and decided this year: history would not record Obama’s presidency as a fluke. So after his staff arrived, he left his family in the main room of the suite and stepped out to talk with his three top advisers, Axelrod, political strategist David Plouffe and Jim Messina, his campaign manager. He wanted to tell them what this victory meant, because it was very different the essay on generation y, second time. “This one’s more satisfying than ’08,” he said. “It wasn’t just about what I was going to do as President. It’s what I’ve done.” In the end, the outcome would not even be very close, and this realization was sinking in, unleashing something, dropping a shield he had been carrying for a long time. Over three days in November, the man known for his preternatural cool won re-election and cried twice in public.
And then, trying to find meaning in a tragedy in Connecticut, he did it again, all but breaking down in the White House Briefing Room. In mid-December, as Obama settles into one of the Oval Office’s reupholstered chairs — brown leather instead of Bush’s blue and gold candy stripes — the validation of pigman essay Election Day still hovers around him, suggesting that his second four years in office may turn out to be quite different from his first. Beyond the Oval Office, overwhelming challenges remain: deadlocked fiscal-cliff talks; a Federal Reserve that predicts years of high unemployment; and more unrest in places like Athens, Cairo and Damascus. But the President seems unbound and on generation, gives inklings of an problem ambition he has kept in check ever since he arrived at the White House to essay on generation y, find a nation in crisis. He leans back, tea at ways to help essay, his side, legs crossed, to explain what he thinks just happened. On Generation Y! “It was easy to think that maybe 2008 was the anomaly,” he says. Algebra Problem! “And I think 2012 was an y indication that, no, this is not an anomaly. We’ve gone through a very difficult time. The American people have rightly been frustrated at athlete, the pace of change, and the economy is still struggling, and y, this President we elected is imperfect. And yet despite all that, this is who we want to essay questions, be.” He smiles. “That’s a good thing.” Bjarne Jonasson for TIME.
The Campaign Team : David Simas ran Obama’s opinion-research team, including focus groups; Stephanie Cutter managed the daily effort to defend Obama and essay on generation y, dismantle Romney; David Axelrod , co-author of the Obama campaign story, oversaw the entire strategy from Chicago; Jim Messina , the campaign manager, designed, built and ran the ways to help disabled people essay, whole campaign from scratch; Jim Margolis , the TV adman, relentlessly bombarded swing-state airwaves for months; Jeremy Bird , the grassroots organizer, created a smarter, larger Obama army than in 2008. Two years ago, Republicans liked to say that the only hard thing Obama ever did right was beating Hillary Clinton in the primary, and in electoral terms, there was some truth to essay on generation y, that. In 2012 the GOP hoped to cast him as an world inspiring guy who was not up to the job. But now we know the difference between the wish and the thing, the hype and the man in the office. On Generation! He stands somewhat shorter, having won 4 million fewer votes and writing essays, two fewer states than in essay on generation, 2008. But his 5 million-vote margin of victory out of 129 million ballots cast shocked experts in both parties, and it probably would have been higher had so much of algebra solving New York and New Jersey not stayed home after Hurricane Sandy. He won many of the y, toughest battlegrounds walking away: Virginia by 4 points, Colorado by 5 and the lily white states of Iowa and pigman, New Hampshire by 6. Essay On Generation! He untied Ohio’s knotty heartland politics, picked the Republican lock on Florida Cubans and won Paul Ryan’s hometown of Janesville, Wis. (Those last two data points especially caught the President’s interest.) He will take the oath on Jan. 20 as the first Democrat in more than 75 years to get a majority of the popular vote twice. Only five other Presidents have done that in all of U.S. College Essay! history. With a focus on compassion, the leader of the Catholic Church has become a new voice of on generation conscience. Managing Editor Nancy Gibbs explains why Francis is paying college, TIME#8217;s pick for Person of the Year 2013.
One year told in fast forward. Remembering Those We Lost in 2013. See what @TIME users have to say about Pope Francis being selected as the 2013 Person of the Year.
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American Literature/Colonial Period (1620s-1776) American Literature, defined here as it traditionally has been to be the literature of the United States, or as written on land that would one day become the United States, has as its beginning date 1583, the year the earliest English writing explorers started to write about the new continent. Some date the on generation y, end of the Colonial Period as early as 1763, the start of the French and Indian War, the ways people essay, results of which set in motion a chain of events that led the colonies to on generation y, seek independence from Great Britain. Others set it as late as 1789, the year the U.S. Constitution went into effect.
This text splits the difference by using 1776, the year the Declaration of help degree, Independence was signed, as the essay y, cutoff year for the period. This year is a guideline not a rigidly held cutoff. The writing of the help, period varied greatly in terms of quality and subject, but less so in terms of essay on generation, genre. For the sake of classification, in fact, all of the literature of the period can be broken down into just ten genres: Not all of these genres span the entire period, although a few do. Many American literature textbooks cover the colonial period genre by genre.
The danger in doing this is time distortion. This period of literature spans almost 300 years, longer by pigman questions far than all of the other periods of literature put together. The other problem with covering this period by genre is that many of its most famous writers wrote in more than one genre, so the same writer must be considered multiple times. Essay. A final disadvantage is the proximity of many of the genres to essays, another genre. For example, how different can a work in philosophy be from a religious tract when a religious background is y assumed by the author? Many political writers touch heavily on history, and vice versa. Given these considerations, it is more fruitful to cover this period diachronically while keeping possible genres in mind. Aside from span of time, another consideration that makes this period unique from paying college athlete all the others is that the writers in this period had no idea they were writing anything that could be classified as American literature.
These writers were mostly British, and all were heavily indebted to British literature writing conventions long since established in the motherland. No other period of American literature is as derivative of English literature as the colonial period. Relation to English Literature Edit. The British claimed most of the Atlantic seaboard north of on generation, Florida as belonging to Britain soon after Columbus discovered land across the Atlantic Ocean. Henry VII sent John Cabot to essays, chart out the essay on generation, regions or provinces of the heathen and infidel, whatsoever they may be as early as 1497. However, circumstances never arose for England to world essay questions, make good on her claims until late during Elizabeth's reign. When England finally did establish her first permanent settlement in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia, and a few years later in Massachusetts, her primary motives were: The literature produced in the part of America known as the United States did not begin as an independent literature. England bestowed on essay on generation the earliest settlers the English language, books, and modes of thought. England had an established literature long before the first permanent settlement across the Atlantic was considered. Shakespeare, for example, had died only four years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth.
For nearly two hundred years after the to help disabled, first English settlements in America, the majority of the works read there were written by English authors. The hard struggle necessary to obtain a foothold in a wilderness was not favorable to the early development of a literature. Those who remained in England could not clear away the forest, till the soil, and contend with Indians, but they could write the books and send them across the ocean. The early settlers were for essay on generation the most part content to allow English authors to do this. For these reasons it is unsurprising that early American literature does not match in quality that produced in England during the same period. When Americans began to write in larger numbers, there was at first close adherence to English models. For a while it seemed as if American literature would be only a feeble imitation of these models. Beginning in the eighteenth century, that started to change and some colonial writing was considered to have merit in its own right. Questions. The literature of England gained something from America as well.
As early as the nineteenth century, English critics, like John Addington Symonds, Robert Louis Stevenson, and Edward Dowden, have testified to essay, the power of the democratic element in American literature and willingly admitted that without a study of Cooper, Poe, and paying college athlete Hawthorne no one could give an adequate account of the on generation y, landmarks of achievement in fiction written in English. French critics too have always admired Poe. In a certain field Poe and Hawthorne occupy a unique place in brainstorming writing, the world's achievement. Nor are men like Herman Melville and Mark Twain common in any literature. Some of the reasons why American literature developed along original lines and thus conveyed a message of y, its own to the world are to be found in the changed environment and the varying problems and ideals of American life. Even more important than the changed ways of earning a living and ways to help the difference in climate, animals, and y scenery were the struggles leading to paying athlete essay, the Revolutionary War, the essay on generation y, formation and guidance of the Republic, and the Civil War. All these combined to give individuality to American thought and literature.
In 1607 the first permanent English colony within the present limits of the United States was planted at with Jamestown in Virginia. The colony was founded for commercial reasons by the London Company, an organization formed to secure profits from colonization. The colonists and the company that furnished their ship and outfit expected large profits from the gold mines and the precious stones which were believed to await discovery. On Generation. Of course, the adventurers were also influenced by the honor and pigman essay questions the romantic interest which they thought would result from a successful settlement. When the expedition sailed from England in December, 1606, Michael Drayton, an Elizabethan poet, wrote verses dedicated To the Virginian Voyage. These stanzas show the on generation y, reason for sending the colonizers to Virginia: The majority of the early Virginian colonists, however, were unfit for their task. Questions. Contemporary accounts tell of the essay on generation y, many unruly gallants, packed hither by their friends to escape ill destinies. Questions. Beggars, vagabonds, indentured servants, kidnapped girls, even convicts, were sent to Jamestown. After the execution of Charles I in 1649, and the setting up of the on generation, Puritan Commonwealth, many of the royalists, or Cavaliers, as they were called, came to Virginia to escape oppressive Puritan rule. They became the algebra problem, ancestors of on generation, Presidents and ways to help disabled people essay statesmen, and of many of the aristocratic families of the essay y, South.
The ideals expressed by Captain John Smith, the leader and preserver of the Jamestown colony, are worthy to rank beside those of the colonizers of New England. Looking back at his achievement in Virginia, he wrote, Then seeing we are not born for ourselves but each to help other . Algebra Solving. Seeing honor is essay on generation our lives' ambition . and seeing by no means would we be abated of the dignities and glories of our predecessors; let us imitate their virtues to athlete essay, be worthily their successors. The Puritans Colonize New England Edit. During the period from 1620 to 1640, large numbers of English people migrated to that part of America now known as New England. These emigrants were not impelled by hope of wealth, or ease, or pleasure. They were called Puritans because they wished to purify the Church of England from what seemed to them great abuses; and the purpose of these men in essay, emigrating to America was to lay the foundations of a state built upon their religious principles. These people came for an intangible something--liberty of conscience, a fuller life of the spirit--which has never commanded a price on any stock exchange in the world. Degree. They looked beyond. These Puritans had been more than one century in the making. We hear of them in the time of Wycliffe (1324-1384). Henry VIII formed the Church of England in 1534.
Opposed by Catholics and some Protestant religious groups, some could not reconcile their beliefs to worship in England's official church. For these dissenting Protestants, their religion was a constant command to put the unseen above the seen, the eternal above the y, temporal, to satisfy the algebra solving, aspiration of the spirit. On Generation Y. They would not accommodate the perceived Romishe taint that remained in the Church of England. James I (reigned 1603–1625) told them that he would harry them out of the kingdom unless they conformed to the rites of the Established Church. His son and successor Charles I (reigned 1625–1649) called to his aid Archbishop Laud (1573–1645), a bigoted official of that church. Laud hunted the college athlete, dissenting clergy like wild beasts, threw them into prison, whipped them in on generation, the pillory, branded them, slit their nostrils, and mutilated their ears. John Cotton, pastor of the church of Boston, England, was told that if he had been guilty only brainstorming writing essays of an infraction of essay on generation, certain of the Ten Commandments, he might have been pardoned, but since his crime was Puritanism, he must suffer.
He had great trouble in escaping on a ship bound for the New England Boston. Professor Tyler says: New England has perhaps never quite appreciated its great obligations to Archbishop Laud. It was his overmastering hate of nonconformity, it was the vigilance and vigor and ways disabled essay consecrated cruelty with which he scoured his own diocese and afterward all England, and essay on generation hunted down and hunted out the ministers who were committing the unpardonable sin of dissent, that conferred upon the principal colonies of New England their ablest and noblest men. It should be noted that the pigman, Puritan colonization of New England took place in a comparatively brief space of essay on generation, time, during the pigman essay, twenty years from 1620 to 1640. Until 1640 persecution drove the Puritans to New England in multitudes, but in that year they suddenly stopped coming. During the essay on generation y, one hundred and twenty-five years following that date, more persons, it is paying college athlete essay supposed, went back from the New to the Old England than came from the Old England to the New, says Professor Tyler. The year 1640 marks the essay on generation, assembling of the Long Parliament, which finally brought to the block both Archbishop Laud (1645) and King Charles I (1649), and chose the great Puritan, Oliver Cromwell, to lead the essays, Commonwealth. The leading men in the colonization of Virginia and New England were born in the reign of Queen Elizabeth (1558–1603), and they and essay on generation y their descendants showed on this side of the Atlantic those characteristics which made the Elizabethan age preeminent. In the first place, the Elizabethans possessed initiative.
This power consists, first, in having ideas, and secondly, in passing from the ideas to the suggested action. Some people merely dream. The Elizabethans dreamed glorious dreams, which they translated into action. They defeated the Spanish Armada; they circumnavigated the ways to help, globe; they made it possible for Shakespeare's pen to mold the thought and to influence the actions of the world. If we except those indentured servants and apprentices who came to America merely because others brought them, we shall find not only that the first colonists were born in an age distinguished for its initiative, but also that they came because they possessed this characteristic in a greater degree than those who remained behind. It was easier for the majority to stay with their friends; hence England was not depopulated. The few came, those who had sufficient initiative to cross three thousand miles of unknown sea, who had the essay on generation, power to ways, dream dreams of a new commonwealth, and the will to embody those dreams in action.
In the second place, the y, Elizabethans were ingenious, that is, they were imaginative and resourceful. Impelled by the mighty forces of the Reformation and the Revival of Learning which the brainstorming, England of Elizabeth alone felt at essay on generation y one and the same time, the Elizabethans craved and obtained variety of experience, which kept the help with degree essays, fountainhead of ingenuity filled. It is instructive to follow the lives of y, Elizabethans as different as Sir Philip Sidney, William Shakespeare, Sir Walter Raleigh, Captain John Smith, and John Winthrop, and to note the varied experiences of each. Yankee ingenuity had an Elizabethan ancestry. The hard conditions of the New World merely gave an essay questions opportunity to on generation y, exercise to the utmost an ingenuity which the colonists brought with them. In the third place, the Elizabethans were unusually democratic; that is, the different classes mingled together in a marked degree.
This intermingling was due in part to increased travel, to the desire born of the New Learning, to live as varied and as complete a life as possible, and to the absence of overspecialization among individuals. This chance for paying college varied experience with all sorts and on generation conditions of men enabled Shakespeare to speak to all humanity. All England was represented in his plays. When the Reverend Thomas Hooker, born in the last half of Elizabeth's reign, was made pastor at Hartford, Connecticut, he suggested to his flock a democratic form of government much like that under which we now live. American life and literature owe their most interesting traits to pigman, these three Elizabethan qualities: initiative, ingenuity, and democracy. On Generation Y. The Cambridge University graduate, the cooper, cloth-maker, printer, and blacksmith had the initiative to set out for the New World, the ingenuity to deal with its varied exigencies, and the democratic spirit that enabled them to ways to help disabled people essay, work side by side, no matter how diverse their former trades, modes of life, and social condition. The hero of the Jamestown colony, and its savior during the first two years, was Captain John Smith, born in Willoughby, Lincolnshire, in 1579, twenty-four years before the death of Elizabeth and thirty-seven before the death of Shakespeare. Smith was a man of Elizabethan stamp: active, ingenious, imaginative, craving new experiences.
While a mere boy, he could not stand the tediousness of ordinary life, and y so betook himself to the forest where he could hunt and play knight. In the first part of his young manhood he crossed the Channel, voyaged in the Mediterranean, fought the war 1 essay, Turks, killing three of them in single combat, was taken prisoner and enslaved by the Tartars, killed his inhuman master, escaped into Russia, went thence through Europe to Africa, was in desperate naval battles, returned to England, sailing thence for Virginia, which he reached at the age of twenty-eight. He soon became president of the Jamestown colony and labored strenuously for its preservation. The first product of his pen in essay, America was A True Relation of Virginia , written in 1608, the essay questions, year in which John Milton was born. The last work written by Smith in America is entitled: A Map of Virginia, with a Description of the Country, the Commodities, People, Government, and Religion . His description of the Indians shows his capacity for quickly noting their traits:
Smith has often been accused of boasting, and some have said that he was guilty of essay, great exaggeration or something worse, but it is certain that he repeatedly braved hardships, extreme dangers, and captivity among the world war 1 questions, Indians to provide food for the colony and to survey Virginia. After carefully editing Captain John Smith's Works in on generation, a volume of 983 pages, Professor Edwin Arber says: For [our] own part, beginning with doubtfulness and war 1 essay questions wariness we have gradually come to the unhesitating conviction, not only of Smith's truthfulness, but also that, in regard to all personal matters, he systematically understates rather than exaggerates anything he did. Although by far the greater part of Smith's literary work was done after he returned to England, yet his two booklets written in essay on generation, America entitle him to a place in with essays, colonial literature. He had the Elizabethan love of achievement, and he records his admiration for essay y those whose 'pens writ what their swords did.' He was not an artist with his pen, but our early colonial literature is the richer for his rough narrative and for the description of Virginia and the Indians. In one sense he gave the writing essays, Indian to literature, and that is his greatest achievement in literary history. Who has not heard the story of on generation y, his capture by the Indians, of his rescue from writing torture and death, by the beautiful Indian maiden, Pocahontas, of essay on generation y, her risking her life to save him a second time from Indian treachery, of her bringing corn and brainstorming writing preserving the on generation, colony from famine, of her visit to England in brainstorming writing, 1616, a few weeks after the essay, death of Shakespeare, of her royal reception as a princess, the daughter of an Indian king, of Smith's meeting her again in to help disabled people, London, where their romantic story aroused the essay, admiration of the court and the citizens for brainstorming the brown-eyed princess? It would be difficult to say how many tales of Indian adventure this romantic story of Pocahontas has suggested. It has the honor of being the first of on generation, its kind written in the English tongue.
Did Pocahontas actually rescue Captain Smith? In his account of his adventures, written in solving, Virginia in 1608, he does not mention this rescue, but in his later writings he relates it as an on generation y actual occurrence. When Pocahontas visited London, this story was current, and there is brainstorming essays no evidence that she denied it. Professor Arber says, To deny the truth of the Pocahontas incident is to create more difficulties than are involved in its acceptance. Essay. But literature does not need to ask whether the with degree, story of Hamlet or of Pocahontas is true. If this unique story of American adventure is a product of Captain Smith's creative imagination, the literary critic must admit the captain's superior ability in essay on generation y, producing a tale of such vitality. If the story is true, then our literature does well to remember whose pen made this truth one of the most persistent of our early romantic heritages. Algebra Problem. He is as well known for the story of Pocahontas as for all of his other achievements.
The man who saved the Virginia colony and who first suggested a new field to the writer of American romance is rightly considered one of the most striking figures in our early history, even if he did return to England in essay on generation, less than three years and end his days there in 1631. American literature is widely considered to begin with Captain John Smith. It is best to read him in his own words in order to form your own judgements. Pigman Questions. Fortunatley, his works are available for free on on generation y the Internet. Visit the following URLs, read as much of Smith as interests you, and we'll see you when you return in order to writing essays, continue our voyage through American literature: A True Relation of Such Occurrences and Accidents of essay on generation y, Note as Happened in Virginia (1608) http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/jamestown-browsemod?id=J1007 An Accidence, or The Pathway to Experience Necessary for ways essay all Young Seamen (1626) is not available currently online. A technical manual, Smith's short pamphlet on seamanship is on generation y illustrated with incidents from his own experiences. It would be enlarged as A Sea Grammar in 1627.
Advertisements for the Unexperienced Planters of New England, or Anywhere (1631) http://www.archive.org/details/advertisementsfo00smit Captain James Smith was not the only Englishman writing in the colonies in the early seventeenth century. William Strachey, a contemporary of Shakespeare and secretary of the Virginian colony, wrote at Jamestown and sent to London in 1610 the manuscript of A True Repertory of the Wrack and Redemption of algebra problem, Sir Thomas Gates, Kt., upon and from the Islands of the Bermudas . This is a story of y, shipwreck on the Bermudas and of escape in help with degree essays, small boats. The book is memorable for y the description of a storm at sea, and it is possible that it may even have furnished suggestions to Shakespeare for The Tempest . If so, it is athlete interesting to compare these with what they produced in Shakespeare's mind. Strachey tells how the sea swelled above the clouds and essay on generation y gave battle unto heaven. He speaks of an apparition of a little round light, like a faint star, trembling and streaming along with a sparkling blaze, half the height upon the main mast, and shooting sometimes from to help people essay shroud to essay on generation y, shroud. Ariel says to Prospero: Strachey voices the current belief that the Bermudas were harassed by tempests, devils, wicked spirits, and other fearful objects. Shakespeare as Ferdinand with fewer words intensify Strachey's picture: The possibility that incidents arising out of Virginian colonization may have turned Shakespeare's attention to the still vex'd Bermoothes and given him suggestions for one of his great plays lends added interest to Strachey's True Repertory.
But, aside from Shakespeare, this has an essays interest of its own. It has the Anglo-Saxon touch in depicting the wrath of the essay on generation y, sea, and it shows the character of the early American colonists who braved a wrath like this. As was the questions, case with Captain Smith, William Strachey's work too is available on the Internet. Enjoy reading your fill and we'll see you upon your return. A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir THOMAS GATES Knight original-spelling version at Virtual Jamestown.
A True Reportory of the Wreck and Redemption of Sir Thomas Gates, Knight modern-spelling version at Virtual Jamestown. For The Colony in Virginea Britannia. Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall, c. original-spelling version at Virtual Jamestown. For The Colony in essay on generation, Virginia Brittannia: Laws Divine, Moral and Martial, etc. modern-spelling version at Virtual Jamestown. War 1 Essay Questions. The Historie of essay on generation, Travaile Into Virginia Britannia at Google Books.
A Dictionary of Powhatan at Google Books. During his stay in brainstorming, the colony as its treasurer, he translated ten books of Ovid's Metamorphoses , sometimes working by the light of a pine knot. This work is rescued from the class of mere translation by its literary art and imaginative interpretation, and it possesses for us an additional interest because of its nativity amid such surroundings. Two lines telling how Philemon. show that his environment aided him somewhat in the translation.
He himself says of this version that it was bred in the new world, whereof it cannot but participate, especially having wars and tumults to bring it to light, instead of the muses. He was read by both Dryden and Pope in their boyhood, and on generation the form of their verse shows his influence. The only original poem which merits our attention in the early Virginian colony was found soon after the Revolutionary War in a collection of manuscripts, known as the Burwell Papers . This poem is an elegy on the death of Nathaniel Bacon (1676), a young Virginian patriot and military hero, who resisted the problem solving, despotic governor, Sir William Berkeley. It was popularly believed that Bacon's mysterious death was due to poison. An unknown friend wrote the elegy in defense of Bacon and essay on generation y his rebellion. These lines from that elegy show a strength unusual in colonial poetry: Clerk of the Council of athlete, Virginia, he published in London in 1705 a History and Present State of Virginia . This is today a readable account of the colony and its people in the first part of the y, eighteenth century. This selection shows that in those early days Virginians were noted for what has come to people, be known as southern hospitality: Colonel William Byrd (1674-1744) Edit. A wealthy Virginian, he was commissioned by the Virginian colony to run a line between it and North Carolina.
He then wrote a History of the Dividing Line run in the Year 1728 . This book is a record of personal experiences, and is as interesting as its title is forbidding. This selection describes the Dismal Swamp, through which the line ran: These two selections show that American literature, even before the Revolution, came to be something more than an essay on generation y imitation of English literature. No critic could say that they might as well have been written in college, London as in Virginia. They also show how much eighteenth-century prose had improved in form. Even in England, modern prose may almost be said to begin with John Dryden, who died at the beginning of the eighteenth century. In addition to improvement in form, we may note the appearance of a new quality: humor. America's earliest writers have few traces of essay y, humor because colonization was a serious life and death affair to them. After the founding of the Plymouth colony in 1620, Virginia and paying New England developed along different lines. In New England there were more dwellers in towns, more democracy and mingling of all classes, more popular education, and more literature.
The ruling classes of essay, Virginia were mostly descendants of the brainstorming writing essays, Cavaliers who had sympathized with monarchy, while the Puritans had fought the Stuart kings and had approved a Commonwealth. In Virginia a wealthy class of essay on generation, landed gentry came to be an pigman questions increasing power in the political history of the country. The ancestors of George Washington and many others who did inestimable service to the nation were among this class. It was long the fashion for this aristocracy to send their children to England to on generation y, be educated, while the Puritans trained theirs at home. New England started a printing press, and was printing books by pigman 1640. In 1671 Sir William Berkeley, governor of Virginia, wrote, I thank God there are no free schools, nor printing, and I hope we shall not have these hundred years; for learning has brought disobedience and heresy and on generation sects into the world, and printing has developed them. Producers of literature need the stimulus of town life. The South was chiefly agricultural. The plantations were large, and the people lived in far greater isolation than in New England, where not only the town, but more especially the church, developed a close social unit. One other reason served to make it difficult for a poet of the plowman type, like Robert Burns, or for an author from the general working class, like Benjamin Franklin, to arise in the South.
Labor was thought degrading, and solving the laborer did not find the same chance as at the North to on generation, learn from close association with the intelligent class. The reason for help essays this is given by Colonel William Byrd, from whom we have quoted in the preceding section. He wrote in 1736 of the leading men of the South: William Bradford was born in 1590 in on generation y, the Pilgrim district of England, in college athlete, the Yorkshire village of Austerfield, two miles north of Scrooby. While a child, he attended the religious meetings of the Puritans. At the age of eighteen he gave up a good position in essay on generation, the post service of England, and crossed to Holland to escape religious persecution. His History of Plymouth Plantation is not a record of the Puritans as a whole, but only of that branch known as the Pilgrims, who left England for war 1 essay questions Holland in 1607 and 1608, and who, after remaining there for essay nearly twelve years, had the world essay, initiative to be the first of their band to come to the New World, and to settle at Plymouth in 1620. For more than thirty years he was governor of the Plymouth colony, and he managed its affairs with the essay on generation y, discretion of a Washington and people the zeal of a Cromwell. His History tells the story of the Pilgrim Fathers from the time of the formation of their two congregations in England, until 1647. In 1897 the United States for the first time came into possession of the manuscript of y, this famous History of Plymouth Plantation , which had in some mysterious manner been taken from Boston in colonial times and had found its way into to help disabled people essay, the library of the Lord Bishop of on generation, London. Few of the English seem to have read it.
Even its custodian miscalled it The Log of the Mayflower, although after the ship finally cleared from problem England, only five incidents of the voyage are briefly mentioned: the death of a young seaman who cursed the Pilgrims on the voyage and made sport of their misery; the cracking of one of the main beams of the ship; the washing overboard in a storm of a good young man who was providentially saved; the death of a servant; and the sight of Cape Cod. On petition, the Lord Bishop of London generously gave this manuscript of 270 pages to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In a speech at the time of its formal reception, Senator Hoar eloquently summed up the subject matter of the volume as follows: In addition to essay on generation y, giving matter of unique historical importance, Bradford entertains his readers with an account of Squanto, the Pilgrims' tame Indian, of Miles Standish capturing the lord of misrule at Merrymount, and pigman of the failure of an experiment in essay on generation y, tilling the soil in common. Paying College Athlete. Bradford says that there was immediate improvement when each family received the full returns from working its own individual plot of ground. He thus philosophizes about this social experiment of the Pilgrims:
Both the subject matter of the essay on generation, early colonial prose in this manuscript compare favirably with that produced in England at the same time. On March 29, 1630, John Winthrop made the first entry in athlete essay, his Journal on board the ship Arbella, before he left the Isle of Wight for Massachusetts Bay. This Journal was to continue until a few months before his death in 1649, and essay on generation y was in after times to receive the dignified name of college athlete essay, History of New England , although it might more properly still be called his Journal , as its latest editor does indeed style it. John Winthrop was born in the County of Suffolk, England, in 1588, the year of the essay y, defeat of the Spanish Armada. He was a wealthy, well-educated Puritan, the owner of broad estates. As he paced the deck of the Arbella , the night before he sailed for Massachusetts, he knew that he was leaving comfort, home, friends, position, all for liberty of conscience.
Few men have ever voluntarily abandoned more than Winthrop, or clung more tenaciously to their ideals. After a voyage lasting more than two months, he settled with a large number of Puritans on the site of pigman questions, modern Boston. For the principal part of the time from his arrival in 1630 until his death in 1649, he served as governor of the essay, Massachusetts Bay Colony. Not many civil leaders of any age have shown more sagacity, patriotism, and algebra problem tireless devotion to duty than John Winthrop. His Journal is essay y a record of ways disabled people essay, contemporaneous events from 1630 to essay on generation, 1648. The early part of this work might with some justice have been called the Log of the Arbella . TRANSLITERATION OF FACSIMILE OF WINTHROP'S JOURNAL ANNO DOMINI 1630, MARCH 29, MONDAY. EASTER MONDAY.
The entry for Monday, April 12, 1630, is: The following entry for June 5, 1644, reflects an interesting side light on the government of Harvard, our first American college: Another entry for 1644 tells of one William Franklin, condemned for causing the death of his apprentice: Winthrop relates how Franklin appealed the case when he was found guilty, and how the Puritans inflicted the death penalty on him after searching the Bible for a rule on which to paying, base their decision. On Generation. The most noticeable qualities of this terrible story are its simplicity, its repression, its lack of striving after effect. Winthrop, Bradford, and Bunyan had learned from the 1611 version of the Bible to be content to present any situation as simply as possible and to rely on the facts themselves to secure the effect. Winthrop's finest piece of prose, Concerning Liberty , appears in an entry for the year 1645. Paying Essay. He defines liberty as the essay on generation y, power to do that which is good, just, and honest. This liberty you are to essay, stand for, with the hazard, not only of your goods, but of your lives, if need be. Winthrop saw clearly what many since his day have failed to see, that a government conducted by the people could not endure, if liberty meant more than this. Winthrop's Journal records almost anything which seemed important to the colonists.
Thus, he tells about storms, fires, peculiar deaths of animals, crimes, trials, Indians, labor troubles, arrival of ships, trading expeditions, troubles with England about the charter, politics, church matters, events that would point a moral, like the selfish refusal of the authorities to loan a quantity of gunpowder to the Plymouth colony and the subsequent destruction of that same powder by an explosion, or the y, drowning of a child in the well while the parents were visiting on to help disabled people essay Sunday. In short, this Journal gives valuable information about the civil, religious, and domestic life of the early days of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The art of modern prose writing was known neither in England nor in America in Winthrop's time. The wonder is that he told the story of this colony in such good form and on generation y that he still holds the interest of the reader so well. William Bradford and John Winthrop were governors of two religious commonwealths.
We must not forget that the Puritans came to world, America to secure a higher form of spiritual life. Essay. In the reign of writing essays, Elizabeth, it was thought that the y, Revival of Learning would cure all ills and unlock the ways people essay, gates of happiness. This hope had met with disappointment. Then Puritanism came, and ushered in a new era of spiritual aspiration for essay something better, nobler, and problem solving more satisfying than mere intellectual attainments or wealth or earthly power had been able to y, secure. The Puritans chose the essay, Bible as the guidebook to on generation, their Promised Land.
The long sermons to which they listened were chiefly biblical expositions. The Puritans considered the saving of the soul the most important matter, and pigman essay they neglected whatever form of culture did not directly tend toward that result. They thought that entertaining reading and other forms of amusement were contrivances of the devil to turn the soul's attention away from the Bible . Even beauty and art were considered handmaids of the essay on generation, Evil One. The Bible was read, reread, and constantly studied, and it took the place of secular poetry and writing essays prose. The New England Puritan believed in on generation, the theology of John Calvin, who died in 1564. His creed, known as Calvinism, emphasized the importance of the individual, of life's continuous moral struggle, which would land each soul in heaven or hell for writing essays all eternity. In the New England Primer , the children were taught the essay, first article of belief, as they learned the letter A: Calvinism stressed the doctrine of world war 1 essay questions, foreordination, that certain ones, the elect, had been foreordained to be saved. Thomas Shephard (1605–1649), one of the great Puritan clergy, fixed the mathematical ratio of the essay y, damned to the elect as a thousand to one. On the physical side, scientists have pointed out a close correspondence between Calvin's creed and the theory of evolution, which emphasizes the desperate struggle resulting from the survival of the fittest.
The fittest are the elect; those who perish in the contest, the damned. In the evolutionary struggle, only the solving, few survive, while untold numbers of the unfit, no matter whether seeds of plants, eggs of fish, human beings, or any other form of life, go to the wall. In spite of the apparent contradiction between free will and foreordination, each individual felt himself fully responsible for the saving of his soul. A firm belief in this tremendous responsibility made each one rise the stronger to meet the other responsibilities of life. Civil responsibility seemed easier to one reared in this school. The initiative bequeathed by Elizabethan times was increased by the Puritans' religion. Although there were probably as many university men in proportion to essay on generation, the population in early colonial Massachusetts as in England, the strength and direction of their religious ideals helped to turn their energy into activities outside the field of with degree essays, pure literature. In course of time, however, Nathaniel Hawthorne appeared to give lasting literary expression to this life.
The clergy occupied a leading place in both the civil and religious life of New England. Y. They were men of energy and ability, who could lead their congregations to Holland or to the wilds of New England. For the purpose in hand the paying athlete essay, world has never seen superior leaders. Many of essay on generation y, them were graduates of Cambridge University, England. Their great authority was based on character, education, and natural ability. Help With Degree Essays. A contemporary historian said of essay on generation, John Cotton, who came as pastor from the old to the new Boston in 1633, that whatever he delivered in the pulpit was soon put into an order of court . or set up as a practice in the church. The sermons, from two to four hours long, took the place of magazines, newspapers, and modern musical and theatrical entertainments. The church members were accustomed to hard thinking and they enjoyed it as a mental exercise. Their minds had not been rendered flabby by such a diet of world essay questions, miscellaneous trash or sensational matter as confronts modern readers.
Many of the congregation went with notebooks to record the different heads and essay the most striking thoughts in the sermon, such, for instance, as the following on brainstorming the dangers of idleness: The sermons were often doctrinal, metaphysical, and extremely dry, but it is a mistake to conclude that the clergy did not speak on topics of current interest. Winthrop in his Journal for 1639 relates how the Rev. John Cotton discussed whether a certain shopkeeper, who had been arraigned before the court for extortion, for essay y having taken in some small things, above two for one, was guilty of sin and should be excommunicated from the college athlete, church, or only publicly admonished. Cotton prescribed admonition and he laid down a code of ethics for the guidance of sellers. With the exception of Roger Williams (1604?-1683), who had the modern point of view in insisting on on generation y complete soul liberty, on disabled people essay the right of every man to think as he pleased on matters of religion, the Puritan clergy were not tolerant of other forms of worship. They said that they came to New England in order to worship God as they pleased. They never made the slightest pretense of establishing a commonwealth where another could worship as he pleased, because they feared that such a privilege might lead to a return of the persecution from which they had fled. If those came who thought differently about religion, they were told that there was sufficient room elsewhere, in Rhode Island, for on generation y instance, whither Roger Williams went after he was banished from Salem. The history of the Puritan clergy would have been more pleasing had they been more tolerant, less narrow, more modern, like Roger Williams.
Yet perhaps it is help best not to complain overmuch of the y, strange and somewhat repellent architecture of the bridge which bore us over the stream dividing the desert of royal and ecclesiastical tyranny from the Promised Land of our Republic. Let us not forget that the clergy insisted on popular education; that wherever there was a clergyman, there was almost certain to paying college essay, be a school, even if he had to essay on generation, teach it himself, and that the clergy generally spoke and to help essay acted as if they would rather be free among the dead than slaves among the living. The trend of Puritan theology and the hard conditions of life did not encourage the production of poetry. The Puritans even wondered if singing in church was not an exercise which turned the mind from God. The Reverend John Cotton investigated the question carefully under four main heads and six subheads, and he cited scriptural authority to show that Paul and Silas ( Acts , xvi., 25) had sung a Psalm in the prison.
Cotton therefore concluded that the Psalms might be sung in church. The divines in the country joined to translate into English metre the whole book of Psalms from the on generation, original Hebrew, and they probably made the worst metrical translation in existence. In their preface to this work, known as the Bay Psalm Book (1640), the first book of verse printed in writing, the British American colonies, they explained that they did not strive for a more poetic translation because God's altar needs not our polishings. The following verses from Psalm 87 are a sample of the so-called metrical translation which the Puritans sang: This Harvard graduate and Puritan preacher published in 1662 a poem setting forth some of the tenets of Calvinistic theology. This poem, entitled The Day of y, Doom, or a Poetical Description of the Great and Last Judgment , had the largest circulation of any colonial poem. The following lines represent a throng of infants at the left hand of the final Judge, pleading against the sentence of infant damnation: Wigglesworth represents the Almighty as replying: When we read verse like this, we realize how fortunate the Puritanism of Old England was to have one great poet schooled in the love of both morality and beauty.
John Milton's poetry shows not only his sublimity and high ideals, but also his admiration for beauty, music, and art. Wigglesworth's verse is inferior to much of the paying athlete, ballad doggerel, but it has a swing and a directness fitted to catch the popular ear and to lodge in the memory. While some of his work seems humorous to y, us, it would not have made that impression on ways disabled people essay the early Puritans. At the same time, we must not rely on on generation y verse like this for our understanding of their outlook on life and death. Beside Wigglesworth's lines we should place the epitaph, Reserved for a Glorious Resurrection, composed by the great orthodox Puritan clergyman, Cotton Mather (p. 46), for his own infant, which died unbaptized when four days old. It is well to remember that both the Puritans and their clergy had a quiet way of with essays, believing that God had reserved to himself the final interpretation of his own word. Colonial New England's best poet, or The Tenth Muse, as she was called by her friends, was a daughter of the essay on generation y, Puritan governor, Thomas Dudley, and became the wife of degree essays, another Puritan governor, Simon Bradstreet, with whom she came to New England in 1630. Although she was born before the death of Shakespeare, she seems never to have studied the works of that great dramatist. Her models were what Milton called the fantastics, a school of poets who mistook for on generation y manifestations of poetic power, far-fetched and help strained metaphors, oddities of expression, remote comparisons, conceits, and strange groupings of thought. She had especially studied Sylvester's paraphrase of The Divine Weeks and Works of the French poet Du Bartas, and probably also the works of poets like George Herbert (1593–1633), of the English fantastic school.
This paraphrase of Du Bartas was published in a folio of 1215 pages, a few years before Mrs. Bradstreet came to America. Y. This book shows the taste which prevailed in England in essay, the latter part of the first third of the seventeenth century, before Milton came into the ascendancy. The fantastic comparison between the Spirit Eternal, brooding upon chaos, and a hen, is shown in these lines from Du Bartas: A contemporary critic thought that he was giving her early work high praise when he called her a right Du Bartas girl. One of her early poems is The Four Elements , where Fire, Air, Earth, and Water. Such a debate could never be decided, but the subject was well suited to he fantastic school of poets because it afforded an essay y opportunity for much ingenuity of argument and for with degree far-fetched comparisons, which led nowhere. Late in life, in essay y, her poem, Contemplations , she wrote some genuine poetry, little marred by imitation of the fantastic school. Spenser seems to have become her master in later years.
No one without genuine poetic ability could have written such lines as: These lines show both poetic ease and power: The comparative excellence of brainstorming, her work in such an atmosphere and amid the domestic cares incident to rearing eight children is essay on generation remarkable. In 1647, Nathaniel Ward, who had been educated for the law, but who afterward became a clergyman, published a strange work known as The Simple Cobbler of Agawam, in America willing, as the sub-title continues, to essay questions, help mend his native country, lamentably tattered, both in the upper leather and sole, with all the honest stitches he can take. He had been assistant pastor at essay on generation Agawam (Ipswich) until ill health caused him to resign. He then busied himself in compiling a code of laws and in other writing before he returned to England in 1647. The following two sentences from his unique book show two points of the religious faith of the Puritans: (1) the world questions, belief in a personal devil always actively seeking the essay on generation y, destruction of mankind, and (2) the assumption that the help with degree essays, vitals of the elect are safe from the essay y, mortal sting of algebra problem, sin.
He is often a bitter satirist, a sort of colonial Carlyle, as this attack on woman shows: He does not hesitate to coin a word. The preceding short selection introduces us to nugiperous and on generation y nudiustertian. Next, he calls the women's tailor-made gowns the very pettitoes of infirmity, the giblets of help essays, perquisquilian toys. The spirit of a reformer always sees work to be done, and Ward emphasized three remedies for mid-seventeenth-century ills: (1) Stop toleration of departure from religious truth; (2) banish the frivolities of women and men; and (3) bring the on generation, civil war in England to a just end. In proportion to college essay, the population, his Simple Cobbler , designed to mend human ways, was probably as widely read as Carlyle's Sartor Resartus in later days. In criticism, Ward deserves to be remembered for these two lines: There was born in 1652 at Bishopstoke, Hampshire, England, a boy who sailed for New England when he was nine years old, and who became our greatest colonial diarist.
This was Samuel Sewall, who graduated from essay on generation Harvard in paying essay, 1671 and finally became chief justice of Massachusetts. His Diary runs with some breaks from essay on generation 1673 to 1729, the year before his death. Good diaries are scarce in any literature. Those who keep them seldom commit to writing many of the most interesting events and secrets of brainstorming essays, their lives. On Generation Y. This failing makes the majority of diaries and memoirs very dry, but this fault cannot be found with Samuel Sewall. His Diary will more and more prove a mine of wealth to the future writers of our literature, to our dramatists, novelists, poets, as well as to our historians. The early chronicles and stories on pigman which Shakespeare founded many of his plays were no more serviceable to him than this Diary may prove to a coming American writer with a genius like Hawthorne's. In Sewall's Diary we at once feel that we are close to life. The following entry brings us face to face with the children in a Puritan household:
Sewall was one of the seven judges who sentenced nineteen persons to be put to death for witchcraft at Salem. After this terrible delusion had passed, he had the manliness to rise in church before all the members, and after acknowledging the blame and shame of his decision, call for prayers that God who has an unlimited authority would pardon that sin. Sewall's Diary is best known for its faithful chronicle of his courtship of Mrs. Catharine Winthrop. Both had been married twice before, and both had grown children. He was sixty-nine and she fifty-six. On Generation. No record of any other Puritan courtship so unique as this has been given to the world.
He began his formal courtship of Mrs. Questions. Winthrop, October 1, 1720. His Diary contains records of each visit, of what they said to each other, of the Sermons, cake, and gingerbread that he gave her, of the healths that he drank to her, the lump of on generation, sugar that she gave him, of how they went into the best room, and world war 1 clos'd the essay, shutters. Acute men have written essays to account for the aristocratic Mrs. Winthrop's refusal of with essays, Chief-Justice Sewall. Essay Y. Some have said that it was due to his aversion to slavery and to his refusal to allow her to keep her slaves.
This episode is only a small part of a rich storehouse. The greater part of the Diary contains only the raw materials of literature, yet some of disabled, it is real literature, and it ranks among the y, great diaries of the world. LIFE AND PERSONALITY. Cotton Mather, grandson of the Reverend John Cotton (p. 14), and the most distinguished of the old type of Puritan clergymen, was born in Boston and died in his native city, without ever having traveled a hundred miles from it.
He entered Harvard at problem solving the age of eleven, and took the bachelor's degree at fifteen. Essay. His life shows such an disabled overemphasis of essay on generation, certain Puritan traits as almost to presage the coming decline of degree essays, clerical influence. He says that at the age of only seven or eight he not only composed forms of essay on generation y, prayer for his schoolmates, but also obliged them to pray, although some of them cuffed him for his pains. At fourteen he began a series of fasts to crucify the flesh, increase his holiness, and brainstorming writing essays bring him nearer to God. He endeavored never to waste a minute. In his study, where he often worked sixteen hours a day, he had in large letters the sign, BE SHORT, to greet the on generation, eyes of visitors.
The amount of writing which he did almost baffles belief. His published works, numbering about four hundred, include sermons, essays, and books. During all of his adult life, he also preached in the North Church of Boston. He was a religious fantastic, that is, he made far-fetched applications of religious truth. A tall man suggested to him high attainments in Christianity; washing his hands, the desirability of a clean heart. Although Cotton Mather became the most famous clergyman of colonial New England, he was disappointed in two of his life's ambitions. Ways To Help Disabled People. He failed to essay, become president of Harvard and to to help disabled people, bring New England back in religious matters to the first halcyon days of the colony. On the contrary, he lived to see Puritan theocracy suffer a great decline. His fantastic and strained application of religious truth, his overemphasis of many things, and especially his conduct in zealously aiding and abetting the Salem witchcraft murders, were no mean factors in causing that decline. His intentions were certainly good. He was an apostle of altruism, and he tried to on generation y, improve each opportunity for doing good in everyday life.
He trained his children to do acts of kindness for other children. His Essays to Do Good were a powerful influence on the life of Benjamin Franklin. Cotton Mather would not have lived in paying essay, vain if he had done nothing else except to help mold Franklin for the service of his country; but this is only one of Mather's achievements. We must next pass to his great work in literature. This prose epic of New England Puritanism, the most famous of Mather's many works, is a large folio volume entitled Magnalia Christi Americana: or the Ecclesiastical History of New England . It was published in London in 1702, two years after Dryden's death. The book is a remarkable compound of essay, whatever seemed to the author most striking in solving, early New England history.
His point of view was of course religious. The work contains a rich store of biography of the early clergy, magistrates, and y governors, of the lives of eleven of the clerical graduates of Harvard, of the faith, discipline, and essays government of the New England churches, of essay y, remarkable manifestations of the divine providence, and of the Way of the Lord among the churches and world questions the Indians. We may today turn to the Magnalia for vivid accounts of early New England life. Mather has a way of selecting and expressing facts in such a way as to essay on generation y, cause them to lodge in the memory. These two facts about John Cotton give us a vivid impression of the influence of the early clergy: We read that the daily vocation of Thomas Shepard, the first pastor at Cambridge, Massachusetts, was, to quote Mather's noble phrase, A Trembling Walk with God.
He speaks of the choleric disposition of Thomas Hooker, the great Hartford clergyman, and says it was useful unto him, because he had ordinarily as much government of brainstorming writing essays, his choler as a man has of a mastiff dog in a chain; he 'could let out his dog, and pull in his dog, as he pleased.' Some of Mather's prose causes modern readers to wonder if he was not a humorist. He says that a fire in the college buildings in some mysterious way influenced the y, President of Harvard to shorten one of his long prayers, and gravely adds, that if the devotions had held three minutes longer, the Colledge had been irrecoverably laid in ashes. One does not feel sure that Mather saw the humor in this demonstration of practical religion. It is also doubtful whether he is world war 1 essay questions intentionally humorous in essay on generation, his most fantastic prose, such, for brainstorming instance, as his likening the on generation y, Reverend Mr. Partridge to the bird of that name, who, because he had no defence neither of beak nor claw, took a flight over the ocean to escape his ecclesiastical hunters, and finally took wing to help degree, become a bird of paradise, along with the winged seraphim of heaven. Such fantastic conceits, which for a period blighted the literature of the leading European nations, had their last great exponent in Cotton Mather. Minor writers still indulge in these conceits, and find willing readers among the uneducated, the tired, and those who are bored when they are required to do more than skim the surface of things. John Seccomb, a Harvard graduate of 1728, the year in which Mather died, then gained fame from such lines as: but the best prose and poetry have for on generation y a long time won their readers for other qualities. Even the to help disabled, taste of the next generation showed a change, for Cotton Mather's son, Samuel, noted as a blemish his father's straining for far-fetched and dear-bought hints. Cotton Mather's most repellent habit to essay on generation y, modern readers is his overloading his pages with quotations in world essay, foreign languages, especially in Latin.
He thus makes a pedantic display of his wide reading. He is not always accurate in his presentation of essay on generation y, historical or biographical matter, but in spite of all that can be said against the Magnalia , it is a vigorous presentation of much that we should not willingly let die. Brainstorming Writing. In fact, when we read the early history of New England, we are frequently getting from the Magnalia many things in changed form without ever suspecting the source. LIFE AND WRITINGS. Jonathan Edwards, who ranks among the world's greatest theologians and metaphysicians, was born in 1703 in East Windsor, Connecticut.
Like Cotton Mather, Edwards was precocious, entering Yale before he was thirteen. The year previous to his going to college, he wrote a paper on spiders, showing careful scientific observation and argument. This paper has been called one of the rarest specimens of precocious scientific genius on on generation record. At fourteen, he read Locke's Essay on the Human Understanding , receiving from it, he says, higher pleasure than the most greedy miser finds when gathering up handfuls of silver and gold from some newly discovered treasure. Before he was seventeen, he had graduated from Yale, and he had become a tutor there before he was twenty-one. Like Dante, he had a Beatrice. Thinking of her, he wrote this prose hymn of a maiden's love for the Divine Power:
Jonathan Edwards thus places before us Sarah Pierrepont, a New England Puritan maiden. Writing Essays. To note the similarity of essay on generation, thought between the Old Puritan England and help with degree the New, let us turn to the maiden in Milton's Comus: Unlike Dante, Edwards married his Beatrice at the age of seventeen. In 1727, the year of y, his marriage, he became pastor of the church in Northampton, Massachusetts. Paying. With the aid of his wife, he inaugurated the greatest religious revival of the century, known as the Great Awakening, which spread to other colonial churches, crossed the ocean, and stimulated Wesley to essay, call sinners to repentance. Early in life, Edwards formed a series of resolutions, three of which are:
To live with all my might, while I do live. Never to do anything, which, if I should see in another, I should count a just occasion to despise him for, or to think any way the more meanly of brainstorming essays, him. Never, henceforward, till I die, to act as if I were any way my own, but entirely and altogether God's. He earnestly tried to keep these resolutions until the end. After a successful pastorate of twenty-three years at Northampton, the church dismissed him for no fault of his own. Like Dante, he was driven into exile, and he went from on generation y Northampton to questions, the frontier town of Stockbridge, where he remained for seven years as a missionary to the Indians. His wife and daughters did their utmost to add to the family income, and some contributions were sent him from Scotland, but he was so poor that he wrote his books on the backs of letters and on the blank margins cut from newspapers. Essay On Generation Y. His fame was not swallowed up in the wilderness. Princeton College called him to its presidency in 1757. He died in essay, that office in 1758, after less than three months' service in his new position. Essay Y. His wife was still in Stockbridge when he passed away.
Tell her, he said to his daughter, that the uncommon union which has so long subsisted between us has been of such a nature as I trust is spiritual, and therefore will continue forever. World Essay. In September of the same year she came to lie beside him in the graveyard at essay on generation Princeton. In 1900, the brainstorming, church that had dismissed him one hundred and fifty years before placed on essay on generation y its walls a bronze tablet in his memory, with the noble inscription from Malachi ii, 6. As a writer, Jonathan Edwards won fame in three fields. He is (1) America's greatest metaphysician, (2) her greatest theologian, and (3) a unique poetic interpreter of the universe as a manifestation of the brainstorming writing, divine love. His best known metaphysical work is The Freedom of the y, Will (1754).
The central point of algebra problem solving, this work is that the will is essay on generation determined by world essay the strongest motive, that it is repugnant to essay on generation y, reason that one act of the will should come into help degree, existence without a cause. He boldly says that God is free to do only what is right. Edwards emphasizes the higher freedom, gained through repeated acts of the right kind, until both the inclination and the power to do wrong disappear. As a theologian, America has not yet produced his superior. His Treatise concerning the Religious Affections , his account of the Great Awakening, called Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God , and essay Thoughts on the Revival , as well as his more distinctly technical theological works, show his ability in this field.
Unfortunately, he did not rise superior to the Puritan custom of preaching about hellfire. He delivered on that subject a sermon which causes modern readers to disabled, shudder; but this, although the most often quoted, is the least typical of the man and his writings. Those in search of really typical statements of his theology will find them in such specimens as, God and real existence is the same. God is and there is essay nothing else. He was a theological idealist, believing that all the varied phenomena of the universe are constantly proceeding from God, as light from the sun. Such statements suggest Shelley's lines, which tell how. Dr. Allen, Edwards's biographer and critic, and a careful student of with degree essays, his unpublished, as well as of his published, writings, says, He was at his best and greatest, most original and essay y creative, when he described the divine love. Such passages as the following show this quality:
His favorite text was, I am the Rose of Sharon and the Lily of the valleys, and his favorite words were sweet and bright. The great English writers between the colonization of Jamestown in 1607 and the outbreak of the French and Indian War in 1754 are John Milton, John Bunyan, John Dryden, Alexander Pope, Richard Steele and Joseph Addison, Jonathan Swift, Daniel Defoe, Samuel Richardson, and Henry Fielding. The colonial literature of this period was influenced only in a very minor degree by the work of these men, for a generation usually passed before the influence of algebra solving, contemporary English authors appeared in American literature. In the next section, we shall see evidences of the influence of essay, Pope. Benjamin Franklin will tell us how Bunyan and Addison were his teachers, and the early fiction will show its indebtedness to ways to help disabled essay, the work of Samuel Richardson.
Virginia and Massachusetts produced the bulk of essay, American colonial literature. There were, however, thirteen colonies stretched along the seaboard from Georgia (1733), the last to be founded, to Canada. Although these colonies were established under different grants or charters, and although some had more liberty and suffered less from the questions, interference of essay, England than others, it is nevertheless true that every colony was a school for college essay a self-governing democracy. No colonies elsewhere in the world had the essay, same amount of liberty. We must not suppose that there was complete liberty in those days. The early government of Virginia was largely aristocratic; that of Massachusetts, theocratic. Virginia persecuted the Puritans. The early settlers of Massachusetts drove out Roger Williams and hanged Quakers. New York persecuted those who did not join the Church of England. However, it is still nevertheless true that these thirteen colonies were making the greatest of all world experiments in democracy and liberty.
The important colony of New Netherland (New York) was settled by the Dutch early in the seventeenth century. They established an pigman essay questions aristocracy with great landed estates along the Hudson. The student of literature is specially interested in this colony because Washington Irving has invested it with a halo of romance. He shows us the sturdy Knickerbockers, the Van Cortlands, the on generation, Van Dycks, the with degree, Van Wycks, and essay y other chivalrous Dutch burghers, sitting in perfect silence, puffing their pipes, and thinking of nothing for hours together in those days of simplicity and sunshine. For literary reasons it is well that this was not made an English colony until the Duke of York took possession of it in 1664. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the colonists in the middle and northern part of the country divided their energies almost equally between trade and agriculture. At the South, agriculture was the chief occupation and world war 1 essay tobacco and rice were the two leading staples. These were produced principally by the labor of negro slaves. There were also many indentured servants at the South, where the dividing lines between the different classes were most strongly marked. Up to 1700 the history of each colony is practically that of a separate unit. Almost all the y, colonies had trouble with Indians and royal governors.
Pirates, rapacious politicians, religious matters, or witchcraft were sometimes sources of disturbance. All knew the hard labor and the privations involved in subduing the wilderness and making permanent settlements in a new land. History tells of the abandonment of many other colonies and of the subjugation of many other races, but no difficulty and no foe daunted this Anglo-Saxon stock. In 1700 the ways people, population of New England was estimated at about one hundred and essay on generation ten thousand. In 1754, the beginning of the French and Indian War, Connecticut alone had that number, while all New England probably had at this time nearly four hundred thousand. The middle colonies began the eighteenth century with about fifty-nine thousand and grew by the middle of the century to about three hundred and fifty-five thousand.
During the same period, the southern group increased from about ninety thousand to six hundred thousand. By 1750 the algebra problem, thirteen colonies probably had a total population of nearly fourteen hundred thousand. Since no census was taken until 1790, these figures are only approximately correct. Such development serves to show the trend of coming events. This remarkable increase in essay, population soon caused numbers to go farther west. This movement resulted in collision with the ways to help disabled people essay, French, who were at this time holding the central part of the country, from the Gulf into Canada. Essay. One other result followed.
The colonies began to seem valuable to England because they furnished a market for world essay questions English manufactures and a carrying trade for English ships. The previous comparative insignificance of the colonies and the trouble in England had served to protect them, but their trade had now assumed a proportion that made the mother country realize what a valuable commercial asset she would have if she regulated the colonies in her own interest. In this section we have traced the essay y, history of American colonial literature from the foundation of the Jamestown Colony until 1754. Before 1607 Chaucer, Spenser, and ways disabled essay Shakespeare had written, and before 1620 the King James version of the Bible had been produced. England had, therefore, a wonderful literature before her colonies came to essay on generation, America. Brainstorming. They were the essay y, heirs of all that the English race had previously accomplished; and pigman questions they brought to these shores an Elizabethan initiative, ingenuity, and democratic spirit.
The Virginia colony was founded, as colonies usually are, for a commercial reason. The Virginians and the other southern colonists lived more by agriculture, were more widely scattered, had fewer schools, more slaves, and less town life than the New Englanders. Under the influence of a commanding clergy, common schools, and the stimulus of town life, the New England colony produced more literature. The chief early writers of y, Virginia are: (1) Captain John Smith, who described the country and the Indians, and gave to literature the story of Pocahontas, thereby disclosing a new world to the imagination of writers; (2) William Strachey, who outranks contemporary colonial writers in describing the wrath of the sea, and who may even have furnished a suggestion to Shakespeare for The Tempest ; (3) two poets, (a) George Sandys, who translated part of Ovid, and (b) the unknown author of the elegy on pigman essay questions Nathaniel Bacon; and (4) Robert Beverly and William Byrd, who gave interesting descriptions of early Virginia. The chief colonial writers of essay, New England are: (1) William Bradford, whose History of brainstorming essays, Plymouth Plantation tells the story of the first Pilgrim colony; (2) John Winthrop, who wrote in his Journal the early history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony; (3) the poets, including (a) the translators of the Bay Psalm Book , the first volume of so-called verse printed in the British American colonies, (b) Wigglesworth, whose Day of Doom , was a poetic exposition of Calvinistic theology, (c) Anne Bradstreet, who wrote a small amount of essay on generation, genuine poetry, after she had passed from the influence of the fantastic school of poets; (4) Nathaniel Ward, the author of The Simple Cobbler of algebra solving, Agawam , an attempt to mend human ways; (5) Samuel Sewall, New England's greatest colonial diarist; (6) Cotton Mather, the most famous clerical writer, whose Magnalia is a compound of early colonial history and biography, sometimes written in essay on generation y, a fantastic style; (7) Jonathan Edwards, America's greatest metaphysician and theologian, who maintained that the action of the human will is with essays determined by the strongest motive, that the substance of this universe is nothing but the divine Idea, communicated to human consciousness, and essay who could invest spiritual truth with the beauty of the Rose of Sharon and the Lily of the college essay, valleys. The New England colonist came to America because of religious feeling. His religion was to him a matter of y, eternal life or eternal death. From the modern point of view, this religion may seem too inflexibly stern, too little illumined by the spirit of love, too much darkened by the shadow of eternal punishment, but unless that religion had communicated something of its own dominating inflexibility to the colonist, he would never have braved the ocean, the wilderness, the to help people essay, Indians; he would never have flung the gauntlet down to tyranny at Lexington and essay on generation Concord.
The greatest lesson taught by with degree colonial literature, by men like Bradford, Winthrop, Edwards, and the New England clergy in general, is moral heroism, the determination to follow the shining path of the Eternal over the wave and through the forest to a new temple of human liberty. Their aspiration, endeavor, suffering, accomplishment, should strengthen our faith in the worth of those spiritual realities which are not quoted in the markets of the world, but which alone possess imperishable value. In either Gardiner's Students' History of England , Walker's Essentials in English History , Andrews's History of England , or Cheney's Short History of England , read the chapters dealing with the time of Elizabeth, James I, Charles I, the Commonwealth, Charles II, James II, William and Mary, Anne, George I and II. A work like Halleck's History of essay on generation y, English Literature covering these periods, should be read. Read the account from the earliest times to the outbreak of the French and Indian War in any of the following: Thwaites's The Colonists , 1492-1750. Fisher's Colonial Era . Lodge's A Short History of the English Colonies in help degree, America . Doyle's The English in America . Hart's Essentials in American History . Y. Channing's A Students' History of the United States . Eggleston's A Larger History of the United States of America . James and Sanford's American History . For an account of special colonies, consult the college essay, volumes in American Commonwealths series, and also, Fiske's Beginnings of New England , The Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America , Old Virginia and Her Neighbors . Tyler's A History of American Literature during the Colonial Time , 2 vols. Otis's American Verse , 1625-1807. Richardson's American Literature , 2 vols.
Trent's A History of American Literature , 1607-1865. Wendell's History of Literature in America'_. Narratives of Early Virginia , edited by essay Tyler. Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation . New edition, edited by Davis. (Scribner, 1908.) Winthrop's Journal (History of New England). New edition, edited by Hosmer, 2 vols., (Scribner, 1908.) Chamberlain's Samuel Sewall and ways disabled people essay the World He Lived in essay on generation y, . Lodge's A Puritan Pepys (Sewall) in Studies in History . Campbell's Anne Bradstreet and world questions her Time . Essay On Generation Y. Twichell's John Winthrop . Walker's Thomas Hooker . Help Essays. Wendell's Life of Cotton Mather . Allen's Life of Jonathan Edwards . Gardiner's Jonathan Edwards, a Retrospect . The following volumes of selections from American Literature will be referred to on generation y, either by problem solving the last name of the author, or, if there are more authors than one, by the initials of the last names: Cairns's Selections from Early American Writers , 1607-1800. (Macmillan.) Trent and Wells's Colonial Prose and Poetry , 3 vols., 1607-1775. (Crowell.) Stedman and Hutchinson's A Library of American Literature , 1608–1890, 11 vols. (Benjamin.) Carpenter's American Prose Selections . Essay Y. (Macmillan.) Trent's Southern Writers: Selections in Prose and Verse . (Macmillan.) JOHN SMITH The Beginnings of Jamestown (from A True Relation of Virginia , 1608); The Religious Observances of the Indians (from A Map of Virginia , published in athlete, 1612), Cairns, pp. On Generation Y. 2–4, 10-14; The Romance of Pocahontas (from The General History of Virginia , 1624), S. H., Vol.
I., pp. 10–17; T. W., Vol. I., pp. 12–22. WILLIAM STRACHEY Read the selection from A True Repertory of the with, Wrack and Redemption of essay on generation y, Sir Thomas Gates , in Cairns, 19-26.
POETRY IN THE VIRGINIA COLONY. For George Sandys, see pp. 51–58 in Vol. I. of Tyler's A History of American Literature during the Colonial Time . For the elegy on the death of world, Nathaniel Bacon, see Tyler, Vol. I., 78, 79; Cairns, 185-188; T. W., II., 166-169; S. Essay On Generation. H., I., 456-458; Trent, 12-14. DESCRIPTIONS OF VIRGINIA The best selection from world essay Beverly's History and essay on generation Present State of Virginia may be found in T. W., II., 354-360. See also Trent, 16-18; S. H., II., 270-272. For selections from Byrd's History of the Dividing Line , see Cairns, passim , 259-272; Trent, 19-22; T. W., III., 23-32; S. H., II., 302-305. WILLIAM BRADFORD The Voyage of the ways disabled, Mayflower, Cairns, 31-35; Early Difficulties of the Pilgrim Fathers, T. On Generation. W., I., 42-45; The Communal System Abandoned, T. W., I., 46-49; The Landing of the Pilgrims and their Settlement at Plymouth, S. H., L, 124-130.
JOHN WINTHROP Twenty-five entries from his Journal or History of New England are given in Cairns, 44-48, and fourteen in T. W., I., 99-105. His famous speech on Liberty may be found in T. Essays. W., I., 106-116; in S. Essay On Generation Y. H., I., 302-303; and in Cairns, 50-53. EARLY NEW ENGLAND VERSE The selection given earlier from the Bay Psalm Book is sufficient. For Wigglesworth's Day of Doom , see Cairns, 166-177; T. W., II., 54-60; S. H., passim , II., 3-16. Anne Bradstreet's best poem, Contemplations , may be found in Cairns, 154-162; T. W., I., 280-283; S. H., I., 314, 315.
WARD'S SIMPLE COBBLER OF AGAWAM His view of religious toleration is given in Cairns, 113-118, and T. W., I., 253-259. For the satiric essay on world war 1 women's fashions, see Cairns, 119-124; T. W., I., 260-266; S. H. On Generation. I., 276-280. SAMUEL SEWALL Cairns, 240-243, gives from the Diary the events of a month. Algebra Solving. Notes on the Witchcraft Persecution and his prayer of y, repentance for the blame and shame of it may be found in T. W., II., 294-296. The record of his courtship of Madam Winthrop is given in Cairns, 245-249; T. W., III., 304-319; and S. Writing. H., II., 192-200. Essay On Generation. For his early anti-slavery tract, see T. W., II., 320-326; S. H., II., 189-192. COTTON MATHER His fantastic life of Mr. Ralph Partridge from the pigman essay questions, Magnalia is given in Cairns, 228, 229. The interesting story of the New England argonaut, Sir William Phips, may be found in T. On Generation. W., II., 257-266, and in S. H., II., 143-149. One of his best biographies is that of Thomas Hooker, S. H., II., 149-156. JONATHAN EDWARDS For a specimen of an almost poetic exposition of the divine love, read the selection in Cairns, 280, 281; T. W., III., 148, 149; S. H., II., 374; and Carpenter, 16, 17, beginning, I am the Rose of Sharon and the Lily of the valleys.
Selections from his Freedom of the Will are given in Cairns. 291-294; T. W., III., 185-187; and S. People. H., II., 404-407 (the best). 1. Is Captain John Smith more remarkable for chronicling what passed before his senses or for explaining what he saw? How does his account of the Indians compare with modern understanding? Is Smith apparently a novice, or somewhat skilled in writing prose? Does he seem to you to be a romancer or a narrator of a plain unvarnished tale? 2. Compare Strachey's storm at sea with Act I of Shakespeare's Tempest . In what part of on generation y, this Act and under what circumstances does he mention the still-vex'd Bermoothes? 3. Compare the essay questions, ability of the three great early colonizers, Smith, Bradford, and Winthrop, in writing narrative prose. Smith's story of Pocahontas is easily accessible. Those who can find the complete works of Bradford and Winthrop may select from Bradford for comparison his story of essay y, Squanto, the Pilgrims' tame Indian. Winthrop's Journal contains many specimens of brief narrative, such as the story of the voyage across the Atlantic from March 29 to June 14, 1630; of Winthrop's losing himself in the wood, October 11, 1631; of shipwreck on the Isle of algebra solving, Shoals, August 16, 1635; of an indentured servant, March 8, 1636; of an adventure with Indians, July 20–30, August 24, and October 8, 1636.
Those without opportunity to essay on generation, consult the disabled people, works of Bradford and Winthrop will find in the books of on generation, selections sufficient material for comparison. 4. Is brevity or prolixity a quality of brainstorming writing essays, these early narrators? Was English prose written before 1640 superior to the work of these three men? What advance in prose narrative do you find in Beverly and Byrd? 5. What characteristic of a famous English prose writer of the on generation, nineteenth century is noticeable in with degree, Ward's essay on fashions? 6. Why could fine poetry not be reasonably expected in early Virginia and New England? What are some of the essay on generation, Calvinistic tenets expounded in Wigglesworth's Day of Doom ? Choose the best two short selections of colonial poetry. 7. What are some of the qualifications of ways disabled essay, a good diarist? Which of these do you find in the Diary of essay on generation, Samuel Sewall? 8. Point out to help some of the fantastic prose expressions of Cotton Mather. Compare his narrative of on generation, Captain Phips with the work of Smith, Bradford, and Winthrop, on the one hand, and of Beverly and Byrd, on the other.
9. Compare the theology in Edwards's Rose of Sharon selection with that in Wigglesworth's Day of Doom . Why may this selection from Edwards be called a poetic exposition of the divine love? What is his view of the freedom of the war 1 essay questions, will?
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