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Writing thesis service in malaysia

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bhutan book report Bhutan is a small landlocked kingdom covering an area of 38 394 square kilometres (SYB 2011) in the eastern part of the Himalayan Range between latitudes 26 0 40#146; and 28 0 20#146; north and writing service in malaysia longitude 88 0 45#146; and 92 0 7#146; east. It is surrounded by the Tibetan Plateau in the north, the aqa gcse coursework, Bengal and Assam Plains in writing thesis, the south, Arunachal Pradesh in the east and the Darjeeling and the Sikkim Himalaya in the west (see Figures 1a and b). The country is mountainous with elevations ranging from of living joint family, 160 up to more than 7,000 metres above sea level (SYB, 2011) traversing south to north with a great diversity of environments. Population estimates have ranged from 600,000 to 810,000 to as high as 2.3M, but the Population and writing in malaysia Housing Census of Bhutan [PHCB] 2005 (Anon., 2009) put the population at 634,982 with an 5th grade book report, annual growth rate of 1.3%. Based on thesis service in malaysia, the PHCB 2005, the population in 2011 was estimated to be 708,265 comprising 369.476 males and 338,789 females with a male female percent ratio of utah essay 52.2: 47.8 (SYB 2011). The World Factbook gave an estimate of 716,896 with a growth rate of 1.175% for July 2012.

Some 90 percent of the population are dependent on agriculture. Agriculture and livestock contribute to 45% of the country's GNP, while tourism, though a contributor to the economy, is writing thesis strictly regulated, maintaining a balance between the traditional and development and modernization. [According to SYB (2011) agriculture in 2010 contributed 16.8% to the total economy i.e. as measured by the Gross Domestic Product. It was also the single largest sector that provides livelihood to more than 60 percent of the population as per Labour Force Survey 2011]. Farming is aqa gcse essentially subsistence and writing thesis service in malaysia the main crops grown are maize, rice, millet, buckwheat, barley, and essay on racism and xenophobia mustard. This is writing thesis service changing in some areas.

However, the mountainous nature of the country makes only about 8 percent of the love essay, total land suitable for crops (LUPP, 1995). Furthermore land use is service dictated by the diverse climate and topography. Land use is shown in Table 1. Standard Book! Thimphu is the capital and largest city; it became the capital in 1961 and as of writing thesis service in malaysia 2005 had a population of 79,185, with 98,676 people estimated to live in the entire Thimphu district (Wikipedia). In 2007, Bhutan made the on racism, transition from thesis service, absolute monarchy to essay on racism and xenophobia constitutional monarchy and writing in malaysia held its first general election. In January 2008 Bhutan€™s Planning Commission was reconstituted as the Gross National Happiness Commission. Bhutan ranks among the most biodiverse countries and utah essay is in the top 10% of countries with the highest species richness per unit area. It has been designated as one of the ten Biodiversity Hotspots in the world and the centre of 221 Global Endemic Bird Areas.

Its rich biodiversity includes more than 120 species of butterflies, 28 of which are endemic to the Eastern Himalayas, and writing service as many as 750 plant species endemic to the Eastern Himalayas. Protected areas cover 26% of bar exam essay Bhutan€™s territory and 9% of additional land has been declared as biological corridors connecting the protected areas. Writing! With the addition of conservation areas, more than 35% of the country€™s area is essay joint under some form of conservation management. More than 70% of the thesis, country is aqa gcse statistics coursework covered by forest (see Table 1). Table 1. Bhutan: land use. Thesis Service! Source: LUPP Dzongkhag Data Sheets, 1995. MOA 1997a, 1997b; Roder et al. 2001. Aqa Gcse Coursework! *70.5% in 2010 according to writing in malaysia SYB, 2011. **4.1% in 2010 according to SYB, 2011.

Agricultural area 2.9% in 2010 according to SYB, 2011. The number of 5th grade book report farming households in 1996 was estimated at 65,000 with an average of seven members. Average land holdings were 1.5 ha with 10 percent of households owning more than 5 ha (PPD, 1996). Most farming is subsistence with an integration of crops, forests and livestock. Agricultural practices have changed tremendously over the years. Writing In Malaysia! Until a decade ago, agriculture was practiced on standard, a subsistence basis. Whatever was produced on the farm was consumed having little or no marketable surplus. Farm production was supplemented by keeping different kinds of domestic animals such as cattle for draught and milking purposes, chicken for eggs and pigs for meat etc. Writing Thesis Service! At higher altitudes, herds of yaks and standard book report sheep are also kept for draught and milking. Owing to the improved communication facilities in the country, there is an increasing tendency to go for cash crops like apples in the temperate north; oranges, areca nut and thesis cardamom in the subtropical south.

Other cash crops that are exported include ginger, chillies and vegetables. Strategies to increase livestock and cereal production include the propagation and practice of double cropping of paddy production and on benefits in a joint family distribution of high yielding varieties. In the livestock sector artificial insemination covers not only writing thesis in malaysia, Jersey breeds that are high yielding but also for the production of Jatsa and Jatsam that are local high yielding varieties. As a result, increasing number of farms are mechanized with sizable investment on aqa gcse coursework, machinery and writing service in malaysia other inputs that are subsidized by government (SYB, 2011). Most farming integrates crops, forests and livestock. Livestock is an integral part in all Bhutanese farming systems contributing 10 percent of the GDP (Dorji, 1995). This figure however does not account for value added contributions made to agriculture through manure and draught power. The large variations in the environmental conditions has led to a range of livestock production systems, ranging from the high altitude transhumance yak-sheep system to systems where animals are used primarily for draught and manure only. Livestock categories with farmers include cattle, equines, pigs, poultry, sheep and goats. Cattle are by far the most numerous and constitute 79.5 percent of the total ruminant population (Table 2).

Improved breeds introduced into the country are Jersey, Brown Swiss and mithun ( Bos frontalis ), but local native cattle account for book, 73 percent of the cattle population (although by 2008 it was suggested by Sherpa (2010) that of the cattle population of 325,625 head only 65 percent were local Siri with 19.6 percent Jersey and Brown Swiss crossbreds and 15.4 percent Mithun cross). Writing Service! Table 2. Livestock population 1. Source: LUPP Dzongkhag Data Sheets, 1995; Roder et al . 2001. 1 1995 excluding pigs and statistics poultry. * Note that some of these data differ somewhat from the FAOSTAT figures in Table 6 in section 4. **According to Sherpa (2010) cattle numbers had reached 325,625 by 2008, while SYB (2011) gives the cattle population in 2010 as 310,071). Primary production figures are not available, but earlier estimates based on animal population and household surveys put the annual milk production at 10,600 tons (PPD, 1996), production of different types of meat at 2,000-3,000 tons and eggs at 600-800,000 dozen. By 2008, Sherpa (2010) indicates that dairy production in writing service in malaysia, Bhutan was 22,883 MT, 4,463 MT and 1,348 MT of milk, cheese (Photo 1) and butter respectively; the per capita consumption of milk was 34kg. Most of these products are for home consumption (MOA, 1995), although commercial production is beginning with, for example, the establishment of dairy farmer groups and milk processing units, and Sherpa (2010) examined the potential for establishing a dairy cooperative in Bumthang, a district in east-central Bhutan. According to Livestock Statistics (2009) dairy production in Bhutan in 2009 was 25,692 MT, 2,613 MT and 1,267 MT of milk, cheese and butter respectively. The production of Chugo (dried yak cheese) was 86 MT, meat 1,332 MT (beef 769 MT), eggs over 1 M dozen and a small amount of wool (14,259 Kg). [The milk and meat production figures appear to be much lower than the FAO data in Table 6]. Essay! Photo 1. Cheese production (Source: Dairy Co-operatives in Bhutan. Used with permission of Dawa L. Sherpa of RNR RDC Jakar).

The topography of Bhutan is characterized by rugged mountains separated by river valleys (see Figure 2). Elevations range from thesis, just below 200m in the south to more than 7,000m in the north. Geologically, most of essay on benefits of living in a joint Bhutan consists of crystalline sheets with large masses of tertiary granite intrusions towards the north. For details of the geology of Bhutan see Ganser (1983) who defined 5 geological zones: the Sub-Himalaya; the Lower Himalaya; the High Himalaya; the Tibetan Himalaya, and the Indus-Tsangpo zone. For details of the geology of Bhutan see Figure 3. Thesis Service In Malaysia! Figure 2. Topographic map of Bhutan. [Click to enlarge] Also see: Long, S., McQuarrie, N., Tobgay, T., Grujic, D. and Hollister, L. (2011) Published Map. In: Long, S., McQuarrie, N., Tobgay, T., Grujic, D. and utah bar exam subjects Hollister, L. (2011) Geologic Map of Bhutan, Journal of Maps, v 2011, 184-192. 10.4113/jom.2011.1159. Information on writing thesis, Bhutan€™s soils is coursework very scarce.

The FAO/UNESCO soil map (FAO/UNESCO, 1977) classified about 27 percent of Bhutan as having either cambisols or fluvisols (cambisols are most common in the medium-altitude zone, while fluvisols mostly occur in the southern belt). Less fertile acrisols, ferrasols and writing thesis service in malaysia podzols were estimated to cover 45 percent of the country. The same study also reports that 21 percent of the soil-covered area suffers from shallow depth with mostly lithosol occurring on steep slopes (Roder et al ., 2001). Bhutan€™s forest soils have been classified by Sargent et al. (1985) and Okazaki (1987) who delineated 5 major soil groups (yellow soils, yellow brown forest soils, brown forest soils, podzols and alpine meadow soils) based on 69 samples collected from sites between 150 and 5,300 m. Altitude and precipitation were the main factors used in the classification. Essay On Racism And Xenophobia! Currently a Soil Survey Project has embarked on a systematic soil survey of Bhutan. For details of the National Soil Services Centre in Bhutan refer to http://www.moa.gov.bt/nssc/units/ssu.php . According to UNEP (2009), Bhutan may be broadly divided into three geographic areas and corresponding climatic zones (Table 3): the southern foothills, inner Himalayas and higher Himalayas. The southern foothills, only 20km wide, rise from 100m above sea level to 1,500m.

Table 3. Climatic regions of writing thesis Bhutan. Mother Love! Source: DANIDA, 2008. The climate is hot and humid in the southern foothills, with temperatures ranging from 15 to 30 o C throughout the year and precipitation between 2,500 and 5,550mm. The inner Himalayas, which rise to 3000m, constitute, with their broad valleys, the economic and cultural heartland of the Kingdom. The central inner Himalayas are characterized by a cool temperate climate with an writing, annual average precipitation of 1,000mm. The higher Himalayas constitute the northernmost and highest mountain ranges with elevations up to essay on racism 7,550m. These northern regions, under perpetual snow, are sparsely populated and have an alpine climate with average annual precipitation of writing thesis in malaysia 400mm. Bhutan is divided into six agro-ecological zones: alpine, cool temperate, warm temperate, dry sub-tropical, humid sub-tropical and wet sub-tropical (Table 4).

Table 4. Agro-ecological zones of Bhutan. Grierson and Long (1983) have classified Bhutan#146;s vegetation into 11 zones (see Table 5). Table 5. Vegetation zones in Bhutan (after Grierson and Long (1983) from bar exam essay subjects, Roder et al. , 2001) The climate is dominated by writing thesis service, the monsoon, with a dry winter and high precipitation during June-September. Bhutan has a wide variety of climatic conditions influenced by topography, elevation and thesis rainfall patterns. The great variation in rainfall within a relatively short distance is due to the effect of rain shadow but precipitation generally diminishes significantly from south to writing service north (Table 4).

Land use and agricultural enterprises are influenced by the diverse climate and topography related to altitude. In the higher altitudes, farming is dependent on livestock, temperate fruit crops and crops such as potato, buckwheat, wheat and barley. Love! Further south, towards the sub-tropical areas, rice and maize dominate the farming system. Cash crops such as cardamom and writing service citrus also find an important niche with livestock as an integral component in the overall farming system. Data from FAOSTAT for livestock numbers, meat and milk production and meat and milk imports for the period 1995-2010 are given in utah bar exam essay subjects, Table 6. There has been a decline in cattle and writing service in malaysia buffalo numbers in this period and particularly in numbers of sheep and horses. Goats have recently increased in number. It should be noted that these data for mother love, livestock numbers are close to those reported in Livestock Statistics (2009) by writing thesis in malaysia, the Department of Livestock, Ministry of Agriculture and essay of living Forests, Thimphu, Bhutan: Cattle 307,013, Yak 38,690, Buffalo 955, Horses 18,237, (Pigs 22,184), sheep 12,296, goats 38,618 and poultry 248,118, although the sum of yak and cattle are higher. As mentioned in section 1 above the meat and milk production data in Livestock Statistics (2009) are much lower than the FAO data, even though livestock numbers broadly agree. Thesis! In 2008 and 2009 total meat imports (especially chicken meat) rose sharply and then increased dramatically in thesis essay, 2010, as did milk equivalent imports.

The traditional farming system evolved over service in malaysia, centuries in Bhutan with the integration of crop production, grazing animals and forest areas into a mutually supportive system. Within this multi-composite farming system, large ruminant livestock plays a critical role by providing draught power, manure and livestock products for sale or home consumption. Thesis! There are three distinct types of large ruminant production systems in Bhutan. The transhumant Yak system (Photo 2) is limited to the alpine-cool temperate areas; the migratory cattle in the temperate-sub-tropical area. These two systems take advantage of the variations in climate and vegetation as herders migrate with their animals according to the seasons. The third is the sedentary livestock rearing system in writing service in malaysia, semi- urban and other rural settlement areas. On Benefits Of Living In A! Transhumance is associated with nomadic herders in the alpine-cool temperate areas who keep yaks and sheep as their sole source of livelihood. This system is mainly prevalent in the Dzongkhags of Haa, Thimphu, Paro, Gasa, Wangdue Phodrang, Bumthang and Trashigang. The migration takes place, depending on the number of pastures owned by the herders and their location, within village, within geog (sub-unit of a district), within Dzongkhag (district) or between Dzongkhags (Gyamtsho, 1996; MOA, 2001). This production system is also influenced by the in-born nature of the yaks which keep on moving in response to temperature changes. Thesis Service! For the movement of their animals, the essay on racism and xenophobia, herders depend on the vast native grasslands between altitudes of 2,600 to 5,000 m. to feed their animals.

Yak production in these areas (Photo 3) and especially above the tree line (4,000 m.) is recognized as the only viable enterprise where the high altitude grasslands are efficiently converted into sources of energy for human use at thesis no opportunity cost (Gyamtsho, 1996; Ura, 1993). In the summers the herders take their animals to pastures as high as 5,000 m. and essay on racism and xenophobia come down in the winters to 2,600 m. Herders respect and follow their age-old traditional migratory routes to respective designated pastures in the various elevations for which they have traditionally grazing rights. In recent years fodder oats have been grown at various altitudes as supplementary feed for yak (Photos 4, 5 and 6). Photo 3. Yak used as pack animals (Source: Tsering Gyeltshen). Photo 4. Oat fodder at high elevation (4,000m) (Source: Tsering Gyeltshen). Photo 5. Harvesting oat fodder for making hay for thesis service, yaks (Source: Tsering Gyeltshen). The annual migration to the summer pastures generally starts from late April to May and back to winter pastures in October. Gyamtsho (1996) notes that the migratory yak herds of Dhur village in Bumthang are moved and rotated very meticulously among pastures based on years of experience. The number of days grazed in each pasture are carefully worked out for the whole of the summer (Gyamtsho, 1996). The exception is where the standard, yak have to stay in writing service in malaysia, a particular pasture all summer because the herder owns only that pasture.

Sheep are grazed along with yaks and may belong to a number of owners who pay the herders in kind under a contract for rearing them. These sheep are usually handed back to their respective owners on migrating back to the valleys in winter. Although sheep supplement the statistics coursework, family with wool that can be processed into household items, it is not considered important. Photo 6. Traditional method of drying oat hay at high elevations (yak systems) (Source: Tsering Gyeltshen). The butter and cheese from yaks are generally bartered for grain from the lower areas on a seasonal basis. Important cheese products that find a ready market are #145;chugo#146; (dried cubes of cheese) from the west and service in malaysia central Bhutan and bar exam essay #145;zoetey#146; (fermented cheese) from eastern Bhutan. Migratory cattle in the temperate areas (see Photos 7 and writing service 8) are local animals; herd size could range from 18 to over 100. Sometimes small herds are pooled for logistical and economic reasons. Movement of animals to the lower sub-tropical area starts in November #150; December and they only come back in April. Photo 7. Local cattle in one of the migration transit camps in west Bhutan (Source: Tsering Gyeltshen). Photo 8. Mother Essay! Transhumant cattle (mithun crosses and siri) on summer pastures at 3,200 m in writing thesis, August in aqa gcse coursework, Naja geog, Paro, Bhutan, just before the downward trek, when cattle will be handed over to partners for the winter 8-month period, under the nothoue system (Source S.G.

Reynolds). Despite the government#146;s efforts in discouraging migration in this agro-ecological zone through supply of improved exotic cattle breeds like Jerseys and Brown Swiss, migration is likely to be there for years to come. The following reasons encourage migration (MOA, 2001): Strategy to address feed shortage in thesis, the winter There are other income opportunities for herders (e.g. Porterage) Social factors (retain ownership of pastures-crop land in the sub-tropical areas; display of wealth and status; unproductive animals cannot be culled for thesis, religious reasons) To prevent registered grazing land from reverting to forests Cultivation of crops in lower areas (Baumgartner, 1984) A survey carried out by Muller-Jaag in writing service in malaysia, 1983 (Muller-Jaag, 1984) indicated a decline in migration by 19 percent, and it has further declined since, although a complete ban on migration will not be possible in essay of living joint family, the immediate future. It can however, be mitigated through providing alternative sources of writing thesis service feed. The herders and the people#146;s representatives at the National Grazing Policy Workshop (MOA, 2001) also suggested that migration could be alleviated if rules and regulations governing Tsadrog (registered grazing land) ownership and management be modified and redefined. The resolution of legalities surrounding ownership of essay these grazing lands has been recognized as a prerequisite for developing the Bhutanese grasslands (Gyamtsho, 1996; RGOB, 1997; Roder, 1981a; Roder et al. , 2001).

In both the migratory systems described above, the herders follow a prescribed route (tsalam) to their respective grasslands. It is not uncommon to find more than one herd using a route. All herds then would have the right to use the route as well as the service in malaysia, grazing rights to the grasslands of a specified night camp irrespective of whoever may own the particular grassland. This is called the Lamjo Tsadrog #150; roughly translated to transit pasture. In the grasslands of upper Chokhor leading to the summer grasslands at Domjen, in Bumthang, there is an unwritten rule that no herd is allowed to pasture for more than three days in the lamjo tsadrog either way. It is mother noticed that because so many herds camp and pasture, the lamjo tsadrog are badly deteriorated and colonized by Rumex nepalensis . The migratory habits of the herders also bring disadvantages: Animal health services cannot be guaranteed There is a risk of writing service carrying diseases from one area to another Services of cross bred bulls cannot be used since they cannot go on migration There is heavy demand on family for manpower and bar exam essay subjects time during migration Migration depends on fodder trees along the route to supplement the thesis in malaysia, fodder from the grasslands, resulting in indiscriminate lopping and standard 5th grade report sometimes felling of trees. The sedentary livestock production system involves rearing of service in malaysia improved breeds of cattle like Jersey and help Brown Swiss. Service! In certain parts of eastern Bhutan, the large local migratory herds of cattle have been replaced with a few improved animals.

This has been accompanied by planting fodder. These animals are stall fed at night and graze in essay and xenophobia, the fodder paddocks during the day. Such enterprises have yielded a multifold increase in milk production with less demand on time and manpower compared to having a large herd of local cattle. As well as improved pastures, a fodder crop of increasing importance at various altitudes is fodder oats. The benefit from such a switch over is raising interest especially in semi-urban areas where there is a ready market for fresh milk.

The Ministry of Agriculture gave major emphasis in the 9th Five Year Plan (2002-2007) to such enterprises. For details of the 9th and writing thesis service in malaysia 10th (2008-2013) Five Year Plans see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five-Year_Plans_of_Bhutan . Sherpa (2010) looked at on benefits of living in a joint family the potential for establishing a dairy co-operative in Bumthang, a district in east-central Bhutan with considerable dairy potential and existing dairy farmer groups and milk processing units. The book by Roder et al . (2001) provides substantial information on grassland and service fodder resources in Bhutan and their management. The fodder resources available to senior thesis essay livestock vary with the writing thesis, climate, the farming system and the season. The important fodder resources are forest grazing; natural grassland; improved pasture; shifting cultivation and fallow land; fodder trees; fodder oats, crop residues and others (like arable fodder crops grown in croplands). Estimates by aqa gcse, RGOB/ISDB (1995) and Roder (1990) indicate that forest grazing and natural grassland grazing contribute about writing thesis service 22.5 percent and 30 percent respectively to the total fodder requirement (see Table7). These two fodder sources have also been highlighted as the most important sources of fodder in an assessment of fodder resources in five livestock rearing Dzongkhags (Roder et al ., 2001). The survey also showed that grazing fields after harvest was the most important source of winter fodder. A number of improved grasses and legumes have been introduced and senior are used especially with dairy cattle (Photos 9 and 10). Photo 9. Dairy cows grazing on improved pasture in Norgang, Bumthang, 2008 (Source: http://edepot.wur.nl/166159 . Used with permission of Dawa L. Writing Thesis! Sherpa of thesis RNR RDC Jakar). Photo 10.

Grazing on improved temperate pasture in Bumthang (Source: RC Jakar). Table 7. Contribution of fodder resources towards national fodder requirement (modified from writing thesis in malaysia, Roder, undated) 5.1 Fodder from Tsadrog (registered grazing land) There are over 400,000 ha of statistics help registered grazing land (Tsadrog) in Bhutan (Table 8). Most of these are located above the tree line at elevations between 4,000 to writing thesis in malaysia 5,000 m. The area of registered grazing land available to cattle and aqa gcse statistics yak is about 1.4 ha per animal. It is assumed that not all natural grasslands are registered. From this assumption, the total area of natural grasslands will be more than the tsadrog, contrary to what is given in writing thesis service, the table below.

This has happened probably because the natural grasslands estimated from aerial photographs were classified as forests because of substantial tree cover in some tsadrog areas (Roder et al . 2001). The natural grasslands of aqa gcse Bhutan were first described by Singh (1978) into five types as: Saccharum reed dominant cover, 800-2,000 m; Chrysopogon-Themeda cover, 2,500-2,800 m; thin and short (dwarf) bamboo [ Yushania microphylla ] (Photo 2) dominant cover, 2,500-3,000 m; high altitude scrub cover, above 2,800 m; alpine and sub-alpine cover, 3,500-5,000 m. A more useful classification of the natural grasslands has been provided by Miller (1988) in an unpublished report (quoted by Noltie, 2000, Table 9). Grassland surveys were undertaken by FAO in 1987 to provide objective information on the status and development possibilities of the grazing lands of Bhutan. Under project TCP/BHU/4505 detailed surveys of three representative areas were completed (the sites were at Soi Yaksa (north Paro), Chele La (west Paro) and writing thesis service in malaysia Pele La (between Wangdi Phodrang and Tongsa). Essay! The work was detailed in two publications: FAO (1987) and FAO (2000).

Grassland communities are influenced by cultivation, fire and grazing. Grasslands between 700 to 2,100 m are dominated by Cymbopogon khasianus , Cymbopogon gryllus, Cymbopogon sp ., Apluda mutica, Arundinella nepalensis, and Heteropogon contortus (Miller 1989). The important grasses and other vegetation above these elevations are Themeda sp ., Schizachyrium delavayi, Eragrostis sp ., Carex sp. , Agrostis sp. , Festuca sp. , Poa sp ., Rhododendron, Potentilla sp ., Primula sp ., and Danthonia sp. Reliable production figures from the natural grasslands are scanty. The dry matter production based on visual estimates ranged from 0.7 to 3.0 t/ha for temperate grasslands at elevations of less than 3,000 m. and 0.3 to writing 3.5 t/ha for alpine grasslands at elevations over 3,000 m. (Singh, 1978; Harris, 1987; Rumball, 1988; Miller 1989; Gyamtsho, 1996). Based on Dorjee#146;s (1986) carrying capacity for different agro-ecological zones and assuming that the average production per hectare from registered grasslands is statistics coursework help 0.7 t/ha, the total annual dry matter production from tsadrog is 289,000 tonnes, enough to feed 30 percent (8 kg dry matter per day) of the writing in malaysia, Bhutanese livestock population (Roder et al ., 2001). The productivity of the natural grassland is further decreased when community pastures are grazed indiscriminately on a free-for-all basis (Dorjee, 1993; Gyamtsho, 1996).

It is essay joint family also not uncommon for two parties, such as a transhumant yak herder and a family from a nearby settlement, to thesis service have grazing rights over the same area putting extra pressure on the grasslands (Roder et al ., 2001). Deterioration of utah subjects these grazing resources (the natural grasslands) have also been caused by the presence of writing thesis in malaysia poisonous and toxic plants; damage to grazing sites in Laya have also been caused by increased number of blue sheep ( Pseudovis nayaur ) and the burrowing habit of marmots (Gyamtsho, 1996). 5.2 Forest Grazing. Essay! In a survey of five Dzongkhags, forest grazing has been rated as an important resource for service in malaysia, ruminants (Roder, 1998). Environmentalists and forest ecologists have tended to blame forest degradation and destruction on grazing. However, there is bar exam subjects no quantitative information to prove that livestock grazing in forests causes degeneration (Roder et al ., 2001). Studies by Gibson, (1991); RNR-RC Jakar, (1997); and Tegbaru, (1991) have indicated that forest grazing is not a major problem for thesis, forest regeneration and subjects health. An assessment of forest grazing in Zhemgang Dzongkhag has actually concluded that grazing can be an efficient use of service available resources (RGOB/ISDP, 1995). While grazing may not have serious effects on the regeneration and health of well managed forests, it is a serious problem in forest ecosystems that have been disturbed by mechanical logging or by poor silvicultural management.

These effects may be harmful especially in the sub-tropical broadleaf forests (Roder et al ., 2001). Whether we like it or not, forest grazing will be there as long as migration takes place; so long as alternative feed sources are not provided and the legal issues on ownership and management of natural grasslands are not looked into. Grazing fallow arable fields is an important fodder source (Roder, 1998; Roder et al . 2001). The most important fallow systems that contribute substantially to the livestock fodder especially in the dry winter months are a) the maize system, b) Tseri system and the c) pangshing system (Table 10). On Benefits Of Living! Animals are allowed to graze these fields right after the crops are harvested.

The quantity and quality of fodder within fields will be dependent on the crop, the writing thesis, weed flora and the harvesting systems used as can be seen in Table 10 (Roder et al ., 2001). 2 grass fallow shifting cultivation system used in temperate areas. Source: Roder et al., 2001. 5.4 Crop Residues. Crop residues after post harvest operations are another important source of winter fodder. Different authors have put estimates of the contribution of thesis essay crop residues to Bhutan#146;s total feed requirement at 13 percent (RGOB, undated); 20 percent (Roder, 1982); and at 43 percent by Verma (1984). Verma#146;s estimation was probably an overestimation (Roder et al . 2001). Among crop residues, the important sources are rice straw, maize stover and buckwheat straw.

Other important crop residues fed to livestock are inferior and broken grains, husks and other chaff, residues from chang (any alcoholic drink, fermented from wheat, barley, maize or millet) and ara (home-made alcoholic beverage distilled from fermented grain of wheat, barley, maize, rice or millet) making and by-products of milling grain (Roder et al ., 2001). 5.5 Annual Arable Crops. The important annual arable crops grown for livestock are turnip ( Brassica rapa var. rapifera ), radish ( Raphanus sativus ), pumpkin ( Cucurbita maxima ), maize ( Zea mays ), wheat ( Triticum aestivum ), barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) and oats ( Avena sativa ). These are grown at elevations between 2,500 and 4,200 m. and are fed to milking cows, growing animals, draught animals and pigs throughout the winter. Farmers at higher elevations may cultivate turnips up to 0.3 ha annually (Roder et al ., 2001). In two villages of Wangdue Dzongkhag, turnip was the main winter fodder for 87 percent of the thesis service in malaysia, households (Roder 1998). Roder and Rinzin (2002) mention that with a gradual increase in the milk production potential of crossbred cows, these annual arable crops are becoming an on racism, ever more important source of feed for lactating cows. Maize is grown and fed to draught animals in sub-tropical areas like Zhemgang and writing service in malaysia Sarpang during the months of May and June.

Wheat and barley are cultivated over a wide range of production systems including the rice systems of Paro and Thimphu and the wheat-barley systems found at higher elevations in Wangdue and bar exam Trongsa dzongkhags. Oats (especially multi-cut varieties) have partly replaced wheat and barley as winter forage in the rice growing areas of thesis service in malaysia Paro, Thimphu, Wangdue and Trongsa (Roder et al ., 2001) and senior thesis essay variety introduction trials have been carried out writing thesis service (Photo 11) at Research Centres and coursework on-farm. Service! At lower elevations sugar cane is used for cattle feed (Gyeltshen, personal communication). Essay On Benefits Joint Family! Photo 11. Oat seed multiplication ( cv.

Stampede ) for on-farm trials, RNR Research Centre, Bhutan ( Source: S.G. Reynolds ) . Livestock production is also dependent on fodder trees. Writing Thesis! Fodder trees are mainly planted near houses, along fences and field boundaries (Tshering et al ., 1997). A large variety of trees are used for fodder production (Roder, 1985). The trees used and essay on racism management practices differ according to the altitude, the service in malaysia, availability of other types of fodder and the existing land use practices (Roder et al ., 2001). Depending on on racism and xenophobia, the altitude, the most popular fodder trees currently used are Ficus roxburghii, Ficus cunia, Salix babylonica and thesis service Quercus semecarpifolia (Photo 12).There are no area based yield data for the tree fodder in Bhutan. However, yield extrapolation for temperate species from single tree measurements have estimated the yield of different tree fodder at 4 t/ha/year for willow; 2t/ha/year for evergreen oak, 4 t/ha/yr for Populus robusta and 12 t/ha/year for Chinese pear (Roder, 1992). Essay On Benefits Family! As far as the nutritional content of the tree fodders are concerned, most are inferior to herbaceous species except for willow which has excellent nutritional qualities and high palatability (Roder, 1992; Wangdi et al ., 1997). Photo 12. Collection of Quercus semecarpifolia leaves for winter feed supplementation in Haa (Source: Tsering Gyeltshen).

5.7 Improved Pasture and Fodder Species. While a number of species have been imported and established in research trials, few have been widely distributed. In Malaysia! Roder (2002) indicated that from the mid 1970s, 75 grass species and essay 157 legume species have been introduced and evaluated. Writing Thesis In Malaysia! Under temperate conditions the highest yielding legume and grass species were: white clover (Trifolium repens), red clover (T. pratense) , lucerne (Medicago sativa), and lotus (Lotus pedunculatus) , cocksfoot ( Dactylis glomerata ), tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea ), and Italian rye grass ( Lolium multiflorum ) As a result of the germplasm introduction and testing activities 2 annual, 13 herbaceous perennial and 3 tree fodder species were currently recommended (in 2002) through the extension programme. Gyeltshen (personal communication) indicates that the following are commonly used species: Temperate areas : White clover ( Trifolium repens ), Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum ), Tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea ), Cocksfoot ( Dactylis glomerata ) used in mixtures. Oats ( Avena sativa ); 3 varieties have been released viz Fodder Oats Bhutan (FOB), Stampede and senior essay Naked. Writing Service In Malaysia! Oats are grown in the fallow period (after paddy) and as a hay crop in yak areas. For more details of oats in Bhutan see Gyaltsen (2002) and Gyeltshen et al. (2005).

Sub-tropical areas : Ruzi grass ( Brachiaria ruziziensis ),Molasses grass ( Melinis minutiflora ). The availability of good quality seed is a major limitation when recommending species for distribution to essay on racism and xenophobia farmers. In Malaysia! Dorji (2002) described seed production in Bhutan for the above species. There is little available information on the number of hectares of improved pasture. [For full details of the pasture resources of mother Bhutan see Roder et al ., 2001 and for details of fodder production in Bhutan see the Handbook for Extension Agents (January 2002) produced by RNR Research Centre Jakar/Bumthang (Livestock Research Program, 2002)]. Writing! The concept of growing fodder (conventional fodder grasses and legumes) for livestock is relatively new in Bhutan. This has posed difficulties when farmers had to spare land for utah bar exam essay, fodder development. It was usually the marginalized land not suited for any other crops that was put under fodder. However, this is changing as the writing thesis service, inherent limitations of the senior thesis essay, country#146;s topography and climate for sustainable field crop production are becoming more obvious and accepted by the policy makers and writing planners (Roder et al . Senior! 2001). Writing In Malaysia! There are fodder technologies suitable to the different agro-ecological zones. With the increase in cross bred animal numbers, demand for statistics, better quality and writing service in malaysia high producing fodder crops could only aqa gcse statistics coursework, increase in the near future.

Livestock enterprises involving dairying will assume a greater role where crop production is difficult. However a sustainable dairying enterprise will not be possible without adequate fodder resources, among other things. Existing opportunities to improve fodder availability in Bhutan will be enhanced if the following are considered: The review of the service in malaysia, draft pasture policy is love expedited following the recommendations made during the National Grazing Policy Workshop held in Bumthang in 2001. Amendment to thesis in malaysia the rules and regulations of natural grasslands regarding ownership, use and management. This will act as incentives to the livestock farmers to essay make investments in these grasslands to increase their productivity.

Fodder grown on crop land and in malaysia fodder trees planted on standard report, registered land of any class should be accounted for in the Land Act and given importance at par with other arable crops. Optimizing land use and fodder production from synergistic association of fodder crops with field crops, horticultural crops and tree crops will have to be increasingly emphasized to address the shortage of land made available to fodder development. In 2007 a Land Act was passed with the main purpose of nationalizing tsamdro (grazing land) and sokshing (woodlot for collection of leaf litters) in order to writing thesis in malaysia improve or enhance the equity base of resource use for on benefits joint, the general public. According to the Land Act 2007: All Tsamdros (grazing lands) have been nationalized and no individuals, communities and other institutions may own land in their own names. Collection of annual grazing licence fees will be discontinued from the year 2007. Thesis! After 10 years from the date of enactment of the Act, grazing lands shall be leased only to a lessee who is and xenophobia a resident of the district where the writing thesis service, grazing is situated.

An individual household or community owning livestock shall be eligible to essay lease the reverted grazing lands which have been converted to Government Reserved Forests Land (GRFL) for use as grazing land. While leasing grazing land, preference shall be given to the previous rights holder and community. The legislative reforms initiated under this Act have had various effects on the socio-economic development and environmental well-being of the population; some opinions have been positive while others have been less so. In order to assess the impacts Gyeltshen et al . (2010) carried out a number of geog (block)-based case studies and made a number of suggestions and writing thesis service in malaysia recommendations. It should be noted that progress in in a, the improvement of fodder resources is achieved by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forests through the implementation of writing a series of Five Year Plans. The present 10th Five-Year plan (2008-2013) is being implemented with the basic objectives of: i) enhancing sustainable rural livelihood , ii) conserving and essay promoting sustainable utilization of forest and water resources, iii) promoting sustainable utilization of writing service arable agriculture and pasture land resources, and enhancing food security (SYB, 2011 and Ministry of Agriculture and Forests ) . The mission of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forests is to ensure sustainable social and in a joint family economic well-being of the Bhutanese people through adequate access to food and natural resources. Writing Thesis Service In Malaysia! The overall goal of the Royal Government of Bhutan is the standard book report, achievement of Gross National Happiness for writing in malaysia, the people of Bhutan and senior thesis essay achieving a sustainable, yet vibrant, Bhutanese economy at large [ http://www.moaf.gov.bt/moaf/?page_id=7 ]. Research in Bhutan is carried out through the writing service in malaysia, four national research centres which are charged with a national and a regional mandate. The Renewable Natural Resources Research Centre Jakar (RNR-RC Jakar) based in essay family, the east central region is the national coordinating centre for writing thesis service in malaysia, all types of livestock research in Bhutan. The livestock research programme is structured into four broad sub-programmes viz. Senior! Livestock Breeding and writing in malaysia Management, Feed and essay Fodder, Animal Health and Socio Economy.

The priority area of research is in Feed and Fodder. Within the feed and fodder sub-programme, priority research areas are addressing winter fodder shortages and looking at synergistic and complementary effects of fodder production in combination with arable crops, horticulture and forestry systems (Roder 1998; Roder et al ., 2001). For the ninth five year plan (2002-2007), emphasis for livestock research under different sub-programmes was as below: 1) Feed and Fodder 60 percent, 2) Breeding and writing thesis Management, 30 percent and 3) Health, 10 percent. The low emphasis given to essay on benefits of living in a the last two sub-programme is writing thesis in malaysia because it is assumed that technologies pertaining to these two, could to a large extent be imported from outside Bhutan with little or no need for further adaptation (RNR-RC Jakar, 2002). The mandate to implement the in a joint, animal health sub-programme has been delegated to writing in malaysia the Royal Veterinary Epidemiological Centre (RVEC), Serbithang Thimphu due to the existing expertise lying with the RVEC. It is however proposed to love be brought back under the RNR-RC Jakar in the 9 th five year plan as the Jakar Centre gradually builds its own expertise. Livestock research in other regions is carried out through the writing in malaysia, Livestock sector based in the other three centres. The three other national research centres are RNR-RCs, Yusipang, based in essay of living in a joint family, western region (Forestry); Bajo based in the west central region (Field Crops) and Khangma based in writing service in malaysia, the eastern region (Horticulture). The key institutions working in livestock research and production based in the different organizations under the Ministry of Agriculture and Forests are given below: Department of Livestock Renewable Natural Resources Research and Development Centre, Jakar National Feed and Fodder Development Programme, Bumthang Regional Livestock Development Centre, Chhukha Regional Livestock Development Centre, Khangma Regional Livestock Development Centre, Zhemgang Regional Livestock Development Centre, Wangdue Renewable Natural Resources Research and Development Centre , Khangma Renewable Natural Resources Research and Development Centre , Bajo Renewable Natural Resources Research and on benefits joint family Development Centre , Yusipang Watershed Management Division, Thimphu For details of Ministry of Agriculture and Forests objectives, activities and staff, refer to the Ministry website http://www.moaf.gov.bt/moaf/ . Writing! Anon. (2009).

Bhutan: National Action Program to combat desertification. Final draft October 2009. Prepared with support from UNDP and GEF. 87 pages. http://www.bt.undp.org/assets/files/publication/NAP_Draft_FullFinal_Oct09.pdf . Essay And Xenophobia! Baumgartner, R. (1984). A Short Note on Seasonal Cattle Migration in Bumthang. Zurich: Helvetas. DANIDA (2008). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. Climate Ch ange Screening of Danish Development Assistance with Bhutan, Danish International Development Assistance (Danida). Dorjee, J. (1986). Estimation of Animal Feed Requirements in the Kingdom of Bhutan.

Thimphu: AHD. Dorjee, J. (1993). Livestock Development and Pasture Management. Thimphu: National Environment Commission. Dorji, K. (1995). Service In Malaysia! An Analysis of Comparative Advantages in Bhutanese Agriculture. PhD Dissertation. Zurich: ETH. Dorji, L. Essay! (2002).

Grass and legume seed production in Bhutan. In: Wangdi, K., Roder, W., T. Gyaltsen. Thesis! Proceedings of the Fifth Meeting of the Temperate Asia Pasture and Fodder Network (TAPAFON), held at Renewable Natural Resources Research Centre, Bajo, Wangdue, Bhutan, 29 April to 4 May 2002. http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Proceedings/Tapafon02/tapafon12.htm. Essay! FAO (1987). Grassland Survey and Integrated Pasture Development in the High Mountain Region of Bhutan (TCP/BHU/ 4505): Technical report of survey and description of development possibilities. Consultant Report by in malaysia, P. S. Of Living! Harris. 300 p. FAO (2000). Grassland Resource Assessment for in malaysia, Pastoral Systems. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 162.

Author P.S. Harris. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/X9137E/x9137e12.htm#TopOfPage . Ganser, A. (1983). The Geology of the Bhutan Himalaya. Basel:Birkhaeuser Verlag. Gibson, T.A. (1991). Forest Grazing Study. Working document No. 26. (FAO:DP/BHU/85016). Thimphu: Department of Forests RGOB and FAO. Grierson, A.J.C.

Long, D.G. (1983). Flora of Bhutan including a Record of Plants from Sikkim. Vol. 1 Part 1, Edinburgh: Royal Botanic Garden. Gyaltsen, T. (2002). Experiences with oats ( Avena sativa ) at temperate and utah essay high elevations of Bhutan.

In: Wangdi, K., Roder, W., T. Gyaltsen. Proceedings of the Fifth Meeting of the writing service in malaysia, Temperate Asia Pasture and Fodder Network (TAPAFON), held at Renewable Natural Resources Research Centre, Bajo, Wangdue, Bhutan, 29 April to 4 May 2002. http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Proceedings/Tapafon02/tapafon19.htm . Gyamtsho, P. (1996). Assessment of the Condition and Potential for Improvement of High Altitude Rangeland of Bhutan, - Dissertation No. Book Report! 11726. Zurich: ETH. Gyeltshen, T., Thinley, G., Yonten H. Service! Nerola. (2005). Evaluation of fodder oats germplasm in Bhutan.

In: Pariyar, D. Suttie, J. S.G. Reynolds (eds.). Proceedings of the Workshop on Fodder Oats, Fodder Technology Packages and Small Farm Income Generation, Kathmandu, Nepal 8-11 March, 2005. Chapter III. 7 p. http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Proceedings/nepal2005/chapter3.pdf . Standard Report! Gyeltshen, T., Tshering, N., Tsering, K S. Dorji. (2010). Thesis! Implications of legislative reform under the Land Act of Bhutan, 2007: A case study on nationalization of Tsamdro Sokshing and its associated socioeconomic and environmental consequences. And Xenophobia! www.dofps.gov.bt/wmd/attachments/LandAct Bhutan _watershed.pdf . Harris, P.S. (1987).

Grassland Survey and Integrated Pasture Development in the High Mountain Region of Bhutan. Thimphu: TCP/BHU/4505[A] AHD/FAO. Livestock Research Program (2002). Fodder Production in Bhutan; A Handbook for Extension Agents. RNR-Research Centre Jakar/Bumthang, Bhutan, 88 p. Livestock Statistics. ( 2009). Department of Livestock, Ministry of Agriculture and Forests, Thimphu , Bhutan. LUPP. (1995). LUPP Dzongkhag Data Sheets for in malaysia, Bhutan.

Land Use Planning Project. Thimphu: MoA. Miller, D.J. (1989). HLDP €“ End of Assignment Report. Thimphu, Bhutan: AHD. MOA. (2001). Proceedings of the National Grazing Policy Workshop, Bumthang, August 21-24, 2001. FIDI/RGOB.

MOA. Senior Thesis! (1995). Livestock Development Policy and Strategy. Thimphu: Ministry of Agriculture. MOA. (1997a). Writing Thesis Service In Malaysia! Atlas of Bhuitan. Land Use Planning Project. Thimphu: Ministry of Agriculture. MOA. (1997b).

Forest and Nature Conservation Rules. Thimphu: Ministry of Agriculture. Muller-Jaag, L. Essay! (1984). Views on the Development Projects by the Public of Bumthang. Thimphu: Helvetas. Noltie, H.J. (2000).

The Grasses of writing Bhutan. Flora of Bhutan, Including a Record of utah essay Plants from Sikkim. Vol. 3 Part 1. Edinburgh: Royal Botanic Garden. Writing In Malaysia! Okazaki, M. Mother! (1987). Soil of the Bhutan Himalaya. 145-184. In: Oshawa, M. (ed.) Life Zone Ecology of the Bhutan Himalaya. Japan: Laboratory of Ecology, Chiba University.

PPD. (1996). Unpublished data on Fodder Development Activities Achieved. Thimphu: Planning and Policy Division, Ministry of Agriculture. RGOB (1997). Planning Mission for thesis service, National Fodder Seed Production Centre Bumthang. Thimphu: RGOB-Helvetas. RGOB, (undated) National Policy Document on Use and essay on racism and xenophobia Maintenance of Domestic Animal Diversity, Thimphu: RGOB. RGOB/ISDP (1995).

A Natural Resources Inventory of Zhemgang Dzongkhag. Thimphu/Zhemgang: RGOB, Dzongkhag Administration Zhemgang, Integrated Sustainable Development Program. RNR-RC Jakar, (1997). Field Visit of Forestry Research Activities in Hurchi FMU, Chumey Valley, 25. October.

Paper presented at the IUFRO Seminar. Jakar: RNR-RC Jakar. Service In Malaysia! RNR-RC Jakar, (2002). Proceedings of the 7th Livestock Research Coordination Workshop. Gelephu Bhutan. 21-23 January, 2002. Roder, W. (1981a). Fodder Development.

Annex IX, 26-33. Senior! In: Proceedings of the Departmental Conference. Thimphu:AHD. Roder, W. (1981b). Willow ( Salix babylonica ) €“ A fodder to Rely on.

In: Bhutan Journal of Animal Husbandry, 4:7-9. Roder, W. (1982). Thesis Service! Pasture/Fodder Development, 1-42. In Seminar on Pasture/Fodder Development. Thimphu: AHD/RGOB. Roder, W. (1985). Fodder Tree Use in Bhutan, 3-41. In: L.D White and J.A Tiedeman [eds.] Proceedings of International Rangeland Resource Development Symposium. Salt Lake City Utah. Roder, W. (1988).

HLDP €“ Grassland and Fodder Development in Bhutan €“ Past Activities. In HLDP April Report. Thesis Essay! Thimphu:AHD. Roder, W. (1990). A Review of Literature and Technical Reports on Grassland and writing service in malaysia Fodder in Bhutan.

Thimphu: Himalayan Pasture and Fodder Research Network (RAS/79/121). Roder, W. Essay Of Living Joint! (1992). Experiences with Tree Fodders in Temperate Regions of writing service Bhutan. Agroforestry Systems 17:263-270. Roder, W. 5th Grade Book! (1998).

Fodder Sources/Fodder Development/Farmers Management €“ Preliminary Data from a National Survey, 72-79. In: Proceeding Third Annual Natiuonal Livestock Research Workshop, Bathpalathang, Bumthang. Jakar: RNR-RC Jakar. Roder, W. (2002). Reflection of Research and service Extension Activities Targeting Fodder Resource. In: Wangdi, K., Roder, W., T. Gyaltsen. Proceedings of the essay in a family, Fifth Meeting of the Temperate Asia Pasture and thesis service Fodder Network (TAPAFON), held at aqa gcse statistics Renewable Natural Resources Research Centre, Bajo, Wangdue, Bhutan, 29 April to 4 May 2002. http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/agpc/doc/Proceedings/Tapafon02/tapafon8.htm Roder, W. Writing Thesis Service In Malaysia! Rinzin. Essay Of Living Family! (2002). Fodder from Integrated Livestock and Agriculture Systems in writing service, Bhutan.

In: Wangdi, K., Roder, W., T. Mother Essay! Gyaltsen. Proceedings of the Fifth Meeting of the Temperate Asia Pasture and Fodder Network (TAPAFON), held at service Renewable Natural Resources Research Centre, Bajo, Wangdue, Bhutan, 29 April to 4 May 2002. http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Proceedings/Tapafon02/tapafon4.htm . Roder, W., Wangdi, K., Gyamtsho, P., K. Dorji. Thesis! (2001). Feeding the Herds: Improving Fodder Resources in Bhutan. ICIMOD, Kathmandu, Nepal. Thesis Service In Malaysia! ISBN : 92-9115-409-1, 124 p. http://books.icimod.org/index.php/search/publication/109 . Rumball, J. And Xenophobia! (1988). Interim Report. In: HLDP End of Assignment Reports.

Thimphu:AHD. Sargent, C., Sargent, O. Parsell, R. (1985). The Forests of Bhutan: A Vital Resource for thesis, the Himalayas? Journal of Tropical Ecology, 1, 265-286. Sherpa, D.L. (2010).

Dairy co-operatives in Bhutan: Understanding potentials towards co-operative chain development . Thesis submitted to the University of standard 5th grade book Applied Sciences in partial fulfilment of the requirements for writing thesis, the Masters Degree on Agriculture Production Chain Management with Specialization on Livestock Chains. University of Applied Sciences, Van Hall Larenstein, The Netherlands. 77 p. http://edepot.wur.nl/166159 . Singh, R.P. (1978). Pasture Development in Bhutan. [AGOF/BHU/7272/010] Thimphu: RGOB/FAO. SYB. (2011). Statistical Yearbook of Bhutan 2011. National Statistics Bureau. Tegbaru, A. (1991).

Sociological Dimension of Livestock Grazing in Gidakom Forest Management Unit and on racism and xenophobia Its Immediate Environs. Thimphu: (DP/BHU/85/016). Thesis! FAO. Tshering, G., Gyetshen, T., Penjor, T., Wangdi, R., Roder, W. (1997). Tree Fodder in Sub Tropical Regions of Bhutan, 60-68. In: proceedings of the Second Annual National Livestock Research Workshop, Bathpalathang, Bumthang.

RNR-RC Jakar. UNEP (2009). Strategizing Climate Change for Bhutan. National Environment Commission, Royal Government of Bhutan and UNEP Report, January 2009. 54 pages plus Annexes. Standard 5th Grade Book Report! http://www.rrcap.unep.org/nsds/uploadedfiles/file/bhutan.pdf . Ura, K. Writing Service In Malaysia! (1993). Essay! The Nomads€™ Gamble. A background paper for Bhutan€™s National Environmental Strategy. National Environment Commission. Verma, M.L. (1984).

Treatment and Utilization of Straw for thesis in malaysia, feeding under Small Farm Conditions. Training material for the National level Training Course Bhutan, March 2-12. 1984. Bangkok: FAO. Wangdi, K., Roder, W., Thinlay, P. (1997). Salix babylonica , a Traditional Fodder with Promising Potential. Proceedings Eighth International Grassland Congress, Winnepeg and Manitoba, Canada. The author was Programme Director of the RNR-RC Jakar. He was associated with fodder development in Bhutan from 1987 until he left the senior essay, Ministry in thesis, 2005. He holds a Masters degree in Pasture Agronomy from Lincoln University, New Zealand.

The Programme Director of RNR Research Centre Jakar will be the custodian of the profile. The contact address is as follows:

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How to create your focused, relevant CV. Three sections makes it easy and clear for the reader. EDUCATION: normally at the top (especially for recent graduates entering the jobs market for writing thesis service in malaysia, the first time). Include awards under each relevant education section, for example, grant awards for book report, a DPhil, school prizes, undergraduate prizes or high rankings (‘2nd in year’) EXPERIENCE (rather than “Employment”): this can include voluntary work, student society roles, internships, paid work etc INTERESTS or COMMUNITY ACTIVITY AND SKILLS should be included to indicate extra, diverse talents. Within this section, you might use sub-categories such as IT Skills (but only if they are specialist or unusual); Languages; Music; Sports etc. Remember that the CV is to get you the meeting or interview only, so don’t feel you have to thesis service, include every last detail – leave them wanting to learn more about you.

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Space may mean you should just list one contact detail, e.g. Oxford email address (not XYZ@fluffybunny.com), and your mobile number Education Experience – the core of your CV Additional skills Interests. This format makes it easy for employers to spot relevant information fast and gives a complete picture of writing thesis, a candidate in on racism a clear and structured way. Remember, however, that you can alter the titles to suit the application you are making. For example, you could use the heading “Teaching Experience” instead of “Experience” if you are applying for a teaching job. Thesis? Even if you don’t have much paid work experience, you can include voluntary work or contributions you have made to clubs or societies (inside or outside Oxford). In a skills-based CV, the mother essay, information is arranged to highlight relevant skills, with details presented under different skills categories. A concise summary of your work history normally precedes or follows your relevant skills section, to provide context.

This type of CV is used to highlight the transferability of writing in malaysia, your skills, and so is useful if you are applying to a role without direct experience. Love? We generally only recommend using this style if you have great experience, as a considerable amount of evidence is required to in malaysia, make the skills sound meaningful. As such, it is normally used by: people changing career direction people transitioning from academia into industry or other sectors. However, a similar style may be useful if you are applying to your first ever piece of work experience and have had few positions of responsibility, as it allows you to emphasise transferable skills you have gained from 5th grade book report studying at thesis Oxford. If you are heading to north America, then you might need a resume rather than a CV.

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Double check for typos and errors. Then send it off! It can take a number of revisions before you are happy with your CV, and statistics, getting independent advice can prove very helpful: it might all make perfect sense to you, but you could be surprised by the things that others may question or not understand. Make an appointment and ask for feedback from a Careers Adviser. For sector specific advice about service in malaysia, how to tailor your CV please refer to our sector information. Putting Together the Perfect Consulting CV – information sheet Careers Beyond Profit – How to standard book, Write a Winning CV – presentation slides CVs: A Brief Introduction – presentation slides. Our Resource Centre has a number of writing thesis service in malaysia, files and books on CV writing that you may find useful. The Careers Service subscribes to GoinGlobal on behalf of Oxford students.

It features around 40 country guides. You can get advice on your CV from mother essay any of our Careers Advisers by booking an advice appointment. Most of our careers fairs also have CV Clinics, to writing, get advice from recruiters. Prospects: CV Writing – has sample CVs, sample covering letters, and love, tips on writing in malaysia what to include TARGETjobs: Applications and CV Advice Academic CVs: 10 Irritating Mistakes – a Guardian article, 2013 Vitae: Researcher CVs: A specialist resource for mother, the professional development of writing service, researchers, including many example CVs for careers inside and outside academia Vitae: Academic CVs: Information specifically on academic CV writing jobs.ac.uk – more information on academic CVs. Upcoming Career Workshops for Researchers. Career Management for of living family, Research Staff and thesis, DPhils.

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Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and aqa gcse, coach.. Service In Malaysia? can u suggest to love essay me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the writing thesis service in malaysia, Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs?

I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the senior thesis essay, ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use?

Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over writing, the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to senior thesis essay consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide.

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Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in writing thesis service, service. So i want to utah bar exam highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and writing thesis service, input your own experience. Try using the utah bar exam subjects, ‘Freeman’ template.

Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to writing thesis in malaysia do. Utah Bar Exam Essay Subjects? Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and in malaysia, accounting market.

Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the utah bar exam essay, ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into service the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to bar exam earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest?

Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Thesis Service In Malaysia? Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to utah apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for service in malaysia, the fourth quarter this year.

I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the coursework help, ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). Thesis Service In Malaysia? https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to bar exam check out writing thesis, which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the aqa gcse statistics, templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck!

It really depends on writing thesis service in malaysia what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on mother the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on writing service in malaysia your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an essay, aside, you may want to service look into whether you’re qualified to essay subjects get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for writing service in malaysia, sure. Standard 5th Grade Book? Good luck on the job hunt!

If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for writing thesis, your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.

We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and aqa gcse coursework, Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to thesis service Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and essay on racism and xenophobia, learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown.

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What to Put on thesis a Resume to Make it Stand Out. Writing Thesis Service. Apart from experience and education, you should consider putting your achievements, a resume summary, and key skills on your resume to make it stand out. This article will show you how to put key skills on your resume. Here's an example of the wrong and the right way to put skills on a resume. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and easy to use.

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Where do you put skills on a resume? Skills are so very, very important that they should show up all over bar exam essay, your resume. Not just in the resume skills section. But, you do need a professional skills section, and writing in malaysia it should be in a prominent place on a resume. Standard. You can also try putting your skills section in thesis in malaysia a side column. Also, make sure that a couple of your key skills appear in your resume summary (here's how to mother love essay do that) and cover letter (read more) . Several should show up in your experience section.

Sprinkle a couple through your education section. Service. One of the reasons you will want to do this is something called Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS). More about that later. What Skills to Put On a Resume - Hard and Soft Skills. First, you need work-related skills. Not bow hunting skills or nunchuck skills. Real career skills. So, what are the best skills for a resume?

Okay, the first thing you need to know is on racism and xenophobia that there are two different types of skill sets - hard skills and soft skills. Hard skills are not “skills that are hard to writing thesis learn.” They are the technical skills and abilities you need to do a specific job. For example, say you are applying for the position of dump truck driver. So, being able to drive is bar exam subjects most likely the top hard skill you need to have to do the job. Typical hard skills to writing in malaysia list on a resume include things like computer skills or driving a dump truck. A hard skills list is especially important for professions such as engineering, IT, and medicine. Here's a list of 10 typical hard skills to include on a resume: Data Analysis Copywriting Foreign Languages Accounting Computer Languages Mathematics Graphic Design Planning / Event Planning SEO / SEM Marketing Bookkeeping. A common way to describe soft skills is to call them “people skills” or “social skills.” Soft skills are often linked to personal qualities that make up a person’s “emotional intelligence.” They are special skills like communication, relationship building, and creativity. List of 10 soft skills to include on a resume.

See examples of how to describe them. Communication Ability to Work Under Pressure Decision Making Time Management Self-motivation Conflict Resolution Leadership Adaptability Teamwork Creativity. The difficulty of teaching and defining soft skills for love essay, a job is the reason why a list of soft skills on a resume are valued. And if you have great soft skills on your resume , you will do better than a candidate who has nothing more than the required technical skills. For example, research by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) shows that the key resume skills employers favor in new college graduate applicants aren’t the technical types of skills for service in malaysia, a resume . Statistics Help. So, what skills are the best to put on a resume? The most desirable skills for a resume are leadership and the ability to work on a team, with 77.8% of employers searching for service, both of essay on racism these key skills among new college graduate hires. Only 67.5% of employers will look for “technical skills.” So, when an writing service in malaysia, employer must choose between two applicants with identical technical skills, the candidate that has proven leadership skills (or other types of soft skills) has a better chance.

Sounds like becoming team captain of your lacrosse team as soon as possible is on benefits of living in a family a good idea. First, you need to choose the in malaysia, best skills for your resume. This is the most daunting part of adding a resume skills section. It may seem simple, but take a look at on benefits of living in a, the following example: I know how to use a computer. It’s a good hard skill. So I add “computer skills” to the bullet point list at the end of the resume.

That’s great. Got it. But if you want to be more thorough, here are six easy tips to follow in service order to make sure you have ALL of the good skills you need. So how do you decide which skills to put on your resume? I'll show you how, but first - always remember to put your skills front and coursework help center . Writing Service In Malaysia. Here's an example of a template from our resume builder that properly showcases skills on on racism and xenophobia a resume. 1. How to Make Your List of Job Skills Relevant to service the Job Offer. What skills are relevant for a resume? Let’s put it this way. If you’re applying for essay family, a position as a Marketing Manager, your ability to tie a cherry stem into a knot with your tongue is irrelevant. Writing In Malaysia. Proficient with Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software (Salesforce). Tying cherry stems into of living joint, knots.

If you're changing your career from Sales Associate to Customer Service Representative, most of your Sales skills will become irrelevant. In that case, you'll want to make a list of abilities from your sales job that count as customer service skills on thesis service a resume. A good start is to make a master list of job skills and and xenophobia professionals strengths before matching them to business skills listed in the job description. Take a moment to think about all of the awesome things you can do. Make sure most of them are things to thesis in malaysia put on a resume. If you're stuck, start with a general list of help abilities as a warm up and then make a list of skills to writing thesis in malaysia add to coursework help a resume.

Which of these things could be your hard skills? Can you prove them? Which of in malaysia these could be your soft skills? Again, can you prove them? Are you a good listener? That’s a great soft skill. Can you use Microsoft Word? That’s a very basic hard skill. Here is a sample of what a typical resume skills section might look like: Speak and write in fluent Spanish. Proficient in Microsoft Office including Excel and Powerpoint. Bar Exam Essay. Working knowledge of WordPress.

Able to manage and implement Social Media campaigns. Excellent written and writing thesis in malaysia verbal communication skills. Excellent editing skills. Able to translate complex text into easily readable material. Maybe you have some of these key skills . Maybe your skill set is coursework help completely different. We’ve put together examples for you ( see below ) to writing service in malaysia help you brainstorm so you don’t leave out essay, any of your best skills for a resume. Next, match your list to writing in malaysia the resume skills listed in the job description. All of the personal skills and talents you have can fall into one of utah bar exam essay three categories: Transferable Skills - the writing in malaysia, definition of transferable skills are key skills that you can take with you from one job to utah bar exam subjects another. Examples: Microsoft Excel or Phone Etiquette Job-related Skills - job-related skills are the specific skills you need to do a certain job.

Examples: Scuba Diving or Java Programing Adaptive Skills - adaptive skills are personal attributes or skills you use to survive life. Examples: Persuasion or Confidence. Why is this important? Because there are different ways to put work-related skills on writing service in malaysia your resume depending on which category they fall under. Step 1: Go through the job description to standard find the job-related skills that are required for the position. Step 2: You should have most of writing thesis service these key skills. Essay. Otherwise, you won’t be able to do the job. For this job, you need to be able to: Conduct webinars. Attend informal dinner meetings. Writing. Speak in front of large groups. Discuss and present software.

Step 3: These job-related skills should go in your resume skills section and possibly in your resume objective or summary so an employer will see them right away. There should be evidence (work experience, education, training) that prove your ability to thesis essay demonstrate these key skills on writing service in malaysia a resume . Essay On Racism. Pro Tip : You can also put these skills in bold , for example, conduct webinars . Using bold for keywords helps the draw the thesis service, recruiter's eye while they are scanning, and will make you more memorable as well. And Xenophobia. Step 4: Next, look for all of the writing service in malaysia, adaptive and transferable skills that the employer wants on top of the regular job-related skills. Love. Step 5: Sprinkle proof that you have these types of skills throughout your resume. Add a few with quantifiable proof to your professional skills list. Adaptive Skills for a Resume. Transferable Skills for a Resume.

2. Research People Who Already Have the Job You Want. Once you’ve mined the job description for examples of professional skills to include on your resume, visit LinkedIn for a little bit of thesis snooping. Why do you want to peep on other professionals? Researching other professionals' strengths will let you know what skills and abilities are already valued in that profession. Essay On Racism. Add any duplicates of your skills to your resume skills section. Pro Tip : For future reference, you can also check out the courses, certificates, education, and skills sections to unlock new achievements. Now you know how to take your career to the next level with a similar course or training.

3. Thesis. What Skills to Put on a Resume for Extra Value. Now ask yourself: Are any of your transferable skills and love qualifications missing? Remember transferable skills are the writing in malaysia, universal skills that translate across jobs - like being proficient in essay Excel or Spanish. Good skills like Excel and Spanish are always relevant. If you missed any, add them even if they were not mentioned in the job description. 4. Add the Universal Skills That All Employers Want. I know I’m getting repetitive: Go back and check one more time to make sure you have EVERYTHING. Remember, most of the unique skills that you put on your resume should be job-related skills taken from the job description and your best transferable skills. Adding a couple of writing thesis service your best universally desired skills is a way of sweetening the deal, but don't overdo it or base your entire resume on senior essay these examples of skills.

Have a look at our resume skills list. Do you have any of them? 5. Numbers and Facts Will Make You Stand Out From the Crowd. Now, you're probably wondering how to put skills on a resume to convince the thesis in malaysia, recruiter you’re the best fit? Use facts and senior figures. Forget about superfluous adjectives. It’s as simple as that. Service. Use proof to aqa gcse statistics coursework help persuade to draw recruiter’s attention. 6. Beat the writing thesis service in malaysia, Bots By Adding Keyword Skills.

Today, a lot of essay and xenophobia resumes are read by writing service in malaysia robots before they ever fall into human hands. That’s right. You worked hard on your resume, but a lot of hiring managers won’t even bother to essay and xenophobia look at it before having R2-D2 run a scan on it. Thesis. The software sorts through applicants’ resumes and compares the resume skills you’ve listed to those found in the job description. On Racism And Xenophobia. To pass the inspection, you have to match a certain amount of these keywords.

You can visit Jobscan to see how well you've matched your resume to the job post. Around 70-80% of the skills on your resume need to match the job description. Note, the percentage can differ depending on individual Human Resource departments. But, you can’t just pack your resume full of keyword skills to trick the in malaysia, bots. TheLadders say that Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) are now able to contextualize the content of your resume. What does this mean? The software can read your resume almost like a human. That doesn’t mean that keywords aren’t important. Keyword skills should appear throughout your resume. You just have to make sure that skill sets are added in 5th grade a way that reflects your full experience learning, using, and working with those key skills. Pro Tip: You should label your resume skills section “Skills” so that any ATS program can easily identify it.

Want more tips? Read our complete guide: 42 Amazing Resume Tips That You Can Use In 30 Minutes [Examples] The Technical Skills That Employers Desire the Most. The shift to a technology-based economy has made science, engineering, math, and IT skills some of the thesis, most in-demand skills for a resume among employers. So, what are the on racism and xenophobia, best technical skills for a resume? LinkedIn made a list of the 25 top hard skills for a resume in 2016 , and it’s all tech skills. Service. The number one skill was “Cloud and Distributed Computing.” Technical skills are either something you have or you don’t, but they are always something that you can learn. Most people will only be required to have basic technical skills on their resumes like software skills - e.g., the subjects, ability to thesis service in malaysia use Microsoft Office and Excel. Essay Subjects. Professional skills on a resume are the one thing that will quickly communicate to an employer that you are the service in malaysia, right fit for a job. And after you’ve proven that, the essay on racism, fact that you have listed universally desirable skills on writing thesis service your resume will put you ahead of the pack. That’s why it is important to: Carefully craft a good skills section for your resume. Place key skills throughout your resume.

And now you know how! INFOGRAPHIC - Everything You Need To Know About Your Resume's Skill Section. The infographic featured below will show you the most desirable skills to put on a resume and how to showcase them. Like the infographic? Feel free to share it or use it on your site. I'll be happy to write a personalized introduction for essay on racism, your blog. What skills should you put on a resume to thesis service in malaysia get an on racism and xenophobia, upper hand? Leave a comment if you have any questions about what skills to put on a resume or how to add them. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork.

She loves writing about writing thesis service, resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. Standard Report. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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copy pasted essay This is an online version of an article first published in in malaysia Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and His Legacy , edited by C. J. Wright. London: British Library Publications, 1997: 391-454. 'Their Present Miserable State of Cremation': the Restoration of the Cotton Library. The aged overseer paused. 'Well, I doubt if you'd even understand it.

I don't. He seems to have found a method for restoring missing words and phrases to some of the old fragments of original text in the Memorabilia. Perhaps the essay subjects, left-hand side of a half-burned book is legible, but the right-hand page is burned, with a few words missing at the end of each line. He's worked out a mathematical method for finding the thesis, missing words. It's not foolproof, but it works to some degree'.

W.M. Miller, Jr., A Canticle for Leibowitz. The October 1731 number of the newly-established Gentleman's Magazine included the following notice in its reports of 'Casualties' for the month: 23 [Oct.]. A Fire broke out in the House of Mr Bently , adjoining to the King's School near Westminster Abbey , which burnt down that part of the House that contained the King's and Cottonian Libraries. Almost all the printed Books were consumed and part of the Manuscripts. Amongst the latter, those which Dr Bentley had been collecting for standard book report his Greek Testament for these last ten years, valued at 2000 l.(2)

This short note, tucked away between reports of the discovery of a disfigured corpse near Bath and an accidental shooting at Hackney, records what was perhaps the greatest bibliographical disaster of writing thesis in malaysia, modern times in Britain. Essay And Xenophobia? It is thesis service, difficult to quantify the scale of the losses to the Cotton library as a result of the fire at Bentley's residence, Ashburnham House. A number of letters preserve colourful anecdotes about the utah essay, fire, such as the famous story of Dr Bentley escaping from the flames in nightgown and wig with Codex Alexandrinus under his arms,(3) but the most detailed source of information about the fire and service in malaysia the damage inflicted by it is a report by a parliamentary committee established to investigate the incident, which was published in 1732.(4) This contained two valuable appendices. Bar Exam Essay Subjects? The first was 'A Narrative of the Fire. and of the Methods used for preserving and recovering the Manuscripts of the Royal and Cottonian libraries',(5) compiled by the Reverend William Whiston the younger, the clerk in thesis service in malaysia charge of the records kept in the Chapter House at Westminster, another notorious firetrap.(6) The second was a list of lost and damaged manuscripts, prepared by David Casley, the deputy librarian of both the Royal and Cotton libraries, with the assistance of Whiston. (7) Casley's list was afterwards reprinted in summary form, with a few amendments, in his 1734 catalogue of the Royal Library.(8) Whiston stated that the on benefits of living, Cotton library contained before the fire 958 manuscript volumes, of which 114 were 'lost, burnt or intirely spoiled' and another 98 so damaged as to be defective.(9) These figures have invariably been cited in accounts of the Cotton fire. They are, however, misleading. In one sense, they overstate the writing thesis in malaysia, amount of damage. Essay? Many of the manuscripts reported as lost by Whiston and Casley were in fact preserved as fragments or 'burnt lumps' which were beyond the reach of writing thesis service, eighteenth-century conservation technology but were successfully restored during the on benefits family, nineteenth century.(10) Consequently, the majority of manuscripts reported as lost in 1732 are available for thesis service in malaysia consultation today.

In fact, only thirteen manuscripts were utterly destroyed in the Cotton fire, mostly from the Otho press.(11) Although relatively few complete volumes were destroyed, many manuscripts lost important articles or survive only as charred fragments. Love Essay? In this sense, the details given by writing thesis service in malaysia, Whiston and Casley underestimate the damage. In particular, many of the manuscripts said by Casley to have survived the fire intact actually suffered serious damage. One of the most famous victims of the fire was the manuscript containing the unique exemplar of Beowulf , Vitellius A. XV.(12) The edges of this manuscript were badly scorched and the vellum left very brittle. Its subsequent handling caused serious textual loss. Mother Love Essay? This manuscript is thesis in malaysia, not, however, included in Casley's list of those damaged in the fire. Essay On Racism And Xenophobia? Tiberius A. III is a composite volume containing various eleventh-century items mostly of Canterbury origin, including St Æthelwold's translation of the Rule of St Benedict, works by service in malaysia, Ælfric and senior thesis one of the two surviving copies of the Regularis Concordia , prefaced by a famous drawing of King Edgar with St Dunstan and St Æthelwold.(13) This volume was also said by Casley to have survived the fire unharmed, but again there was damage to the edges of the folios and writing the water used to put out the fire caused staining. The drawing of King Edgar had become warped and buckled. In the absence of any meaningful statistics, the best way of conveying the catastrophic nature of the losses in the Ashburnham House fire is by aqa gcse statistics help, a random roll call of writing thesis, some of the aqa gcse statistics, victims.(14) Cotton's pride and joy, the fifth-century Greek Genesis (Otho B. In Malaysia? VI), one of the earliest illustrated Christian manuscripts in existence, was reduced to a pile of cinder-like fragments.(15) Cotton possessed two of the thesis essay, four surviving letters patent of King John recording the grant of writing service, Magna Carta.

One of these, now Cotton Charter XIII. 31a, was the only one with the Great Seal still attached. In the heat, not only was the text damaged but the seal was left as a shapeless blob.(16) The bull confirming the title 'Defender of the Faith' on Henry VIII (now Vitellius B. IV*) was reduced to half a dozen greatly shrunken and distorted fragments. Otho A. XII contained unique exemplars of two key texts for the Anglo-Saxon period, Asser's Life of Alfred and The Battle of Maldon , together with other Old English material.(17) Although 40 folios of the original 155 were eventually recovered, both Asser and Maldon perished completely. Among the chronicle texts which were lost or very badly damaged were the earliest manuscript of Gildas (Vitellius A. VI),(18) the 'G' manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Otho B. XI,(19) and the only extant manuscript of Æthelweard's chronicle (Otho A. X).(20) Cartularies from such houses as Lenton (Otho B. XIV),(21) St Albans (Otho D. III) and St Augustine, Canterbury (Otho B. XV), were also lost or very badly damaged, as well as such historical texts as the earliest copy of the Burghal Hidage, part of Otho B. XI.(22) Among the illuminated manuscripts ruined in standard the fire might be singled out a portion of an early eighth-century gospel book from Northumbria, Otho C. V, if only because another fragment of this manuscript survives intact in thesis Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 197B, and shows that it was an insular gospel-book from the senior, greatest period of Northumbrian illumination.(23) These are mostly medieval examples. The devastation caused to Cotton's early modern historical collections was probably as great, but has been less thoroughly documented.

It is a measure of the richness of Cotton's library that, despite such losses, it still remains an incomparable source for the history, literature and art of medieval and Tudor England. On the morning after the writing thesis, fire, Little Dean's Yard in Westminster must have been a sad sight. Ashburnham House was a smouldering ruin. The ground was littered with fragments of burnt manuscripts, which the boys of Westminster School picked up and mother kept as souvenirs.(24) As the manuscripts had been rescued from the flames, they had been taken to various rooms in Westminster School. When the fire had finally been put out, they were assembled in the great boarding house of the school, opposite Ashburnham House.

Two days later, they were transferred to a recently completed building intended as a new dormitory for the school.(25) These operations were supervised by the Speaker, Arthur Onslow, a Cotton trustee, who on hearing of the fire had rushed from his house nearby to service in malaysia, help save the manuscripts. Essay? Onslow summoned together a group of experts, including not only Bentley and Casley, but also keepers of such other record repositories as the Chapter House at Westminster, the Tower of London and the Exchequer, to consider how the damaged manuscripts could be conserved.(26) The deliberations of this group and the work subsequently undertaken were recorded by William Whiston in his appendix to the 1732 parliamentary report.(27) Although Whiston's report is well known, little notice has been taken in descriptions of individual Cotton Manuscripts of the impact of the emergency conservation work undertaken immediately after the fire, when a number of manuscripts were broken up and rebound. It seems likely that, in the process, leaves were not reassembled in writing the correct order and the collation of some volumes permanently disrupted. This important stage in the codicological history of bar exam essay subjects, many Cotton Manuscripts has been generally overlooked. It is therefore worth describing in writing service some detail the love, procedures adopted by Whiston and thesis in malaysia his colleagues. It is difficult nowadays, looking at the collection after more than two hundred years of conservation work, to imagine the scale of the problem confronting Speaker Onslow's panel of essay family, experts.

The picture which comes to mind is of a huge collection of loose charred fragments, but the pattern of damage caused by the fire and 'engine-water' was more complex.(28) The vellum manuscripts had frequently stayed together as a single unit, but had warped and shrunk in the heat, each codex rolling up into a misshappen ball. Animal fat had been drawn out from the vellum by the heat and then congealed, turning the thesis service, manuscript into a glutinous mass, blackened around the edges. As it cooled, the manuscript became very brittle. One Royal manuscript burnt in the fire, deliberately left unconserved, preserves some idea of the appearance of these extraordinary objects.(29) It looks like an irradiated armadillo. Moreover, as is still the case with library fires, the mother essay, water used to extinguish the blaze had caused as much damage as the flames.(30) The paper manuscripts in writing thesis service in malaysia particular were sodden and urgently needed drying, as there was a risk of mould.(31) Initial conservation work began on 1 November 1731, just over a week after the fire.(32) The stained and damp paper manuscripts, mostly sixteenth-century State Papers, were disbound, and aqa gcse statistics coursework a bookbinder employed to clean the service in malaysia, leaves and wash them in an alum solution. A number of presumably unskilled assistants were hired to turn over the leaves to utah bar exam essay, prevent the formation of mould.

The leaves were hung on lines to dry and afterwards bound up again. It was found that the wet vellum manuscripts could be satisfactorily dried by leaving them open on the floor and regularly turning the writing in malaysia, leaves. The worst affected were dried in front of a fire. A few vellum manuscripts were disbound and the folios hung up on lines in groups of thesis, two or three to writing thesis, dry. Unfortunately, Whiston does not specify which manuscripts were treated in this way. The rescue team next tackled those manuscripts which had suffered more from fire and heat than water. On Benefits In A Joint? Where possible, the burnt vellum manuscripts were opened up leaf by leaf and 'the glutinous Matter, that had been forced out upon writing thesis in malaysia, the Edges of the essay, Vellum and Parchment by the Heat of the Fire, was carefully taken off by the Fingers. '.(33) Despite Whiston's claim that, except for a few of minor value, all the damaged vellum manuscripts had been treated in this way, it seems that little progress was made. Later descriptions of the collection all confirm that the burnt vellum manuscripts were in a particularly bad condition.(34) In any case, the treatment described by Whiston would hardly have left these manuscripts in a fit condition for use. The burnt paper manuscripts were an easier proposition. The individual leaves were washed, cleaned and hung up to dry.

Afterwards, the thesis, leaves were 'several Times looked over; and the Pieces, that were Parts of the same Book, were laid together, as much as could be found.'(35) Whiston stated that, from the surviving paper fragments, 'several large Portions of Books, and some entire Books have been made up out of them'.(36) Whiston does not identify these eighteenth-century reconstructions of Cotton Manuscripts. He urged that, when a volume had been recovered in this way, 'each Book or Portion of Book, so collected together, should be carefully collated, and the Leaves placed, as near as possible, in the same Order, that they were in before the Fire'.(37) Despite these efforts, a large number of 'single Leaves, or Pieces of Leaves' remained unidentified, and were put into drawers. These included many fragments of burnt vellum manuscripts and indeed the more intractable 'burnt lumps' of vellum. Whiston proposed that these fragments be arranged 'into Covers or Drawers, according to the respective Subjects they treat of, that so the least Fragment may not be lost'.(38) It does not seem that this far-sighted proposal was implemented. The initial rescue work was conducted at enormous speed.

It had been largely completed by the time Whiston submitted his report on 20 January 1732, within three months of the fire. Inevitably there must be doubts about the essay on racism and xenophobia, accuracy of work undertaken with great haste, partly by unskilled assistants, in primitive conditions and writing without the aid of mother, modern bibliographical tools. Later workers on the collection commented that it had suffered 'by the carelessness of those that have been the writing thesis, first employed in preserving them'.(39) Whiston does not specify how individual manuscripts were treated, but the general figures he provides indicate that about a third of the volumes in the collection were subjected to this rough and ready conservation work.(40) The labours of Whiston and his colleagues already place a very great gulf between the modern user of the Cotton library and the library as it existed before the fire. In discussing the collation of any Cotton manuscript which shows signs of severe damage from statistics damp, it is worth remembering that in 1731 the thesis, manuscript may have been taken apart and the leaves hung up on washing lines by mother love essay, an illiterate artisan. Whiston and his fellow workers stand as the first of a series of thesis service, intermediaries between the modern scholar and the original Cotton library. They inaugurated a process of senior thesis, conservation work on the collection which has continued intermittently to the present day. Just as the story of the Cotton collection to 1731 was one of growth and development, so its history since then has been one of successive attempts to restore the collection to its pre-fire state. Historical and literary scholars have throughout this time given manuscript evidence an increasingly elevated status. In Malaysia? For many, the original manuscript has served as a touchstone, a firm fixed point to statistics, which scholars can return when they are buffeted by the cross-currents of intellectual debate.

In the case of the writing service, Cotton collection, however, the utah subjects, manuscripts themselves have undergone a process of evolution and change as successive curators have sought to restore them to their original state. In a number of cases, a particular manuscript is little more than an intelligent reconstruction of the writing service, original, comparable to, and just as open to doubt and challenge as, say, an book report, archaeological reconstruction.(41) Whiston's concern that each manuscript fragment from the Cotton library should be carefully preserved was echoed in more elevated language by the Reverend Thomas Fitzgerald, the Usher of Westminster School, in his lines Upon the Burning of the Cottonian Manuscripts at Ashburnham House .(42) Fitzgerald reflects on thesis in malaysia, how these 'learned Spoils of twice a thousand years' had survived Goths, Vandals and, even more dangerous in Fitzgerald's view, 'reforming Zeal', only to perish in a fire. In the climax of the poem, Fitzgerald called for each fragment to be treated as if it was a holy relic: Whate'er the essay in a joint, Fury of the Flames has spar'd. With zealous Care, with awful Rev'rence guard . Each Code, each Volume, ev'ry Fragment Prize: As Rome her Relicks sav'd from Times of Old: With Gems profusely decks, and shrines in Gold; Tho' none like these, with all her Pomp and Cost, Or Rome, or all her Vatican can boast. Despite these poetic injunctions, nothing was done for writing the further preservation of the Cotton library following the publication of the parliamentary report in 1732. The manuscripts languished in their temporary accommodation in Westminster School for another twenty years. During this time, the building where the library was stored became known as the 'Old Dormitory' and essay on racism and xenophobia Casley, the Library's custodian, became senile. The only immediate effect of the catastrophe at Ashburnham House appears to writing service in malaysia, have been to encourage the first moves in 1751 for the publication of Domesday Book, then kept in bar exam the Westminster Chapter House and also at writing in malaysia, great risk from of living in a joint fire.(43) In 1743, Major Arthur Edwards, a Fellow of the Society of thesis service, Antiquaries and aqa gcse statistics coursework help enthusiastic amateur archaeologist,(44) left seven thousand pounds 'to erect a house in writing thesis in malaysia which to preserve the Cotton Library, or should such a house have meantime been provided, to purchase manuscripts, books of senior essay, antiquities, ancient coins, medals and other curiosities to come to writing service in malaysia, the Library'.(45) Edwards's bequest was, however, subject to a life interest and did not become available until 1769.(46) Edwards also left his books and pictures as additions to the library.(47) It was through the intervention of another Edwards, Vigerus Edwards, that the collections of the record scholar and historian of the Exchequer Thomas Madox were deposited with the mother essay, Cotton library.(48) The Edwards and Madox deposits represent perhaps the writing in malaysia, last vestiges of the idea that the Cotton library might form the nucleus of a national historical archive.(49)

The future of the Cotton library was finally secured in 1753 by the establishment of the British Museum as a result of Sir Hans Sloane's bequest. With other manuscript collections in essay national ownership it was transferred to the custody of the Trustees of the new Museum.(50) One of their first actions was to inspect the collections placed in their charge. Writing Thesis? On 2 February 1754 a committee of the Trustees visited the Old Dormitory to essay on racism, examine the Cotton Library.(51) They found that Casley was by now 'disabled by age and infirmity from executing the duty of his post in his own person' and his responsibilities were discharged by thesis service in malaysia, his wife, who showed the 5th grade book, library to visitors. Writing Service In Malaysia? It was presumably at about this time that Mrs Casley gave a visitor to the library a handful of burnt fragments as a souvenir.(52) Casley was also assisted by Richard Widmore, the Keeper of the library of essay, Westminster Abbey, who undertook detailed work on writing thesis service, the charters, probably the most confused part of the collection. Despite the decrepit condition of the librarian, the committee seemed satisfied with what it found.

They declared that the thesis, Old Dormitory 'though it has not the advantage of so much light, as would be proper for writing thesis service in malaysia a library. is dry and secured from the weather. The MSS. Aqa Gcse Help? as well as the books [presumably Major Edwards's legacy together with the remnants of Cotton's own printed books] appear to thesis service in malaysia, have sustained no injury from damp since the depositing them there, but they are in general so dusty that a speedy care of them is necessary in that respect'. Indeed, the committee felt that the Old Dormitory would provide suitable temporary accommodation for 5th grade book the Harley Manuscripts, 'if a proper person were appointed for the custody and care of that collection'. The transfer of the Harley Manuscripts to the Old Dormitory proved unnecessary since the Trustees shortly afterwards purchased Montagu House in Great Russell Street to accommodate the new Museum. The work necessary to prepare Montagu House to thesis, receive the Museum's collections proved protracted, and it was not until 1756, immediately before the removal of the Cotton collection to Great Russell Street, that a more systematic examination was made of the Cotton library.

In July 1756, two Museum officers, Matthew Maty, the first Keeper of in a joint family, Printed Books and writing thesis from 1772 to essay on racism and xenophobia, 1776 Principal Librarian, and Henry Rimius, submitted two reports on the Cotton collection to the Trustees. The first was printed in an abridged form in Samuel Hooper's 1777 catalogue of the collection,(53) but the second has never been printed.(54) Maty and Rimius checked the collection against Smith's 1696 catalogue and Casley's list of manuscripts damaged in the fire, counting the volumes and comparing the writing thesis service in malaysia, contents of a sample from each press against the catalogue entries. Book? They declared that the manuscripts in ten of the writing thesis in malaysia, presses (Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Cleopatra, Faustina and the Appendix) 'have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and aqa gcse statistics coursework help carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum'. The condition of the manuscripts in the presses more badly affected by the fire (Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius) caused Maty and Rimius more concern. They declared that they 'could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley'. Some manuscripts which Casley reported as not badly damaged had indeed disappeared into the general stock of loose fragments, and did not resurface until the mid-nineteenth century. For example, Maty and Rimius were unable to find Tiberius D. VI, a cartulary of Christchurch Priory, Hampshire, described in 1732 as a 'bundle of thesis in malaysia, loose shrivell'd leaves' but otherwise largely intact.

This was not rediscovered until 1837, when Sir Frederic Madden found it among unsorted loose fragments from the collection.(55) On the other hand, they identified some manuscripts which Casley had been unable to trace, stating that 'several of those which he [Casley] declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in mother love essay careful hands'. These discrepancies were worrying enough, but an writing thesis service, even greater cause for concern were the environmental conditions of some of the presses, particularly the statistics coursework help, Vitellius press. Service In Malaysia? 'Besides the damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press', Maty and Rimius reported, 'it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. Senior Thesis? The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks [presumably the writing thesis service, pressmarks] and afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of statistics help, worms and other insects.' The second report dealt with the surviving 'charters, curiosities co.' in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet. Maty and Rimius complained that 'The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described'.

This necessitated an examination of writing in malaysia, each item and a preliminary numeration of every one 'by which they could more easily be found out'. They were assisted in this by a draft catalogue prepared by Widmore.(56) The unnamed press containing the charters was divided into two parts. Sixteen drawers in the top section and seven in the lower were stuffed with paper and parchment including several 'entirely relative to the Cotton family' which Maty and Rimius felt were 'of little use to the public'. There were, nevertheless, several 'capital pieces', including the burnt Magna Carta. Essay? This, they reported, was 'still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident'. It was placed by itself 'in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at the bottom'. This press also contained a further three or four drawers filled with antiquities and 'other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship'.

The most interesting part of this second report is, however, the statement that some charters had been lost 'amidst the in malaysia, rubbish of bits of utah bar exam essay subjects, parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described'. These were the writing service in malaysia, fragments which Whiston and his colleagues had been unable to place in book 1731, and had put to one side. They had been preserved as Whiston proposed, but not in the systematic way he envisaged. Indeed, as has been noted, some of the manuscripts successfully identified in 1731, such as the Christchurch Cartulary, had been stuffed away with the fragments. Widmore apparently thought the fragments should be disposed of, but Maty and thesis service Rimius wisely urged 'a more particular examination' before any further action, 'as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved'. The Cotton Manuscripts were removed to the Museum in the first half of 1757.(57) Unlike the Sloane or Harley Manuscripts which were shelved according to subject classifications, they were arranged on shelves there by the existing 'emperor' pressmark system.(58) The Museum officers were unhappy about this arrangement, which they regarded as inelegant and unscientific. On 12 July 1757 it was reported to the Trustees that 'The Cottonian Library has been removed into the new wired presses, in the same order in which the manuscripts stood in the old; without regard to the intermixture of tall and short books, which necessarily is thus made upon on racism and xenophobia, the same shelf'.

It was suggested it would be better to 'range them all anew'. The Trustees nevertheless resolved that the manuscripts should 'for the writing thesis in malaysia, present continue in the order they now stand'.(59) As for the burnt manuscripts, it was reported that those 'which have been ascertained by the Catalogue, stand likewise in their order', suggesting that most of the 5th grade book, items noted as usable by Casley were put in writing their appropriate places in the emperor sequence.(60) The 'other crusts and standard book report loose leaves' were however kept in the old presses, presumably the drawers formerly containing the charters which had been brought to the Museum. It was recommended that the Standing Committee should be empowered 'to imploy fit persons, if any such can be found, to restore those that are least damaged, as far as they are capable of it; and to in malaysia, remove those that shall be judged totally irrecoverable, into close presses to mother love essay, be kept by themselves'. Thesis Service? Approving this proposal, the Trustees ordered that any material found to be beyond repair 'be for the present placed in mother the closet of the writing, room where the Harleian Carts. now stand'.(61) The loose Cotton fragments remained associated with the Harley Charters and in thesis essay 1775 the Trustees ordered that these latter 'be removed in their presses as they now stand into one of the front garrets'. Writing Service? The fragments remained with these charters in essay in a joint Garret no. Writing? 8, which became known as the charter garret.(62)

In July 1757, a Mr Mores, perhaps the typographical historian Edward Rowe Mores, wrote to the Principal Librarian claiming to standard book, have developed a method of restoring the leaves of vellum books damaged by fire. Mores was authorized to examine the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, but nothing came of his overtures.(63) In February 1758, Maty showed the Standing Committee a specimen of some loose sheets of in malaysia, fire damaged parchment restored by Mr Padeloup, a French bookbinder.(64) Impressed, the committee ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Charles Morton, to essay on benefits of living joint, give Padeloup one of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts. A month later Padeloup returned the manuscript duly repaired. His work was judged satisfactory, but the price he proposed, three shillings for every dozen sheets, was considered prohibitive and the project suspended.(65) Thus matters were left for another forty years. The fragments lingered with the Harleian charters in Room I on the Upper Floor of Montagu House.

It might be imagined that, now the burnt fragments were safely in the Museum, they were at thesis service in malaysia, least secure, but this was not the case, as can be seen from the sorry tale of the Cotton Genesis.(66) Casley reported that, after the essay on racism, fire, 'Of this valuable Monument of Antiquity, about thesis in malaysia 60 pieces of standard 5th grade book report, Leaves remain'. In 1743, George Vertue had borrowed some to make watercolour drawings of them to be shown at the Society of Antiquaries. Engravings of these drawings were published in Vetusta Monumenta in writing 1747. Thesis Essay? These fragments then disappeared from sight. In 1778 Henry Owen, who had collated the manuscript before the fire, stated that the writing thesis service in malaysia, fragments of the Genesis preserved from the fire had been lost.(67) At the end of the eighteenth century, Joseph Planta could only find eighteen, none of which were among those copied by utah subjects, Vertue. In fact, the loss was due (at least in part) to writing thesis service in malaysia, a Museum officer, Andrew Gifford, the first Assistant Keeper of the Department of Manuscripts.(68) On his death in 1784, Gifford, a Baptist minister, left his collections to the Bristol Baptist College. It seems that, before he died, Gifford had been using four of the fragments from the Cotton Genesis copied by Vertue. When his manuscripts and books were collected from the Museum, these fragments were inadvertently taken with them to Bristol.

There they remained, unidentified and mother love essay forgotten. In a 1795 catalogue of the writing service in malaysia, Bristol library they were described as 'some pieces of an old copy of the Septuagint said to have been found in the ruins of the city of Herculaneum'. Senior Thesis? They were only finally reidentified in 1834 by Frederic Gotch, who wrote to writing in malaysia, Hartwell Horne, an Under-Librarian at the Museum, pointing out mother love, their survival. Horne amended a footnote in one of his publications referring to the Cotton Genesis, but the Museum authorities took no further action.(69) Gotch's discoveries remained virtually unknown until 1881 when he published a transcription of the Bristol fragments as a supplement to writing in malaysia, Tischendorf's edition of the text of the fragments left in the Museum.(70) Five other fragments used by Vertue have never been traced.(71) In his diary for 13 March 1856,(72) the redoubtable Keeper of Manuscripts Sir Frederic Madden speculated that the lost fragments might also have been taken to Bristol with Gifford's books. However, they have never been identified there. More likely they were just thrown away when Gifford's belongings were disposed of. In 1928, the Bristol fragments were deposited on loan at the Museum, which finally reacquired them in 1962, nearly two hundred years after they had originally left the building.(73) In 1792, Thomas Astle, Keeper of Records at the Tower of London, urged the Trustees to essay subjects, authorize the compilation of a new catalogue of the writing thesis, Cotton library.(74) Users of the Cotton collection were at this time still chiefly reliant on Smith's 1696 catalogue.

To establish if a manuscript had survived the essay, fire, they had to cross-refer to service, Casley's 1732 list. Love? In 1777 Samuel Hooper had produced a subject catalogue of the Cotton collection,(75) but, although he published the corrections of Maty and thesis Rimius to Casley's schedule of damaged manuscripts,(76) his work was of limited assistance to readers grappling with Smith and standard book report Casley. Accordingly, the Standing Committee of the service, Trustees ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Joseph Planta, to investigate the matter. Essay In A Joint Family? In his report, dated 14 December 1793,(77) Planta declared that most of the volumes contained a great number of articles 'bound up with very little attention to any arrangement either as to authors, matter or date'. This was particularly a problem with the State Papers which, according to Planta, were collected according to countries but otherwise not arranged in any order.(78) He considered Smith's catalogue wholly deficient, both in its arrangement and in the lack of detailed descriptions of individual State Papers.

In Planta's view, a new catalogue was certainly required, preferably one following a subject classification. This would also provide an opportunity of rearranging the collection 'in a classical order, which no doubt ought always to writing thesis service in malaysia, have the preference'. Alternatively, the new catalogue should have a detailed index. Luckily, the Trustees were unwilling to see the collection rearranged. Nevertheless, they accepted the need for a replacement for standard 5th grade report Smith, and service instructed Planta to restore all those manuscripts capable of repair and prepare a new catalogue.(79) The descriptive section of the catalogue was completed by bar exam subjects, November 1796.(80) The index was compiled between 1796 and 1802,(81) and the whole catalogue finally published by the Record Commission in 1802.(82) The section of the writing thesis in malaysia, published preface describing the procedures adopted by mother love, Planta in service conserving and bar exam subjects cataloguing the manuscripts is copied almost word for service in malaysia word from a report submitted to the Trustees by thesis, him on 4 November 1796.(83) In this report, Planta gives a detailed account of the second phase of major restoration work on the Cotton collection.

Planta states that 861 volumes had been brought to the Museum, of which 105 were damaged bundles in cases.(84) This indicates that he concentrated on those burnt manuscripts whose identity was readily ascertainable and which had been placed on their arrival in the Museum in the main emperor sequence. He did not attempt to tackle the mass of burnt fragments stored with the Harley Charters. The first problem which confronted him was that the damaged manuscripts in cases frequently consisted of loose unnumbered sheets or quires. The order of writing thesis, these sheets -- already disrupted as a result of the fire and the hasty rescue work in 1731 -- had been further confused by their use in the Reading Room. Planta complained that readers had thrown the manuscripts 'into great, and in many instances, irretrievable confusion'. Consequently, his 'first care on coursework help, entering on my task, was to cause all the volumes to be regularly paged, or at writing, least the old paging to be regularly ascertained'.

This ink foliation can still be seen on many of the manuscripts.(85) The foliations are in a variety of different hands, and mother love essay were probably made for Planta by various attendants in the Department.(86) Damage to the manuscript margins made it difficult to position the numbers and occasionally the foliators were forced to write them in the middle of the page.(87) Ink foliation notes are given at writing service, the end of the volumes, using the essay on racism and xenophobia, characteristic early Museum formula 'Constat fol.' Planta then 'proceeded to writing thesis, examine the bundles in cases, and found means, after many repeated and not a few unsuccessful attempts, to arrange several volumes and parts of volumes of State Papers. Some of the shrivelled MSS. on on racism, vellum I likewise found capable of being restored, though not without great care and dexterity on the part of the bookbinder'. In his original report he identifies the binder as C. Elliot, the Museum binder from 1773 to 1815. By these means, fifty-one of the manuscripts kept in cases were restored and bound up as forty-four volumes. The remaining sixty-one bundles Planta considered 'irretrievable', but dismissed most of writing thesis, them as 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance'. Planta's report gives an unduly rosy picture of the condition of the Cotton collection at the conclusion of his work. Little progress had been made with the damaged vellum manuscripts.(88) A number of mother essay, important manuscripts were left as loose sheets in cases, including, for example, one of the earliest manuscripts of Bede (Tiberius A. XIV).

These loose fragments may perhaps have been sheets which Planta and Elliot had managed to 'restore' by writing service, separating and to some extent flattening them. Many other manuscripts were left simply as 'crusts' in cases. Essay? Far from being 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance', they included cartularies of St Albans (Tiberius E. VI, Otho D. III), St James, Northampton (Tiberius E. In Malaysia? V), the Annals of Dunstable (Tiberius A. X), and the eleventh-century Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII). Planta's caution arose from a concern that repairing and binding these damaged manuscripts might make matters worse. This is borne out by comments by two later Keepers of Manuscripts. In 1825 Sir Henry Ellis noted that fragments of Cotton Manuscripts had been 'placed in pasteboard cases because it was impossible to bind them without losing more than they had already lost of their respective texts'.(89) Similarly, in 1835 Josiah Forshall reminded a parliamentary Select Committee investigating the Museum that 'In many cases there is aqa gcse statistics help, a great risk of doing more injury by service in malaysia, any attempt to repair a manuscript that has been damaged by the fire than if it is 5th grade, left in its damaged state'.(90) Like his predecessors in writing 1731, Planta concentrated on the paper manuscripts. Even here restoration was not as comprehensive as his report might suggest.

Such important paper manuscripts as the autograph manuscript of and xenophobia, Buck's History of thesis service in malaysia, Richard III (Tiberius E. X), a volume of essay, Joscelin's collections (Vitellius D. VII) and a valuable sixteenth-century copy of the Russian Primary Chronicle (Vitellius F. X)(91) were left as loose sheets in cases, as were some volumes of the early State Papers such as Caligula D. IV, V, X and XI.(92) Planta's success in identifying and reconstituting the paper manuscripts is thesis service, difficult to establish. In some cases, he found fewer leaves from the manuscript than were reported as surviving in 1732. In others, he states that the number of essay, folios in the manuscript was greater than that reported not only in 1732, but even in Smith's 1696 catalogue.(93) These discrepancies may be partly due to in malaysia, the rearrangement of papers, but may also suggest that Planta's methods for identifying loose papers and utah essay reuniting them with their parent volumes were less rigorous than might be hoped. The major defect of Planta's restoration work, however, was his failure to tackle any of the thesis service, burnt fragments stored separately with the Harley Charters. Large portions of many of the numerous manuscripts marked 'deest' or 'desideratur' by him were in fact sitting in a room not far from his study. Nowhere in senior thesis the catalogue is the existence of this material even hinted at.

Planta's complacent account of the state of the collection at the completion of his catalogue is writing in malaysia, therefore seriously misleading. It could even be argued that in some ways Planta's work made matters worse. Standard Book Report? The false impression his catalogue gave of the condition of the manuscripts probably encouraged neglect of the loose unsorted fragments. In addition, the provision of a catalogue encouraged the thesis service in malaysia, use of brittle manuscripts, both bound and unbound, which were not in a fit state for public handling. The vulnerable edges of the aqa gcse statistics coursework, manuscripts were completely unprotected, and pieces of thesis in malaysia, text broke off as they were used by readers. Every time one of these damaged manuscripts was issued in the Reading Room, fragments of text were probably left all over the Museum. The effects of the continued handling of these fragile manuscripts have been most strikingly documented in the case of the senior thesis, Beowulf text in Vitellius A. XV. Writing? It seems reasonable to assume that this was one of the 105 bundles in cases which Planta found at the beginning of his work. The state of the manuscript in the 1780s is recorded in the two transcripts associated with the Danish antiquary Grmur Jnsson Thorkelin,(94) which record over essay on benefits of living 1900 letters which afterwards disappeared as a result of the crumbling of the edges of the manuscript.(95) Apparently, fragments of text were being lost even as the transcripts were being prepared.

The manuscript was probably bound by Elliot under Planta's supervision. Planta's catalogue entries usually indicated if a particular volume was kept in a case, and there is no such reference in his description of Vitellius A. XV.(96) Given the testimony of Ellis, Forshall and Planta himself as to the hazards of binding brittle vellum manuscripts, it seems likely that further damage to the Beowulf text occurred in the process of binding the manuscript in the 1790s. In 1817, John Conybeare made a detailed comparison between Thorkelin's 1815 edition of the poem and the original manuscript, marking the writing, letters he could no longer see. Senior Thesis? According to Conybeare, over 900 letters had vanished by 1817.(97) A more accurate collation made by Sir Frederic Madden in 1824 shows even greater loss than that noted by Conybeare.(98) Much of the damage to the manuscript in the early nineteenth century was due to unrestricted handling of it by readers. Ironically, both Conybeare and Madden, by handling the manuscript when making their collations, accelerated the decay.

The erosion of the Beowulf text continued until 1845, when the writing service in malaysia, manuscript was inlaid, at last providing the fragile edges of the manuscript with some protection and preventing further loss. Presumably a number of other damaged Cotton Manuscripts suffered similar, if unrecorded, textual losses at this time.(99) Planta's successors as Keepers of Manuscripts, Robert Nares and Francis Douce, did not undertake any further work on the Cotton Manuscripts. On Benefits Of Living Joint Family? The main sequence of Cotton Manuscripts remained with the Royal manuscripts in the seventh room of the upper floor of Montagu House, the last of the rooms containing manuscripts. Writing Service? Both collections remained in essay on benefits of living joint their original order, the 1808 synopsis of the Museum noting apologetically that 'These two libraries are not classed in service in malaysia a strict scientific order'.(100) At this time, the Cotton Manuscripts occupied twenty-one presses, six more than those allowed for by the Emperor system (including the Appendix as a separate case). The use of boxes to house some burnt manuscripts presumably made it difficult to follow the system of one press per emperor.(101) This perhaps prompted the decision to write numerical pressmarks, consisting of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf, in bar exam subjects pencil on the flyleaf of the manuscripts. Service? Many of these old Montagu House pressmarks can still be seen on flyleaves of statistics coursework, Cotton Manuscripts.(102) As long as manuscripts continued to be stored as loose vellum sheets in flimsy boxes, there were endless possibilities for service loss and confusion. In June 1825, Sir Henry Ellis, who succeeded Douce as Keeper of Manuscripts in 1812, reported to senior thesis essay, the Trustees a misfortune with the autograph manuscript of Sir George Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. Writing In Malaysia? X).(103) A reader called Yarnold had collated the Cotton manuscript with another in his possession. 'Having but one eye, and utah bar exam essay very indifferent sight in the other', Yarnold had accidentally taken away half a leaf of the writing thesis service, Cotton manuscript with his own papers.

On discovering his mistake, he had returned the 5th grade book, fragment. Writing Thesis Service In Malaysia? Sometime later, Yarnold's books were sold. One lot was described as a manuscript of Buck. When Ellis went to inspect this as a possible acquisition, he was horrified to discover that the lot consisted of fourteen leaves of the Cotton manuscript. Mother? He immediately claimed the leaves as Museum property, and returned them to writing, their proper place.

Although the loose fragments and crusts stored with the Harley Charters had not been included in Planta's restoration efforts, they had not been forgotten by the Museum authorities. On 14 May 1825, the essay, Standing Committee of the Trustees agreed that a small bundle of cinders and other fragments of Cotton Manuscripts should be sent to William Hyde Wollaston so that he could undertake experiments on them.(104) Wollaston was distinguished as a physiologist, chemist and physicist, who even anticipated some of Faraday's discoveries about electricity. Indeed, it was said that each of Wollaston's fifty-six papers in many different fields marked 'a distinct advance in writing service the particular science concerned'.(105) The reasons for Wollaston's interest in bar exam subjects the Cotton fragments are unclear. Thesis Service? His covering letters returning the fragments survive, but do not state what he did to them or how successful his experiments were.(106) In fact, whatever his experiments, the results were disastrous. The state of the leaves treated by book report, Wollaston was described in writing service in malaysia his diary by Sir Frederic Madden thirty years later: 'these leaves are almost like biscuit , and contracted to one third of statistics help, their original size! Simply soaking them in water would have been much more effectual. Thesis In Malaysia? Of these leaves sent to Dr. W. sixteen prove to be part of Grosthead's Works in Otho D. X, and essay subjects complete the volume ; while eleven others belong to the Higden, Otho D. I, and one to Vitellius E. IX'.(107) Madden later reported that he was able to counteract the effects of Wollaston's process by soaking the leaves in water, so that they expanded again to thesis, 'one half of their original size'.(108) Despite the unpromising results of Wollaston's first experiments, Ellis proposed in June 1825 that he be sent some fragments from the Cotton Genesis.(109) Ellis felt that these leaves would be particularly suitable for experiment, since this manuscript had not been as badly shrunken by the fire as others. On Benefits Of Living Joint Family? He was confident that 'Dr Wollaston's experiments in this instance may produce some new or important readings for the commentators'.

This suggests that Wollaston was not attempting to flatten the thesis service in malaysia, fragments but trying to make them more legible by using some form of chemical agent. The results of his experiments on the Cotton Genesis are not known. Senior Essay? Perhaps the writing thesis, most revealing aspect of the affair is Ellis's statement to the Trustees that the Cotton fragments 'do not form a Part of the Collection of Manuscripts at the present time but are kept in a garret at the top of the House, perfectly useless to the Museum in book report every sense of the word'.(110) Ellis was shortly to be proved quite wrong. In January 1826, a few months after Wollaston had finished his further shrivelling of Cotton fragments, Henry Petrie, Keeper of Records at the Tower, wrote to the Standing Committee of the writing service, Trustees, 'expressing a hope that some mode might be devised by which certain masses of the Fragments of the Cotton Library. Standard 5th Grade Book? which are at present preserved in cases, may be rendered readable without the risk of losing portions of in malaysia, their leaves from 5th grade their adhesion and brittleness whenever an attempt is made to ascertain their contents'.(111) The Committee asked Sir Humphry Davy, a Trustee, to writing thesis service in malaysia, talk to Petrie about the problem.(112) A month later the essay on benefits in a joint family, Standing Committee 'Resolved that the plan proposed by Sir Humphry Davy of submerging the burnt manuscripts on vellum belonging to the Cottonian collection which were injured in the fire of 1731 be adopted, from writing in malaysia time to time, upon such MSS. as it may be desirable to examine: also that the edges of senior thesis, such manuscripts may be cut, where there is no writing, for the sake of separating the leaves'.(113) On 12 May 1826, the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Josiah Forshall, informed the Trustees that 'The means recommended by the President of the Royal Society for the restoration of these MSS. have been employed with more complete success than could in the first instance have been reasonably anticipated.'(114) Tiberius D. III, a collection of saints' lives in which Petrie had expressed a particular interest, 'was first carefully divided into convenient portions, and these were severally immersed for writing service a longer or shorter time as they appeared more or less scorched. Senior Essay? This immersion and a very partial application of hot water made it practicable to separate the leaves, without any material injury. By making incisions between the columns and lines of writing, thus making room for an expansion of the writing thesis service in malaysia, parts most shrivelled and aqa gcse statistics help contracted by the fire, and by subsequently applying a gentle pressure until the moisture was evaporated, the writing thesis service in malaysia, leaves have been rendered sufficiently flat and smooth to admit of the utah essay subjects, contents being read for service the most part with great facility'.(115) The process recommended by Davy was therefore to soak the manuscript to make it more pliable and then cut it open. The exact nature of the solution used to coursework, soften the manuscript is not known; Madden reported that it consisted of a solution of spirits of writing thesis, zinc and essay of living joint water.(116) Encouraged by their success with Tiberius D. III, Ellis and writing Forshall were keen to love essay, try and restore some of the fragments stored in the charter garret.

Forshall immediately tried the technique on what 'appeared at first sight mere lumps of wax and cinder'. After treatment, they proved to be twelfth and thirteenth century charters.(117) During June 1826, Ellis and Forshall sorted through the material in the garret to establish which fragments were worth treating. Ellis described to writing thesis service, the Trustees how they had managed to senior, trace nearly a hundred fragments from the Cotton Genesis, which had been placed in a separate box. Likewise, they 'sorted all the Fragments which are written in writing the Saxon language. ; they amount to some hundreds; these he [Ellis] has placed in another Box; many of them single, and many adhering to each other in thin close masses'.(118) Forshall bore the brunt of this difficult work,(119) which continued after he became Keeper in 1827.(120) About forty manuscripts were treated in this way.(121) The leaves were separated, partially flattened and standard report stored loose in thesis service in malaysia solander cases. Even after treatment the leaves still remained brittle, and were clearly still at great risk from essay and xenophobia careless handling in the Reading Room. Madden afterwards described Forshall's efforts as a only 'very partial' attempt at restoration,(122) and this seems to have been a justified criticism. Nevertheless, substantial progress was made.(123) Forshall's work led to the recovery of a number of important Anglo-Saxon manuscripts which were described by Planta as being either lost or unusable. Among the writing thesis, most spectacular rediscoveries were: the unique manuscript of King Alfred's prosimetrical translation of Boethius (Otho A. VI);(124) 131 leaves from the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care (Tiberius B. XI), one of only two extant contemporary manuscripts of the Old English translations associated with King Alfred; an eleventh-century copy of coursework help, Werferth's Old English translation of the Dialogues of Gregory the Great (Otho C. I, vol. 2); the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), complete except for thesis service eleven leaves, ten of which were afterwards found by essay and xenophobia, Madden; fragments of the insular gospels in Otho C. Service? V; two eleventh-century manuscripts of Ælfric's Homilies (Vitellius C. V and Vitellius D. XVII); and a large part of Tiberius A. Essay In A Joint Family? XV, a composite manuscript including an early eleventh-century copy of Alcuin's letters from Christ Church, Canterbury, and an eighth-century copy of Junilius.

Among the later manuscripts made available for scholars for the first time since the fire were a number of cartularies and an important manuscript of Layamon (Otho C. XIII).(125) Forshall also located extra leaves of manuscripts probably partly restored by thesis, Planta, such as the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV) to which he added five leaves, and statistics the Worcester cartulary (Tiberius A. XIII). Writing Service? Most notable of all was the work on the Cotton Genesis. Although the 1732 report stated that sixty fragments of this manuscript had been identified after the fire, Planta could only mother love trace eighteen. In July 1826, Forshall reported that 110 fragments of the volume, previously among the loose fragments in in malaysia the charter garret, had been identified, unrolled and cleaned, '88 of which it had been found possible to appropriate to aqa gcse statistics, their respective places.' These fragments were now 'ready to service, be numbered and deposited in cases secure from future injury'.(126) Madden was afterwards to increase the number of fragments preserved to 147.(127) Madden's work in identifying and preserving this manuscript has long been recognized, but Forshall's major role has not been noted. As Forshall proceeded, he also added material recovered from the mother love, fragments to the Appendix manuscripts.(128) Above all, however, he also prepared detailed descriptions of the restored volumes, and proposed printing these in a supplement to Planta's catalogue.(129) A few of these survive, still unpublished, in copies made for thesis Sir Frederic Madden and inserted in an annotated copy of Planta, preserved in the reference library of the Manuscripts Department.(130) Forshall is a forgotten pioneer in the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. However, the conservation work undertaken during his Keepership used new techniques, and the results were not always completely satisfactory. Not only was the restoration incomplete, resulting in a pile of loose brittle leaves in a box, but some unnecessary damage was caused.

In particular, vellum leaves were cut at the edge both to allow the fat-covered crusts to be opened and individual leaves to be flattened. In subsequent restoration work these incisions were found to thesis essay, be unnecessary and indeed to be a considerable hindrance to further repair of the leaves.(131) The incisions that Forshall had made account for thesis service the serrated appearance of the leaves in many burnt Cotton Manuscripts, and are particularly visible in, for example, Otho B. II, a copy of Alfred's translation of the standard 5th grade, Pastoral Care,(132) Otho C. XIII, an early copy of writing in malaysia, Layamon, and Otho C. Aqa Gcse Statistics Coursework Help? I, volume one, an Anglo-Saxon translation of the Gospels. The greatest blot on Forshall's record in the conservation of the thesis, Cotton Manuscripts is the work on the burnt Magna Carta, Cotton Charter xiii. Senior Thesis? 31a. Writing? In May 1834, he drew the Trustees' attention to the condition of 'Magna Carta and report the ancient and thesis otherwise valuable charters in the Cottonian MS. Augustus A.II', pointing out that 'all these documents were suffering much injury, owing to the very imperfect manner in mother which they had originally been secured'.(133) Augustus II contained one of the greatest single concentrations of Anglo-Saxon charters. It is clear from a later report that Forshall was referring in this minute to the burnt Magna Carta rather than the other exemplar (Augustus II. 106).(134) This minute implies that the 136 varied documents with this pressmark were still bound as a single volume, which would inevitably have caused damage to them. Forshall recommended that Hogarth, the restorer who had been used in writing thesis in malaysia unrolling and fixing the Egyptian papyri (then kept in the Manuscripts Department), should repair and secure the charters.(135) A month later, he reported that this work had been satisfactorily accomplished.(136) In fact, the results as far as the Magna Carta were concerned seem to mother essay, have been far from satisfactory. This document at present is largely unreadable, even under ultra-violet light. In Malaysia? However, Casley's transcription of it made immediately after the fire, now Cotton Charter xiii.

31b, gives a virtually complete text.(137) Similarly, in 1733 John Pine published an engraving of the burnt Magna Carta which showed the damage caused by the fire as limited chiefly to the melting of the seal.(138) Moreover, Maty and Rimius reported in 1756 that the document was still 'very legible'.(139) This certainly could not be said of its present condition. Mother Essay? Most of the damage to this document was, therefore, probably due to the repair work of 1834 rather than the fire, a conclusion supported by Madden's comment that this copy of Magna Carta was 'Injured in the fire of 1731 (and still more by the injudicious treatment it received from Mr Hogarth).'(140) Forshall's restoration work received some public attention during the proceedings of a parliamentary Select Committee into the administration of the Museum in 1835-6. The committee had been disturbed by Forshall's statement that 'There were in the year 1824 a great quantity of crusts or fragments of manuscripts remaining unopened'.(141) Pressed by the committee, Forshall explained that he referred only to 'the fragments and relics left by the fire, namely, the remnants of about 130 volumes, which were damaged to a considerable extent, and perhaps much more than one half of them, being those manuscripts that were very much damaged, remained in the same condition until the year 1824. I thought them, when I came to the Museum, of so much value, that I spent a great deal of pains in washing and opening them. The operation took up much time, and occasioned some expense'.(142) Questioned as to how he knew that there were not other Cotton Manuscripts worth unrolling, Forshall emphasized that such a judgement depended on the description in Smith's catalogue, claiming that the writing, value of essay on racism, a burnt crust could be 'ascertained in most cases from bare inspection', and that the writing, crusts left unconserved were not worth the expense of unrolling.(143) By this time, Forshall felt, like Planta before him, that he had completed the restoration of the Cotton library and love that everything worth saving was available for scholars to consult. He repeatedly told the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Frederic Madden, that no further Cotton fragments of any value were preserved in writing thesis in malaysia the Museum.(144)

During the Easter week of 1827, the Manuscript collections of the Museum were transferred from Montagu House to the accommodation in the new Museum building which (until the opening of the St Pancras building) they still occupy.(145) It was at aqa gcse help, this point that use of the emperor pressmarks for shelving the Cotton Manuscripts finally ceased. The motley mixture of thesis, placing systems used in Montagu House was abandoned and replaced by the system still used today.(146) The manuscripts were ranked on the shelf according to standard report, size, regardless of previous numeration or subject content. They were then given a separate pressmark. At first, this consisted of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf; from the in malaysia, mid-nineteenth century, arabic numerals were used for the press. In order to find a particular manuscript on the shelf, it was necessary to coursework help, refer to a concordance now known as a handlist.(147) These pressmarks were pencilled on the flyleaf.

They were also put on the spine, as part of the spine title, preceded by the word `Plut.' for Pluteus or shelf.(148) Later in the nineteenth century, the modern procedure of using printed labels on the spine for the pressmark was introduced.(149) One of the thesis service in malaysia, 1835-6 Select Committee's principal recommendations was that the senior thesis, office of Secretary of the Museum should no longer be combined with one of the Keeperships, and, by April 1837, Forshall had confided to his assistant, Sir Frederic Madden, his intention to retain the office of Secretary and resign as Keeper of Manuscripts.(150) On 17 April, Madden asked Forshall if they could inspect the old charter garret. Madden's diary records what they found:(151) Mr Forshall. went, at service in malaysia, my request, up with me to the garret called the Charter-Room (because the essay, charters were formerly kept here), and where I had always been told there were only a few fragments not worth the bother of dusting or sorting. Thesis? To my great surprise however, I found a large collection of Bagford's Title-pages. Utah Bar Exam Essay? covered with the accumulated dust of nearly 80 years, also a large quantity of fragments and crusts of the burnt Cotton MSS. many of which appeared to me well worth the process of restoration.

Mr F. had always assured me he had selected from them every thing worth preserving, but I saw enough before me to thesis in malaysia, doubt the accuracy of his statement, and essay in a going on with my searches, I discovered in writing thesis in malaysia an old cupboard the identical Cartulary of Christ Church Twinham in Hampshire [Tiberius D. Mother Essay? VI], which I have so often and so fruitlessly inquired after, and writing thesis in malaysia very little the worse for the fire, except being wrinkled up! Is not this very disgraceful of the Keepers of MSS. from the middle of the mother, last century to the present day. Writing? I saw enough to make me resolve in my own mind, to have the entire room cleared out, whenever it should be my lot to be Keeper of the MSS. and I resolved at once to bring down into my own room the thesis essay, two large bundles which formed the Christ Church Cartulary, and a third bundle which apparently contains an thesis, English Chronicle. I left up in the garret fragments of crusts of vellum enough to and xenophobia, fill several bushel baskets, likewise a box full of thesis service in malaysia, receipts of Sir Robert Cotton's, and mother essay three boxes said to contain the service, refuse of the Hargrave collection. It is very much to aqa gcse coursework, the discredit of Mr F that affairs should have remained thus, and so I believe he felt, when I produced to him the thesis, long lost Christ Church Cartulary, which he had declared to utah bar exam subjects, me over and over again could not by writing thesis in malaysia, any possibility exist! Madden took the Christchurch Cartulary fragments back to his room, and began washing and flattening them, using the methods pioneered by bar exam, Davy and Forshall. His personal diary for 26 April 1837 notes: Continued the washing pressing of the burnt Cartulary of Ch.

Ch. Twinham, Hants., which I am happy to find, will be perfectly legible, after it has undergone the process. The Calendar of Contents prefixed is complete, so that I shall be able by that means to easily arrange the leaves which have lost their numbering. The account given of this Priory in the New Editn. of the Monasticon is thesis service, very trifling, and, Ellis declares, without any reason, that the Cartulary was lost in the Cotton fire!(152) In July 1837, Madden was appointed Keeper of Manuscripts. Thesis? On 16 August, he began to 'make a list of all the Cotton MSS. that were injured by the fire of 1731 and their present state -- with a view of identifying, as far as possible, the mass of fragments still remaining in the old Charter Room'.(153) On his return from holiday in October 1837, Madden badgered Forshall into handing over the keys of the writing service, charter room,(154) and immediately made a further examination of its contents. He gave a detailed account of the statistics coursework, material stored there in his work diary for 31 October 1837 (afterwards adding notes on further investigations undertaken during November): Went up in the old Charter Room looked out Bagford's long neglected loose collections -- also the remainder of the Cartulary of Ch[rist] Ch[urch] Twinham, Hants and many other valuable fragments which I propose to have restored. The contents of this room are at present as follows. 1. A very large box filled with fragments of burnt vellum Cotton MSS. the greater part broken and writing thesis service single leaves. In a dreadful state of dirt and confusion. (lock)

2. A large box, recently made, containing the more entire portions of the essay and xenophobia, burnt vellum Cotton MSS. (lock) 3. A large box recently made, containing portions of the burnt paper Cotton MSS. and also bundles of Cotton bills Accounts c. (lock) 4. A box, locked, but found to be empty, when forced open on 23d Nov. 5. A larger box, containing Hargrave law papers (opened 23 Nov.) 6. A box containing the refuse of the Lansdowne Collection, placed here by Sir H. Ellis (Nailed down)(155) 7. A small box containing papers relating to the British Fishery Company (chiefly powers of attorney) and some miscellaneous papers of thesis service, no value, the latter placed there by myself.(156) As Madden's annotations indicate, these precious boxes of Cotton fragments were locked up again after he had examined them, but he removed some of the larger vellum fragments and on 2 November again spent most of the day personally washing and flattening the further fragments of the cartulary of Christchurch Priory he had found.(157) Madden was a native of Hampshire and essay on racism and xenophobia planned to write a history of the county.(158) The rediscovery of the Christchurch Cartulary was an thesis in malaysia, achievement of mother, which he was particularly proud.(159) The fact that Madden himself made the first attempts at restoring the Christchurch Cartulary indicates the limited resources for major conservation work at his disposal. Writing Service In Malaysia? He doubted whether the Museum's binder, Charles Tuckett, was equal to the intricate task of dealing with the brittle vellum fragments.

Forshall had preferred to use Hogarth on utah bar exam subjects, more delicate work, such as unrolling the Egyptian papyri, and even he had caused great damage when working on the burnt Magna Carta. On 11 January 1838, Madden reported to the Trustees: that he has received from Dr [Bulkeley] Bandinel, chief librarian of the Bodleian Library, and Dr [Philip] Bliss, Registrar, very strong testimonials in favour of a person named [Henry] Gough, who has been extensively employed to repair, inlay, and restore damaged manuscripts in the Bodleian and several of the College Libraries at Oxford. [He] recommends most seriously, that he should be permitted to have a trial, in the restoration of the burnt Cotton charters (now from the state in which they are in, impossible to be used), and also on writing thesis service in malaysia, a few of the standard 5th grade report, most valuable MSS. such as the writing thesis service, Greek psalter on papyrus, purchased of Dr Hogg;(160) the fragments of the mother love, burnt Cotton Genesis; the remains of the Saxon Boethius, and other Saxon fragments, which cannot at writing thesis service in malaysia, present [be] consulted without injury to utah essay, them, and which require a very practiced hand to thesis service in malaysia, restore them. Essay? Dr Bandinel assures Sir F.M. that the thesis service in malaysia, terms of Gough are very moderate. He is at present still employed at love essay, Oxford, but will shortly come up to London.(161) It is evident that Madden did not at this stage envisage using Gough for thesis in malaysia a full-scale restoration of the essay on racism and xenophobia, Cotton Manuscripts. He perhaps thought the writing thesis service, Trustees would be nervous of the utah, cost of such a project. Instead, he seems to have intended using Gough to protect those manuscripts of which large sections had been recovered by Forshall and writing thesis in malaysia which were in danger of damage as a result of the handling of loose unprotected leaves in the Reading Room.

It is noticeable that Madden does not mention here his discoveries in the garret. His concern that the Trustees would shrink from the cost of such elaborate conservation work was justified. On 26 May, they refused Gough's services.(162) Madden noted in senior his diary: 'I am of opinion they neglect the interests of this Department by such a step'.(163) He continued working himself on thesis, some of the newly recovered fragments. In his personal diary for 17 July 1838, he wrote: 'Went up in essay on benefits joint the Old Charter Room and thesis service finished looking over the larger box containing the burnt Cotton fragments, and selecting the best portion. Flattened a few leaves of the valuable Cotton Genesis, which had been overlooked by 5th grade report, Mr Forshall.'(164) On the following day, he 'Flattened some fragments of Saxon MSS. and writing thesis service discovered two leaves of the curious Proverbs ascribed to Alfred [Galba A. XIX], supposed to have been totally destroyed in bar exam subjects the fire'.(165) The impetus for service the full restoration of the Cotton collection came not from Madden, but from that ubiquitous figure in nineteenth-century manuscript studies, Sir Thomas Phillipps.

On 10 October 1838 Phillipps wrote to William Richard Hamilton, a Museum Trustee, expressing his concern about the condition of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts and suggesting that the most valuable should be transcribed before they were sent for binding.(166) The Trustees were at last persuaded of the need for action and instructed Madden to repair a report on the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, indicating which were sufficiently important to be worth the expense of transcription. Madden replied on 13 December with a masterly survey of the condition of the Cotton Manuscripts.(167) This was more comprehensive than any previous survey of the condition of the manuscripts, since he described all the volumes damaged in the fire, not just the most badly affected manuscripts. He divided the damaged manuscripts (as distinct from the fragments) into essay on benefits of living in a, three classes. The first comprised 'Those MSS. which by the agency of heat have been compressed and corrugated, with the edges burnt, and in many cases, broken, torn, and dirtied. These are in number 35, all of which, if skilfully flattened, inlaid and writing thesis service repaired, might be protected from further injury, and rendered in a comparatively good condition for general use'.(168) Madden pointed out that 'Many of these MSS. are among the most valuable of those possessed by the Museum, such for instance, as the unique Saxon poem of essay subjects, Beowulf [Vitellius A. XV], the Saxon Grammar of thesis in malaysia, Ælfric [Julius A. II], a copy of the Saxon Chronicle [Tiberius B. IV], two copies of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, probably nearly contemporary with the author [Tiberius C. II, and presumably Tiberius A. XIV, although this was in fact stored as loose leaves at this time, and was elsewhere correctly assigned by Madden to the third class]; two exceedingly curious copies of Aratus c., with illuminations, of the tenth and love eleventh centuries [Tiberius B. V and C. I], a Psalter with a Saxon Gloss [Tiberius C. VI]; the Cartulary of Worcester with the Saxon Charters c. [Tiberius A. XIII]'. He observed that 'None of these MSS. Writing Thesis Service In Malaysia? are at present in mother a state fit for general use and they are constantly receiving fresh injuries'. Writing In Malaysia? There was in Madden's view no alternative to the full restoration of these manuscripts: 'The expenses of transcription would be enormous, and to copy the illuminations of some impossible. Sir F.M. thinks that the whole of this class ought to be repaired with as little delay as possible'. He stressed to the Trustees his view that the Museum's own binder, Charles Tuckett, was not sufficiently skilled for this delicate work. Thesis? He did not restrict himself to thesis service in malaysia, the Cotton Manuscripts, and pointed out that some of the Royal Manuscripts, also affected by the fire at Ashburnham House, needed treatment. He drew the Trustees' attention in bar exam particular to Royal MS.

15 C. XI, 'containing a very valuable copy of Plautus of the 11th century', which had been badly damaged by damp and also required careful inlaying and writing service repair. Madden's second class of damaged manuscripts consisted of 'those MSS. (chiefly on paper) which have been burnt on aqa gcse coursework help, the edges and part of the writing injured or are otherwise out of repair.' These manuscripts were no less valuable than those in the first class, since they 'comprehend a very large portion of the original State Correspondence between England and thesis other countries from the reign of Henry the Eighth to the reign of James the First'. This was by far the largest category of manuscripts requiring repair, 134 in all.(169) Unlike the manuscripts of the first class, Madden felt that all were 'capable of love essay, being inlaid or bound by thesis, Tuckett'. Mother Love Essay? However, there was a high risk of further loss or damage in thesis service this operation. Madden stressed that 'in numerous instances the written edges must sustain further injury in being handled'. It was consequently 'highly desirable that many of the letters should be transcribed before they are placed in the binder's hands'. The third class of damaged manuscripts consisted of those loose leaves in solander cases, chiefly the manuscripts reclaimed by Forshall but also including a number which Planta had been reluctant to have bound up. Madden assigned 67 manuscripts to love, this class, including some portions of paper manuscripts kept as loose leaves in cases, presumably since Planta's time.(170) He recommended that these manuscripts should also be inlaid and bound, and the most vulnerable parts transcribed. He suggested that it was to one of these manuscripts, a cartulary of St Albans, that Sir Thomas Phillipps had referred in his letter.(171) Madden pointed out that the edges of this manuscript had been ' greatly injured and broken by readers'. This was certainly a manuscript worthy of full transcription. This, Madden emphasized, was merely the tip of the iceberg, namely those manuscripts available in the Reading Room and kept with the main manuscript collections.

There were also the 'burnt fragments or crusts of the thesis service, Cotton library, which fill three large boxes, among which are various Saxon portions and other valuable remains (all deserving of standard book, transcription)', as well as 'the injured Cotton Charters, which fill two drawers, all of writing service in malaysia, which might be flattened and preserved by a skilful person'. He concluded by stressing once again the need for essay outside help in contemplating such a project. He sought to 'press on the attention of the Trustees. the necessity of employing some competent person, who shall put the Cotton Library into a complete state of repair'. He also returned to an old hobbyhorse, the thesis service in malaysia, need of attaching a transcriber to the department 'whose sole business should be to transcribe and copy. The utility of such a measure must soon become apparent, for many of the Royal and other autographs are wearing out from constant use, and the same is the essay on racism and xenophobia, case in regard to the Indexes to the Heraldic Visitations and collections of pedigrees'. Madden's report provided a blueprint for the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. His classification and listing of the different types of thesis service, damaged manuscripts provided the basis on which the work was organized over the next forty years. His analysis of the treatment required was acute and needed little modification as the work proceeded. He backed up his case by laying before the Trustees some of the most damaged manuscripts in the first class, but, not surprisingly, they were alarmed at the scale of the project Madden had unfolded before them. And Xenophobia? In particular, they were worried about the cost of restoring the vellum manuscripts, and were reluctant to writing service, make use of Gough. And Xenophobia? The Trustees therefore decided to in malaysia, concentrate on the manuscripts in Madden's second class, which could be managed by Tuckett.

They ordered that the damaged paper manuscripts should be repaired, and on 10 January 1839, Madden presented them with a detailed list of these manuscripts.(172) Twenty-five of these were marked by him as at risk of serious textual loss in the course of binding. He described these as consisting largely 'of Original State Correspondence and essay and xenophobia Papers between England and France, 1577-1620, between England and Belgium, 1516-1586, and between England and Rome, 1509-1529'. He proposed that a transcript should be bound up leaf by leaf with the original. Writing Thesis In Malaysia? The remaining manuscripts in this list only required careful repairing and rebinding, so that the labour of transcribing their contents before binding was not justifiable. These included not only damaged paper manuscripts, but also a few of the less badly injured vellum manuscripts. In order to reduce the cost of the proposed transcriptions, Madden suggested 'the plan not of copying these papers in intire , but only the marginal words, which run the risk of being broken off in the hands of the reader or binder (indeed(173) several of this class of scorched MSS. have already materially so suffered), and coursework help after the transcript is made, to bind it up leaf by leaf with the original.'(174) Madden describes the Trustees' reactions to his proposals: 'although they saw with their own eyes confessed the necessity, yet the expense (about 300£) seemed such a bugbear in their eyes, that they would only authorise me to have one volume done in the manner I proposed'.(175) It was agreed to prepare a transcript of Caligula E. VII as a trial.(176) The experiment proved unsuccessful. On 29 June Madden had regretfully to recommend that the preparation of transcripts of damaged volumes be discontinued, as the transcripts would have almost doubled the size of the collection and there was not enough room in the presses to accommodate them.(177) It was therefore agreed that 'all of this class should be inlaid and rebound forthwith by Tuckett'.(178) On 11 July 1839, work finally began in earnest. Madden gave Tuckett the binder Caligula E. VII, as well as one of the injured Saxon charters.(179) Once started, the restoration of the paper manuscripts proceeded quickly.

By the end of 1841 the service in malaysia, bulk of the manuscripts in this category had been successfully repaired.(180) Madden had not forgotten the damaged vellum manuscripts. His reaction to the Trustees' decision to concentrate on the paper manuscripts was to essay in a joint, urge on them 'the propriety of placing certain restrictions on the use of the service in malaysia, damaged Cotton MSS. until they shall have been secured against further injury'.(181) He gave a characteristically vivid description of the danger facing these manuscripts: 'At present every person who receives a ticket to the Reading Room, has thereby a sanction to send for every MS. in the collection, without regard to utah essay, its condition or value, and it may be adviseable, without placing any check to the researches of persons properly qualified to examine MSS. to put these arrangements on a somewhat different footing.' Manuscripts were at this time read in service in malaysia the general Reading Room.(182) Asked to outline what changes he would make, he proposed issuing 'a distinct ticket for readers wishing to use MSS.'(183) This proposal did not find favour and Madden's later attempts to ensure that the more valuable manuscripts did not leave his department caused great antagonism.(184) During 1840, although much preoccupied with the repair of the paper manuscripts, Madden nevertheless found time to thesis essay, make some preliminary notes on the contents of the thesis in malaysia, boxes of burnt fragments and to prepare a further detailed schedule of the current condition of the damaged manuscripts.(185) He had also given to mother essay, Tuckett for inlaying a few of the damaged vellum manuscripts of the in malaysia, first class which he felt Tuckett could be trusted with.(186) The continued threat to the vellum manuscripts that resulted from allowing them to remain as loose leaves is illustrated by an incident involving Forshall. Essay On Racism? Already on 27 May 1841, Forshall had located among his belongings 'some fragments of writing thesis service in malaysia, one of the injured Cotton MSS. and transcripts of a few of the essay of living in a joint, Norreys papers in the handwriting of Mr Stevenson'.(187) On 3 April 1843, Madden was checking a transcription of Tiberius A. X and found ff. 141-172 missing.(188) He ordered an immediate search. Two days later 'To my great surprise Mr Forshall brought me the missing portion of Tib. A X, ff.

141-172 together with some other fragments of writing service in malaysia, vellum Cotton MSS. which had been laying, unnoticed, in a wicker basket, covered by his private papers, since the year 1825! How he can explain this, is wonderful to me; for my own part I think him greatly to blame in this matter. Among the fragments in this basket I found portions of the 2d text of coursework help, Layamon, which I am vexed at, as I have been prevented from including the lines in my edition'.(189) In 1841, Madden returned to the offensive on behalf of the vellum manuscripts, and on writing thesis in malaysia, 5 May he again drew the Trustees' attention to 'the deplorable condition of the valuable Cottonian MSS. on essay and xenophobia, vellum ' and in malaysia 'the injuries to which they are now daily subject. He therefore urgently(190) recommends(191) that Mr Gough, the person employed formerly to repair MSS. in the Bodleian Library, should be allowed a trial, to repair one of the bar exam subjects, injured Cotton MSS. and if successful, that he should be allowed to proceed until the whole are in a fit state of writing in malaysia, repair.'(192) The timing of this report was perfect. Three days later the Trustees made a visitation of the Manuscripts Department. Madden describes how 'They sent for me to confer respecting the reparation of the injured vellum Cotton MSS. and after much discussion, authorised a trial to be made on book report, two or three detached leaves'.(193) With an evident sense of relief, Madden noted that 'The address of H. Gough, the person to be employed, is 26 Lower Islington Terrace, Cloudesley Square, Islington'.(194) Gough called on service in malaysia, Madden and Sir Frederic 'placed in his hands three vellum leaves much injured, to flatten and inlay'.(195) On 29 May, Gough returned to Madden the three trial leaves. On Racism And Xenophobia? As a further test, Madden gave him three more 'of a better description'.(196) On 3 June, Madden wrote in his personal diary 'In the evening received from Gough the additional fragments of injured Cotton MSS. that I placed in his hands. Writing Thesis Service? On the whole, he has certainly succeeded as I anticipated, and it is very clear that many of the injured MSS. may be carefully inlaid rendered fit for use.'(197) On 9 June, Madden submitted the fragments flattened and inlaid by Gough to the Trustees and reported:(198) 'Mr Gough would be willing to employ his time in this description of work at the rate of standard book report, 12s. per diem, from writing 9 in the morning till 4 in the afternoon. He estimates the time and labor expended on the six fragments placed in his hands to be about a day's work, but he states that if regularly employed, a much greater number of leaves, say from 10 to 16 might be taken in hand at the same time, consequently greater progress made.(199) Sir F.M. recommends that Gough should be allowed to proceed with the flattening and inlaying of such of the valuable Cottonian MSS. as are at present in loose leaves , such as the Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, the interlineary Saxon Psalter, Vitell.

E. XVIII, the Saxon Gospels and Gregory's Dialogues, Otho C. I, Alcuin's Letters, Tib. A. Standard 5th Grade Book Report? XV, the Cartulary of writing service in malaysia, Christchurch Twinham, Tib. D. VI. etc. These volumes might then be bound and allowed to be used, without fear of further injury.' Thus Madden's first priority was to inlay the manuscripts separated by Forshall and report preserved as loose leaves, with the thesis, addition of the Christchurch Cartulary, treated by Madden himself in the same way. Bar Exam Subjects? Madden doubtless hoped that this strategy would help reduce the initial costs of the exercise. The Trustees once again took fright at the cost, asking the Principal Librarian, Ellis, to seek further information. Madden was furious. Thesis? 'The Trustees act most shamefully and disgracefully in this business', he grumbled.(200) His exasperation is evident in bar exam essay subjects his reply of July 1 to Ellis.(201) 'In reply to your note of 16 June on service in malaysia, the subject of the injured Cotton MSS. on vellum the necessity of having them repaired', he wrote, `I beg leave to refer you to my reports of 11 Jany 1838, 13 Dec. 1838, 3 Jan. 1839, 7 March 1839, 5 May 1841 and 9 June 1841 which contain, I conceive, every information that the Trustees or yourself could require'. Senior Essay? However, he went on to give a detailed breakdown of the amount of service in malaysia, work required.

The number of cases containing loose leaves was, Madden reckoned, altogether 71, amounting altogether to on racism, about 7300 leaves. With the exception of one case, containing about 200 leaves, all this material was 'of great value '. In the drawers in his own room, there were a further 450 leaves, and additionally about a thousand leaves had recently been extracted from the boxes in the garret as suitable for treatment. This gave a total of thesis in malaysia, 8750 leaves requiring work, which Madden rounded up to 9000 leaves. Madden guessed that, of these, about 2900 leaves were from mother love essay Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Service In Malaysia? Another 5700 leaves were from historical manuscripts, including monastic cartularies. The final 400 consisted of theological works from before the twelfth century. Madden felt that it was 'decidedly expedient' to have all this material treated by bar exam subjects, Gough. He pointed out writing thesis, that 'The greater part by far of these consists of standard, inedited matter , of a very valuable description.' The size of the writing thesis in malaysia, leaves varied 'from folio to 12mo of course the expense would vary with the size'. Despite these detailed figures, it was still difficult to produce an utah essay subjects, accurate costing of the work, and writing service Madden urged that, to establish this, Gough should be allowed 'to flatten and inlay three of aqa gcse statistics, these MSS. simultaneously '. He also took the writing service, opportunity of a visitation of the Trustees on 19 June 1841 to press the case further. In his personal diary, he noted that 'Mr Speaker then inquired relative to the success of Gough's experiment on on benefits of living in a joint, the injured MSS. and came into my private room, accompanied by the Archbishop, Lord Ashburton, and others, and thesis in malaysia I shewed them and urged the necessity of repairing the Cotton vellum MSS. seriatim. They all appeared to approve of what I said, particularly the Archbishop, who said that Gough had been working for him in aqa gcse statistics coursework help the Lambeth Library and that his charges were very moderate.'(202) Eventually, on 15 July, the Trustees authorized Madden to employ Gough to flatten and inlay three of the damaged vellum manuscripts stored as loose leaves, namely the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), the Christchurch Cartulary (Tiberius D. VI) and the volume containing a copy of thesis service, Alcuin's letters (Tiberius A. XV).

It was afterwards decided to leave the Alcuin volume for the time being, and use the Old English Gospels, Otho C. Statistics Coursework? I, volume one, for writing thesis service in malaysia the trial instead.(203) It was some time before Gough was able to start work. The manuscripts were not allowed to leave Museum premises and, as always, space was a problem. In his work diary for coursework 19 November 1841, Madden noted showing Gough the rooms beneath the Manuscripts Department and elsewhere, and in malaysia discussing the subject with Ellis. 'The only room he can possibly use (before Hogarth finishes his work) is the small room underneath my own, which is very badly lighted and very damp. I ordered the room to be thoroughly cleaned a fire to be kept constantly, to see the effect.'(204) Gough eventually started work, beginning with the Vitellius Psalter. By May 1842 he had inlaid the leaves of the manuscript in paper mounts, which were then bound by Tuckett. By November 1842, he had also inlaid Otho C. I and Tiberius D. VI, which were similarly bound up by Tuckett.(205) On 10 November 1842, Madden laid the results of essay on benefits joint family, Gough's work before the Trustees: For nearly a century none of these MSS. were accessible for literary purposes, and thesis service in malaysia even within these last few years when a partial restoration was attempted it was impossible to 5th grade book report, handle them, particularly the writing thesis service in malaysia, Saxon volumes, without causing further damage.

They are now completely secured for the future, and bar exam essay subjects can be consulted without fear of any additional injury. Writing In Malaysia? In regard to the expense, the great value of the MSS. of this class, in Sir F. M.'s opinion, sufficiently authorise it and he begs leave to remark, that in senior essay the payments made to writing service in malaysia, Gough, no charge is made by him for the tracing paper at 12s. per quire or isinglass at 14s per lb.; things not generally used, but essential to preserve the flexibility of the leaves. Report? Mr Gough also remarks with justice, that the time labor required to inlay MSS. that have previously been flattened by incisions (as is the writing thesis service, case with those now completed) is far greater than if the leaves had remained intact . Love Essay? The great proportion however of the MSS. proposed to be restored and inlaid, are of the latter class . Sir F.M. trusts that the volumes will meet with the thesis in malaysia, approbation of the Trustees, and that Mr Gough will be authorised to 5th grade report, proceed with the work so well commenced.(206) Despite Madden's reassurances, the Trustees, worried at the expense, would agree to Gough's working only on 'four or five of the writing thesis service, more valuable MSS. which Sir F.M. is to essay on benefits of living in a joint family, select'.(207) Madden chose Tiberius B. V, Tiberius C. VI, Otho A. VI and 'one without a number', a household book of Edward I. Gough completed these by April 1843, then delivered what must have been a body-blow to Madden, by thesis service, writing on 19 April to say that 'having made his mind to reside at Oxford, he should resign his employment at the Museum'.(208) Madden's comment in love his work diary, 'This really is vexatious', sounds an understatement.(209) Two days later, when Gough brought up to writing, Madden the inlaid leaves of Tiberius C. VI and Otho A. VI, Madden tried to persuade him to change his mind. Madden recorded that 'He will discontinue his work here for mother love the present, but I am in thesis hopes that he will be able to give 3 months of his time yearly to the Museum, after he is love essay, settled in Oxford'.(210) Gough's departure put paid to writing thesis service, further work on of living in a, the vellum manuscripts in 1843, and service in malaysia Madden had to report to the Trustees that 'no person could be found to supply Gough's place, and until he resumes and proceeds with the work undertaken by him, Sir F. M. feels himself under the necessity of mother love essay, witholding from the readers several valuable MSS. too much injured to be handled'.(211) In January 1844, Gough was able to resume the work for three months,(212) but it was not until January 1845 that Madden was able finally to settle this problem. On 17 January, Madden reported to the Trustees: 'Mr Gough now proposes, to give up the whole of his time to the Museum, until the injured Cotton vellum MSS. are entirely restored; and to service, facilitate this, he begs to be allowed an assistant at the rate of 5d per in a family diem.'(213) The assistant Gough had in mind was his son Philip, who started work at the Museum in March 1845, and writing thesis continued until November 1849.(214) The Trustees' minute of 18 March 1845 approving this also gave Madden permission to 'proceed with the reparation of the burnt vellum MSS. until all which deserve the essay, expenditure [in Madden's view, every single one] are completed'.(215) For nearly seven years Madden had been seeking authorization from the Trustees for a full programme for the restoration of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts.

At last he had secured it. He interpreted the thesis service in malaysia, Trustees' instructions as widely as possible. Love? Not only were the damaged manuscripts repaired but the condition of the whole collection was checked, and writing thesis all necessary repairs undertaken. Having been given the carte blanche he wanted, Madden ensured that work proceeded as quickly as possible. 1845 proved to be the annus mirabilis of conservation work on essay in a family, the Cotton collection. Gough inlaid twelve manuscripts, including the Beowulf manuscript (Vitellius A. XV), the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV), and the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care, reuniting the thesis, fragments numbered Appendix 43 with those under the original number of the essay, manuscript, Otho B. III, as well as cartularies from Chertsey and Winchcombe.(216) In 1846, Gough dealt with a further eleven manuscripts, including the autograph manuscript of Knighton's Chronicle, Tiberius C. VII, and service Otho B. XI, a tenth-century compilation of Old English historical works, including a translation of Bede and a version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.(217) In the love essay, meantime, Tuckett had continued with the paper manuscripts and some of the less badly damaged vellum material. Thesis? Indeed, Madden's confidence in senior thesis Tuckett's ability to writing service, deal with damaged vellum manuscripts increased, and from 1847 Tuckett was allowed to on benefits of living family, inlay the leaves of some of the older vellum manuscripts.(218) Eventually, his work in this respect began to equal if not surpass that of Gough. On 24 March 1852, Madden noted that 'Tuckett's workman has been able to writing thesis service in malaysia, open the MS. of on racism and xenophobia, Capgrave [Otho D. IX] which Gough injured so much. I shall put the worst in his hands. Gough's work could draw to a close in another twelvemonth or so'.(219)

By 1852, the Trustees were growing anxious about the length of time the restoration was taking, and asked Madden to indicate 'which of these MSS. still unrestored he would specify as deserving the earliest attention, and service how many in the whole, he would regard as requiring restoration'.(220) This was a difficult question to answer. At the utah subjects, beginning of his work on the Cotton Manuscripts, Madden had been able to find manuscripts from the writing in malaysia, loose fragments which were still largely intact and could be readily identified. As the work progressed, however, more and more shapeless 'black lumps' and 'crusts' were being sent down for treatment. Of Living In A Joint Family? These could not be identified until they were opened up and flattened. Thus, in his personal diary for 7 June 1851, Madden recorded that 'Mr Gough brought me up inlaid, the burnt Cotton MS. lump I lately placed in his hands, and on examining it, I found it to writing thesis, be Vitellius F.III, which is stated to be totally lost both by Casley and Planta. It contains the Lives of several saints c. by Ailred of Rievaux, and is a fine copy of the bar exam essay subjects, 12th century, and nearly perfect.'(221) Madden therefore laid before the Trustees a selection of the burnt lumps and crusts to show them the impossibility of writing service in malaysia, ascertaining their contents 'in their present miserable state of cremation, dirt and neglect'.(222) However, he also proposed an important change in procedure to speed up the work.(223) He suggested 'that instead of taking each single lump, and fragment, and after flattening it, proceeding to inlay it, as at essay on racism, present, that for the present Mr Gough should be directed to confine his operations wholly to the task of service, cleaning, separating and essay on benefits joint family flattening, until the whole have been done. Writing Thesis Service? By this means, very great progress could be made, and Sir F. M. would be enabled, as the mass was rendered capable of examination, to class the leaves portions together, so as to form volumes. When this was done, the more valuable volumes might then be inlaid, according to the instructions of the Trustees.' In his book of reports Madden noted sourly that ' No notice was taken of this Report '.(224) He nevertheless took this as assent to his proposal for a preliminary flattening of the burnt crusts, and from July 1852 Gough concentrated on separating and flattening loose leaves.(225) During 1852, not only were Tiberius B. VI, Otho A. VII, Otho C. XI, part of Otho D. X, Otho E. XII and XIII, and Vitellius F. VII -- all supposed to have been lost in the fire -- identified, flattened, inlaid, collated and subjects bound, but also 4939 loose leaves had been flattened, 2894 identified and 1375 inlaid.(226) By 1854, Madden was able to thesis service, report that 'the entire mass of the burnt vellum fragments of the 5th grade book, Cottonian Collection (which originally in bulk would have filled a small cart) have now been flattened not a scrap remains unexamined '.(227) Two years later, the inlaying of writing in malaysia, these fragments had been completed and on 30 October 1856, Madden was finally able to bar exam subjects, report that Gough would within a few days complete his 'long and arduous work' in writing in malaysia inlaying the fragments.(228) Madden lost no opportunity to publicize these achievements.

In 1850, a Royal Commission investigated the Museum. Madden proudly laid before them some examples of restored Cotton Manuscripts, including the Christchurch Cartulary, and described how two hundred of the mother, damaged manuscripts had been inlaid and writing service of the vellum alone about 7,000 leaves, of which 2,000 had been inlaid in 1849.(229) The centrepiece of the essay on benefits of living joint, first public exhibition of manuscripts at the Museum in 1851, arranged on the occasion of the Great Exhibition, was a drawing commissioned by Gough from the service in malaysia, miniaturist and accomplished imitator of medieval manuscripts, Caleb W. Love? Wing, showing an early manuscript of Roger of Wendover's chronicle, Otho B. V, before and after its restoration by Gough.(230) This remarkable drawing dramatically illustrates the extent and skill of Gough's restoration. Indeed, this was more like resurrection than restoration.(231) To emphasize the point, the exhibition also included an example of a burnt manuscript from the Royal Library, Royal MS. 9 C. X, which was deliberately left unconserved to illustrate the in malaysia, condition of the manuscripts before treatment.(232) The departure of Gough did not mark the end of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts. He left behind a huge quantity of loose leaves, each one carefully inlaid, which required identification and sorting, perhaps the most arduous task of all. In the early 1860s, Madden enlisted the help of a number of his brightest assistants, including the standard 5th grade, young Edward Maunde Thompson, in a final assault on the fragments.(233) It was largely as a result of this concentration on the Cotton material that the cataloguing backlog for which Madden was afterwards criticized built up.(234) By 1864, this last work on the fragments was well advanced. Madden could afford to feel, if not complacent, then at least pleased with himself for thesis service in malaysia having pushed to the verge of completion one of the largest programmes of manuscript conservation ever undertaken, even if the Trustees failed to recognize its importance. On 10 March 1864, Madden recorded in his personal diary: Gave into the hands of Mr Thompson, one of aqa gcse coursework, my assistants, the writing thesis, whole of the remaining vellum fragments of the coursework, Cottonian Collection, not yet bound, or not identified, with instructions for him and Mr Scott [Edward Scott, afterwards Keeper of Manuscripts], to go carefully over them, and arrange such as are identified, and then identify, as far as possible, the rest. I have long had this work at heart, as, when it is done, I shall be able finally to bind up in boards the whole of what now remains of the loose 'refuse' of the Cotton MSS. left after the fire of 1731 and which by my own labor and thesis in malaysia perseverance were rescued from dust and oblivion , when thrown together in heaps in book report one of the garrets of the old Museum building. I shall be truly glad to get this completed before I quit the writing thesis in malaysia, Museum.

I may then give a brief list of the Volumes or portions of this noble collection, which have been rescued from destruction, and made available to scholars. I have received no thanks from the Trustees, nor indeed from the Public, for the pains I have taken since 1844 to restore these missing portions of the Cottonian Collection, but I have the satisfaction of my own conscience in having undertaken and carried out a task so onerous and thesis difficult, that I do not believe any other man living would have attempted it.(235) When he wrote these words, Madden was unaware that the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts was about to receive its greatest setback. On the evening of 10 July 1865, Madden was writing letters in his residence when at about 9 o'clock 'we were alarmed by a report that Mr Panizzi's house was on fire! It was the work of a few moments to fly downstairs, put on my boots and overcoat, get out the Museum keys, and rush into the Court. Writing In Malaysia? The first thing I saw was an immense column of black smoke, followed by flames, rising apparently out standard book, of the corridor leading to thesis, Mr. P's house, but on approaching closer, I perceived that the fire was not in joint family the corridor but in Tuckett's the binder's work shops! The sight was terrible, for I knew that many MSS. of value had lately been sent down to him!'(236) The Museum's fire drill did not prove very effective.

Policemen with vital keys could not be found; the fireman was on leave, and no trained replacements could be found, so that on the first attempt to use the writing, fire hydrants, the hose burst; Panizzi was (as usual, comments Madden) dining out, and did not return until midnight; when the fire brigade, summoned by telegram, arrived after half an hour with two fire engines, only one could be used. 'Such a want of organization (after all the fair printed rules and instructions)', declared Madden, 'I never beheld in my life'. The fire raged for over an hour. On Racism? By 10.15 pm it had been put out, and Madden sent one of his attendants, George Gatfield, to thesis in malaysia, try and aqa gcse coursework help find out which manuscripts had been damaged. Thesis In Malaysia? Fortunately most of the manuscripts had been placed in an iron safe in the stone-vaulted room where the Duke of Bedford's muniments were formerly deposited and had escaped injury. This left the manuscripts actually in the hands of the workmen to be accounted for. At eleven, Gatfield brought Madden a parcel of vellum manuscripts recovered from the utah bar exam essay, workshop. It was burnt on the outside and saturated with water. Thesis In Malaysia? 'I could not tell what they were, but put them away to dry. Of Living Joint? I was very weary and vexed beyond measure at so unfortunate an occurance, although I had always feared it !'

On the following day, Madden visited the devastated bindery to service in malaysia, survey the damage. It appeared that the cause of the utah bar exam subjects, fire was a charcoal brazier in the finishing room, and service in malaysia the manuscripts left overnight in this room had been destroyed and damaged. Madden ordered one of the assistants, Richard Sims, to make a complete list of manuscripts sent down to the binder, and check it by those returned so as to ascertain the extent of the loss. 'The MSS. brought to my house last night by Gatfield prove to be the remains of several Cottonian MSS. which after having had so much labor time expended on senior essay, them, in flattening, inlaying, identifying, collating arranging, had been finally described and sent down to be bound. It is most unfortunate that these remains, saved almost by miracle from the fire of 1731 should now again, after the lapse of above 130 years be again partially burnt. The water has done almost as much damage as the fire, and the whole are in a very sad plight.' Madden gave his deputy, Edward Augustus Bond, instructions as to service in malaysia, the salvage work to be undertaken on the manuscripts, and went to acquaint some of the Trustees with the bad news. He returned to utah bar exam essay subjects, the scene of the disaster in the afternoon. 'Some Persian MSS have been recovered (partly in writing thesis service in malaysia the sewing room up stairs) but I am distressed to learn that the Anglo-Saxon copy of Gregory's Pastoral Care, in Tib. B. XI (which Mr Hamilton and myself had in our hands so recently, to ascertain the places of a few loose leaves) has been entirely destroyed as has also a vellum MS. of the Arundel Collection, No. 243.' The techniques used by Madden and essay on racism his staff in trying to rescue the thesis service in malaysia, damaged manuscripts were much the same as those employed in 1731: 'All my Assistants, aided by Mr Bond and myself, were at work to separate the burnt soaked leaves of vellum and utah essay paper, and then, with the help of thesis, one of C. Tuckett's men, to utah, wash them, and hang them on service, lines to dry.' The scene understandably saddened Madden: 'It is utah bar exam subjects, a truly melancholy sight, and unlucky to the last degree, for writing in malaysia the binder's man had no occasion to keep the Anglo-Saxon MS. out all night.

It ought to have been restored to the iron safe. I met Mr. P[anizzi] and accompanied him and his sneaking shadow Jones to Tuckett's rooms, where Mr. P. behaved like a brute!' The 1865 Bindery fire was arguably the greatest single disaster to the collections since the establishment of the Museum in 1753. Essay And Xenophobia? In terms of the writing thesis in malaysia, quality and importance of in a family, material destroyed, the thesis, loss was greater than the destruction of a large number of printed books by enemy action during World War II. There was initially some difficulty in establishing which manuscripts had been in the bindery.(237) One at least (Arundel MS.

152) had been taken down as a pattern without Madden's knowledge. Others, at first thought lost, were afterwards found,(238) whereas other volumes thought only to have been damaged had been completely destroyed. The process of separating, drying and utah bar exam identifying the surviving fragments took at least two months.(239) The most notable loss was Tiberius B. XI, a late ninth-century copy of King Alfred's Old English translation of Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care. Madden described the circumstances of its destruction: 'it lay on a board immediately above the writing thesis, bin of charcoal, and a slate slab was placed above it. The slate flew into fragments from the heat, and the MS. Utah Essay Subjects? (a good thick folio written on vellum, bound in russia) must have fallen into the midst of the burning charcoal.'(240) Eight tiny fragments from Tiberius B. Writing Thesis Service In Malaysia? XI were eventually identified (at what date is not clear -- probably within a month or two of the senior essay, fire) and are all that remains of the manuscript today.(241) In the event, three Cotton Manuscripts were completely destroyed in the fire: Galba A. I, II and III.

Galba A. I was a fifteenth-century historical collection containing a copy of Murimoth's Chronicle, proceedings of the Council of Florence and other texts. Thought to in malaysia, be totally destroyed in 1731, Madden had managed to recover 52 leaves of it before they all perished in the bindery fire. Essay? Galba A. II and III were a collection of Old English sermons, also recorded as lost in 1731, of which Madden had found a large part. In addition to writing service in malaysia, Tiberius B. XI, another twelve manuscripts, already burnt in 1731, suffered further severe damage in essay 1865: Galba A. XIX, Otho A. I, IX-XII, XIV, Otho B. Writing? III-IV, IX, XII and standard book report Tiberius E. XI. Of these, Madden singled out as particularly regrettable the damage to Otho A. X, containing the unique text of Æthelweard's chronicle, and Otho A. XII, the manuscript which formerly contained The Battle of Maldon and Asser. Service In Malaysia? At the time of the fire, Madden believed that seven leaves of Asser had been found and restored to Otho A. XII.

In fact, these leaves were from the text of Æthelweard in Otho A. X.(242) Apart from the Cotton Manuscripts, which bore the brunt of the effects of the fire, Arundel MS. Of Living? 343 and Egerton MSS. Writing Thesis In Malaysia? 1961 and of living in a family 1962 were completely destroyed. Arundel MS. 152 and Additional MSS. 25686 and service in malaysia 25805 were severely damaged. A final blow was the loss of the complete impression of the third volume of Madden's long-standing bugbear, the Catalogue of and xenophobia, Maps and Topographical Drawings , on which Madden's former Assistant Keeper, John Holmes, had, to Madden's great annoyance, laboured for many years, which Madden himself had spent a great amount of writing service in malaysia, time finally preparing for the press after Holmes' death, and for which Madden had prepared an important appendix of corrections and additions, only to standard 5th grade book, see it suppressed by Panizzi and the Trustees.

As a result of the fire, this volume of the catalogue was not finally published until 1962.(243) The undoing of so much of his recent work on writing service in malaysia, the Cotton Manuscripts devastated Madden. Utah Essay? At loggerheads with Panizzi and the prevailing Museum ethos, he felt that all his achievements had been wilfully overlooked by the Trustees and thesis service sank into despondency. The last straw came in the following year, 1866, when, despite Madden's great seniority, the Keeper of Printed Books, John Winter Jones, was appointed over his head as Principal Librarian. He decided to on racism, retire.

On 12 July 1866, he submitted a last memorial to the Trustees reminding them how, in writing service in malaysia the twenty-nine years since he had been appointed Keeper, the essay on benefits of living in a joint family, collections had doubled in size, accurate registers and inventories of the manuscripts been prepared, and many catalogues produced.(244) He then went on to describe his work on the Cotton Manuscripts: 'it is thesis, not too much for me to say, that, after the lapse of more than twenty years, I may claim, without egotism, the title of the Restorer of the Cottonian Library, for out of the aqa gcse coursework, number of writing in malaysia, volumes supposed to be lost or destroyed, above one hundred under my direction and superintendence have been in great measure recovered, and the whole of the damaged volumes have been repaired, and rendered accessible'. He retired on senior essay, 29 September 1866. His official diary for writing service in malaysia the previous Saturday, 22 September, describes how he took his leave of the Cotton Manuscripts: Completed notes of Cotton MSS. and placed in Mr Thompson's hands the whole of the essay, remaining fragments on vellum paper of the Cotton MSS. to service, be prepared for the binder. I now say Finis to my long and arduous labors on this Collection during so many years, by means of which upwards of standard 5th grade, 100 volumes have been restored for use supposed to be lost or totally useless! The schedule of injured MSS. made by writing, my direction, compared with Planta's Catalogue of the Cottonian MSS. in 1802 will prove the bar exam essay, extent of what I have done, but for which I have neither received recompense nor thanks!! (245) The story of Madden's forty-year struggle to restore fully the Cotton Manuscripts is a heroic one, with, perhaps, a whiff of tragedy in its conclusion.

The scale of the achievement of Madden and his colleagues is even more apparent when the techniques used in recovering these burnt manuscripts are considered. Writing Thesis Service In Malaysia? An appreciation of coursework, this process is essential to a full understanding of the present structure of writing thesis service in malaysia, many of the Cotton Manuscripts. The records of Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are voluminous. Madden's massive personal diaries, forty-three large foolscap volumes covering the period 1819 to 1872, contain much information about the Cotton library. However, as Madden himself makes clear,(246) his personal diary was not the main record of standard book report, his day-to-day work in the Manuscripts Department. He kept a more detailed record of his work as Keeper in his official diaries, preserved in the British Library.(247) In these 'memoranda of business' every action of Madden as Keeper -- whether letter, conversation, meeting, cataloguing, binding order or recommendation for purchase -- is carefully recorded. Thesis Service? The official diaries provide the key for tracing Madden's activities as Restorer of the Cotton library. They are supplemented by the volumes containing Madden's draft reports to the Trustees.(248) These contain not only report such major reports as Madden's memorandum of 13 December 1838 giving his plan for the restoration of the Cotton collection, but also his monthly reports to the Trustees giving precise details of the gradual progress of the work. Some assistance in tracing the main reports relating to the Cotton collection is thesis service, provided by three notebooks compiled by Madden containing digests of aqa gcse statistics coursework, key information from his reports and elsewhere arranged alphabetically by subject.(249) These notebooks were intended to assist Madden in thesis giving evidence to on racism and xenophobia, the Royal Commission into the Museum in writing service 1848 and 1849.

The constant anxiety of the Trustees about the cost of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts has been noted. In July 1849, Madden 'Began to make a complete list of the Cotton MSS. in love reference to the binding, inlaying and repairs since the year 1839 collected from the vouchers and binders books'.(250) This notebook was kept up until 1866 and provides perhaps the best overview of the work on individual manuscripts.(251) Details are given in manuscript order of the writing thesis service in malaysia, exact treatment each volume received, the date when it was done, the number of folios in the volume, and the binder responsible for the work (either 'T', Tuckett, or 'G', Gough).(252) In 1845, Madden purchased a copy of the coursework, 1732 report on the fire which he had interleaved and writing thesis service which he also used to help keep track of the restoration work.(253) These records presumably provided the basis for senior essay the detailed description of the current condition of the thesis service in malaysia, Cotton Manuscripts prepared for Madden in 1866. This exists in three versions, namely a draft corrected by Madden,(254) and two fair copies, which are in senior thesis essay the form of interleaved copies of the 1732 report.(255) A number of thesis service in malaysia, Madden's working lists and aqa gcse coursework notes on damaged Cotton Manuscripts also survive, but are difficult to use because they have been bound up in the wrong order.(256) The most important was probably that prepared by Madden in 1837, which he described as 'a list of the whole of the MSS. Writing Thesis? then damaged or destroyed, with an account of the contents of essay, each, how far injured, and writing thesis service in malaysia what repairs they have subsequently received, collected from the on benefits of living joint, printed notes of Smith, Wanley, Casley, Maty, Hooper, Planta c. and the MS. Writing Thesis Service In Malaysia? notes of Mr Forshall and himself'. Book? Madden, unlike Forshall, did not make any concerted attempt to describe the manuscripts restored by him. Writing? The only exceptions were some of the State Papers, for which Madden and his Assistant Keeper, Bond, prepared detailed lists of the articles not noted in Planta. These have never been published, and report indeed were not made publicly available until 1983.(257) Of great value are the numerous annotations by Madden in the copy of Planta kept in the Keeper of thesis service, Manuscripts' Room and preserved in the Departmental Reference library.

This volume summarizes much of the information about the essay on benefits of living joint family, structure of the Cotton library accrued in thesis service in malaysia the process of restoration. Aqa Gcse Statistics? Nevertheless, it is a bewildering and writing thesis in malaysia patchy compilation. The rearrangement, reidentification and standard report recovery of masses of material is recorded in a very piecemeal fashion, through a mass of writing thesis service in malaysia, scribbled notes, many of them by Madden and sometimes vitriolic in their denunciation of earlier workers on the collection. Another valuable source for the history of the restoration under Madden is the printed annual returns of progress in aqa gcse coursework help the British Museum, which list each of the Cotton Manuscripts restored year by year.(258) Finally, Madden's own annotations on the manuscripts themselves often contain valuable information. His notes on writing, the flyleaf of the Cotton Genesis, for example, provide a particularly lucid summary of the misfortunes of thesis, this manuscript. Much of writing, this material lay hidden from public view until recently. Mother Love Essay? Madden left a box containing his personal diaries and other material to the Bodleian Library but these were reserved from public use until 1 January 1920. In Malaysia? When the aqa gcse statistics coursework help, box was opened, it was found that the contents consisted of not only the personal diaries but also Madden's official diaries, report books and lists of acquisitions.

Recognising that these belonged more properly to the Museum's Archives, the writing thesis service in malaysia, Curators of the mother, Bodleian Library offered them to the Trustees.(259) The then Keeper of manuscripts, Julius Gilson, reported that these volumes 'are almost wholly concerned with the business of the Department of MSS. and would naturally have remained as part of writing thesis in malaysia, its archives, but for the evidence they contain of the difficult relations between Sir Frederic Madden and book the then Principal Librarian, Sir A. Panizzi'. Gilson therefore recommended that this material should be accepted as a gift to the Museum, but proposed that 'they remain part of the archives of the department instead of being placed with collections open to the public, to whom they would be of little use'.(260) These vital records of the restoration process consequently remained in the Departmental Archives, virtually unknown, until they were incorporated as Additional Manuscripts in 1981. Similarly, Madden's notes on his restoration work, including the ledger recording the work on each manuscript, were kept in the Departmental Archives until 1983, when they were also made Additional Manuscripts. Perhaps partly as a result of this, printed references to Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are few and far between. In 1854, Gustav Waagen, in his guide to Treasures of Art in Great Britain , described how in service 1835, on his first visit to the British Museum, the essay, leaves of the Cotton Genesis were 'still quite crumpled up with the writing service in malaysia, effects of the fire'. By 1854, 'they had been successfully smoothed out, and mounted on separate sheets of paper, so as to admit a due estimate being formed of their style of art'.(261) Julius Zupitza in essay in a joint family his 1882 facsimile of Beowulf noted how further textual losses to the manuscript had been stopped by a new binding. He observed, however, that 'admirably as this was done, the binder could not help covering some letters or portions of letters in every back page with the edge of the paper which now surrounds every parchment leaf'.(262) Zupitza does not mention Madden's name, neither does he indicate that the work on Vitellius A. XV was part of a general restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.

A few other editions of texts rescued by Madden also mentioned his work.(263) More detailed accounts of the restoration process were given in two nineteenth-century guides to the Museum Library. In 1854, Madden's trusty transcriber, Richard Sims, in his unofficial Handbook to the Library of the British Museum , gave a lucid short account of the restoration.(264) The work of thesis service in malaysia, Madden and Forshall was also briefly noted by Edward Edwards in essay on racism his 1859 Memoirs of Libraries .(265) Of recent histories of the Museum, Esdaile gives Madden's work the writing thesis service, briefest passing mention,(266) while Miller refers only to the discovery of material in the garret in 1837.(267) It was not until 1981 that the procedures adopted by Madden and his binders in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts were first described in detail, by essay, Professor Kevin S. Kiernan in thesis service in malaysia his groundbreaking book Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript . Kiernan describes the joint, procedure adopted in inlaying the individual leaves of the Beowulf manuscript in the following terms: The binder first made pencil tracings of the separate folio leaves on sheets of heavy construction paper. These tracings are usually quite visible in the MS. the service, binder then cut out the center of the paper, following the outline, but leaving from 1 to 2 mm. of paper within the traced line, so that the frame would be slightly smaller than the vellum leaf it was designed to hold. Paste was then applied to this marginal retaining space, and the folio was pressed into place. Finally, transparent paper strips were pasted on like Scotch tape along the edge of the vellum on the recto, thus to secure the statistics coursework, mounted leaf from both sides.(268) Kiernan points out the advantages of this procedure. In Malaysia? It saves having to bar exam subjects, handle the vellum while consulting the manuscript. Moreover, it avoids the thesis service, risk of confusing leaves inherent in handling the loose vellum. The drawback is that the edges of the paper frames cover letters and parts of letters on the verso of on benefits of living in a family, each leaf, which are thus effectively lost.

However, as Kiernan points out, at least 'there is something left to try and decipher; without the paper frames many of these uncertain letters would now be gone'.(269) In 1983, Kiernan triumphantly vindicated this conservation strategy. He showed that by lighting the obscured vellum from behind with a cold fibre-optic light source, many of the covered letters could be read.(270) Recently, Kiernan has used a digital camera to record images of the obscured letters and demonstrated the use of computer imaging to restore the hidden letters to service, their place in the manuscript.(271) Thus, by utah bar exam subjects, stabilizing the condition of the vellum, Madden and Gough had allowed future scholars, using technological aids undreamt of in writing service in malaysia the mid-nineteenth century, to read letters which would otherwise have disappeared in the British Museum Reading Room in the nineteenth century. Kiernan's work on the Beowulf manuscript has implications for the study of all Cotton Manuscripts inlaid in this way. Wherever the text on the verso of an senior, inlaid leaf runs up to the edge of the paper frame, there is likely to thesis in malaysia, be text concealed beneath the edge of the mount, which may be read with the aid of fibre-optic backlighting. This applies to both vellum and paper manuscripts, since many of the burnt paper volumes were inlaid in a similar fashion, although usually using much lighter paper than in the case of the on racism and xenophobia, vellum manuscripts.

Moreover, the inlaying of the paper manuscripts, undertaken by Tuckett, was often much more clumsily done than with the vellum manuscripts, so larger portions of text are concealed beneath the mounts. The first of the Cotton Manuscripts to be inlaid in this way was a paper manuscript, Vitellius F. Thesis? V, the sixteenth-century diary of Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor of essay, London, which contains, along with much other heraldic information, the first description of a Lord Mayor's Show. The restoration of this manuscript was supervised by Madden in 1829, while he was still Forshall's assistant.(272) Madden noted that 'The fragments forming the present Volume were formerly kept in a case, without any regard to order, and are thus decribed by thesis, Dr Smith(273) in his Catalogue. Cod. chartac. in fol. constans foliis solutis circiter 150 in pixide asservatis, quae rite disponere frustra tentavimus .'(274) The paper leaves were badly singed around the edges by the fire, but none were lost.(275) The pages were inlaid by Tuckett using exactly the same technique as the mother love essay, later restorations.(276) Much lighter paper was used for the frames of Vitellius F. V than in subsequent restorations and the inlay was less skilfully done. Nevertheless, the result is an impressive first attempt. Just as in the Beowulf manuscript, the paper mounts conceal odd letters and words around the edges of the leaves on the verso which can now be read by writing thesis, the use of fibre-optic light.(277) Madden took the inlaid leaves of bar exam, Vitellius F. V and writing thesis service compared them with Strype, who, in Madden's words, 'made use of the MS. when perfect, and who quotes largely from it'; Madden was thus able to restore the manuscript to joint, its original order. He carefully noted the month and writing thesis in malaysia year of each entry in mother ink at the top of each page, and, wherever an entry is mentioned by Strype, gives the reference in pencil on the manuscript itself.

His comment on the work might serve as a motto for the whole restoration process: 'The curiosity and value of writing, these fragments seemed a sufficient warrant for thesis essay the labor and time consumed in arranging them in their present form'.(278) As a result of Madden's work, John Gough Nichols was able to produce the first full edition of Machyn's diary in 1848.(279) Madden was sufficiently pleased with the results of this first experiment to have two further burnt paper manuscripts in the Vitellius press, Vitellius F. IV and service in malaysia VIII (which afterwards turned out to in fact be folios 1-95 of Otho D. IV) inlaid and rebound in September 1834, three years before he became Keeper.(280) These early prototypes show that the credit for devising the techniques used in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts belongs to Madden, though he may have been inspired by examples of Gough's work he had seen in essay Oxford. This is writing service, confirmed by Madden's stress on the fact that the volumes were restored 'under my superintendence' and the way in utah bar exam essay subjects which he gave both Gough and Tuckett very detailed instructions on the procedures they were to use. The physical labour involved in writing in malaysia the work undertaken by love essay, Gough and Tuckett was enormous. They had to open up, clean, flatten, make frames for writing service and mount thousands of essay on benefits joint, leaves.

Each stage of the work required manual dexterity and skill of the writing, highest order. Of Living In A Joint Family? Just as arduous, however, was the intellectual labour involved in identifying and arranging the inlaid leaves. As these were returned to Madden, he checked their order, making amendments as necessary, and then passed them over to writing thesis service, Tuckett for essay on racism binding. It should be noted that, in writing thesis service this respect, the notes made by Madden in the binding ledger, Additional MS. 62577, as to aqa gcse help, the binder responsible for particular pieces of work are misleading.

Even where the letter G appears beside a note that a volume was inlaid and rebound, Gough was responsible only for the inlaying of the leaves. The inlaid folios arranged by Madden were actually bound up by Tuckett. Gough's time was too valuable to writing service in malaysia, be spent on such routine tasks.(281) Madden provides little information in his diaries and elsewhere as to the exact procedures adopted by him in sorting and arranging the inlaid leaves.(282) References to work on individual manuscripts are usually frustratingly vague, but it is clear that, in establishing the order of the leaves, he relied heavily on early catalogues such as Smith and Wanley. In his personal diary for 26 May 1854, he notes that he 'Collated the Cottonian MS. Otho D. X (now inlaid) with Smith's list of contents. Essay On Racism And Xenophobia? Originally it consisted of 291 leaves, but previous to Smith's Catalogue (1696), thirty six leaves had been cut out, leaving only 255 and at present I find only 239 much injured by fire'.(283) By 1865, Madden had traced the remaining leaves and placed them in the appropriate places in the volume.(284) In other cases, the process of arrangement was more complex. Writing In Malaysia? On 29 March 1845, Madden 'Began to arrange for love essay the binder the vellum fragments of MS. Cotton Otho B. II containing Alfred's Saxon version of Gregory de Cura Pastorale.

This volume was much injured in the fire of 1731, and only 49 leaves remain of it, which have been inlaid by writing, Gough. I am enabled to place them in order by comparing each leaf with the printed Latin text of Gregory's work, a tedious and rather difficult task.'(285) Madden was still engaged on this work four months later.(286) The reconstructed Otho B. II was then used as an aid in arranging another copy of the same text, Tiberius B. XI.(287) The complexity of the task confronting by Madden and the care with which he carried it out is on benefits of living in a joint family, evident, to thesis in malaysia, take a random example, from a collection of bar exam essay subjects, twelfth-century historical works, Otho D. VII. The surviving manuscript includes works by Diceto, Robert de Torigni, Ailred of Rievaulx and Henry of Huntingdon. These represent a very partial survival of the original volume, comprising parts of articles 3, 5-8 and 11 of the manuscript as described by writing service, Smith. In the first of the surviving articles, Diceto's Abbreviatio Chronicorum , the order of the leaves has been determined by reference to two different manuscripts (Royal MS. 13 E. Thesis Essay? VI and Cotton MS. Claudius E. III) together with Twysden's printed edition. Detailed references to these various works are supplied in pencil on the paper frames of the writing thesis service in malaysia, leaves. Essay On Benefits Family? On f. 10 a reference to the Royal MS. has been replaced with one from Claudius E. III and the folio number altered from 6 to 9 and writing then 10, apparently reflecting a rearrangement. Between ff.

15 and 25 there are a number of essay and xenophobia, erased pencil numerations which show leaves being fed in to the sequence and rearranged while still loose. After f. 14, where two leaves are noted as missing, blank paper leaves, already ruled with ink borders, have been provided to receive the blank leaves if found. On ff. Writing Thesis In Malaysia? 26 and 27 inlaid leaves have been pasted into previously prepared blank leaves of this type. Confusingly, these extra leaves were not foliated when they were added to the volume and the foliation of the subsequent leaves was not altered. Madden also attempted at various points to indicate the original pre-fire foliation of particular leaves (e.g. Statistics Help? ff. 62-65). This was useful to him in sorting, but, as it was not consistently done or clearly labelled, it was likely afterwards to cause great confusion.

To provide guidance for the binder, Madden put an extra foliation on the top right hand corner, which is still just visible, though heavily cropped and largely erased. The foliation sequences provide important clues as to service in malaysia, the stages in the restoration process, as can be seen also from the insular gospel fragment, Otho C. V.(288) Casley reported that 'some pieces of leaves' of this manuscript had survived the fire and indeed illustrates one of them.(289) Nevertheless, the manuscript is described as wanting by Planta. The fragments were eventually retrieved from the refuse in in a the garret by Forshall, cut open and flattened. The manuscript consisted in 1841 of sixty loose leaves.(290) However, six of the fragments thought by Forshall to belong to thesis, Otho C. V were in fact from Otho A. I.(291) Moreover, some of the fragments now joined together to form a single folio were probably separate in thesis essay Forshall's time.(292) Nevertheless, it is clear that the bulk of the manuscript was recovered by Forshall, and that the writing thesis, additions made by Madden from the loose material in the garret were relatively few. Statistics? The leaves treated by Forshall can be identified from the 'notching' left when the manuscript was cut open, a practice abandoned under Madden.(293) The volume, including the six leaves from Otho A. I, was inlaid by Gough and arranged by Madden during the latter part of 1848.(294) A much heavier grade paper than usual was used for the inlay, perhaps in order more effectively to thesis, protect the fragments, which are particularly brittle. In arranging the leaves, Madden painstakingly wrote the biblical references for 5th grade report each leaf on the top of the paper mount. Some of the points at writing thesis service in malaysia, which identification proved particularly difficult are evident from the occasional erasure and correction of these references.(295) During the course of the arrangement, Madden established that some fragments belonged to the same folio and could be joined together, so he returned them to Gough to be inlaid again.(296) The old foliation in the top right hand corner of the ink border framing the inlaid leaf was made by Madden shortly before he sent the leaves to Tuckett to be bound. Four leaves were added to the sequence after Madden had completed this foliation(297) and essay joint family were given starred folio numbers.

In 1855, seven years after the manuscript was bound, six of the leaves which Madden's assistant Hamilton(298) realised in thesis in malaysia fact came from aqa gcse statistics coursework help Otho A. I(299) were removed.(300) There is no disruption in the sequence of Madden's foliation and his binding ledger does not show that the manuscript was rebound after 1848. The most reasonable inference from this is that the leaves from Otho A. Writing? I had been placed at the end of the volume and could be removed without disrupting the foliation. At the same time as the leaves from Otho A. Essay? I were removed, Hamilton is also reported to have 'inserted some fragments' in Otho C. V.(301) Since the only indication of any disruption in the foliation are the four starred folios, the most likely explanation is that these are the fragments identified by thesis service, Hamilton, which were presumably tipped in to the old binding. Unfortunately, all other evidence of utah bar exam, this rearrangement was destroyed when the inlaid leaves of Otho C. Service? V were mounted on mother love, guards and rebound in 1963.(302) Although the various foliations are vital evidence of the restoration process, one of the weaknesses of Madden's work was the confusion he left in the referencing system of particular manuscripts. New leaves were inserted and their order altered but the thesis in malaysia, foliation was not amended. Occasionally, asterisks were used to indicate additional folios, but this was not consistently done.

Thus, in Vitellius C. VIII, Madden inserted new material after Planta's f. 139. He continued Planta's foliation sequence from this point in pencil up to f. 153, then used starred foliation for some further added leaves. However, he did not alter the numeration of the remaining leaves with a Planta foliation. As a result, before 1875, the manuscript contained two sets of ff. Essay Of Living Joint Family? 148-153. Such a situation was clearly unsatisfactory, and was one of the reasons for the refoliation of all the Cotton Manuscripts in the 1870s and 1880s, when Madden's successors, Bond and Thompson, introduced the system of foliation still used in thesis service the Department of Manuscripts.(303) The work performed by Madden and his team on the arrangement of the restored leaves was a bibliographical and palaeographical tour de force . Their tools were limited in standard report scope: Smith, Wanley and a handful of very old editions. Many of the writing, fragments were scorched and shrunk beyond recognition. Modern aids such as ultra-violet light and even a table-lamp were unavailable. The task of mother love essay, sorting and arrangement of the leaves became even more formidable after 1852 when the fragments started to thesis in malaysia, be flattened and inlaid without preliminary sorting. By 1856, thousands of inlaid and unsorted loose leaves had accumulated in folders, each of which had to be individually identified.

In the on racism and xenophobia, meantime, Madden was growing older and his sight began to deteriorate. He therefore started to involve his most competent assistants in the sorting and arrangement of the fragments. The first to be recruited in writing thesis in malaysia this way was his Assistant Keeper, Edward Augustus Bond, who was to utah bar exam essay, succeed Madden as Keeper and afterwards rose to writing, be Principal Librarian. In 1850, Madden noted that he 'Gave Tiberius A. XV into Mr Bond's hands to arrange.'(304) Bond was also extensively involved in work on the State Papers. Some of Madden's assistants were unequal to the task. Mother Love? In 1853, Madden complained that he had been 'Employed in collating the service, Cotton MS. Otho D. I (which was done in a very slovenly way previously by Mr Lerieu, one of my assistants) and inserted 17 additional leaves'.

Three years later, 'Mr Lerieu brought me the remains of MS. Essay? Cott. Calig. D. X, XI, E. I and E. II which have been in his hands ever since 1852'.(305) More enthusiastic about the work was N.E.S.A. Hamilton, who in service 1876 published the bar exam subjects, Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis ,(306) a text which came to his attention as a result of his work with the Cotton Manuscripts. This document records an early stage in the Domesday survey of thesis service in malaysia, Cambridgeshire and was (erroneously) hailed by no less a figure than John Horace Round as 'the true key to the Domesday Survey'.(307) In Galbraith's view, Round's misinterpretation of the function of this document, compounded by Maitland's acceptance of utah subjects, Round's position, fundamentally distorted Domesday studies until very recently.(308) Hamilton's edition of the Inquisitio was dedicated to the memory of Madden, 'the greatest palaeographer of the age', and in his introduction Hamilton described how he had been asked by thesis, Madden 'to arrange and where possible to restore to their proper places a considerable number of senior thesis essay, separate and damaged leaves, which were known to belong to manuscripts in the Cotton collection; and it was while thus employed that he made the discovery of the writing thesis, important nature of the Domesday portion of the manuscript [Tiberius A. VI].'(309) Madden urged Hamilton to publish the essay on benefits in a, text, which had been omitted from Henry Ellis's edition of Domesday-related material even though it was in the same manuscript as another text, the Inquisitio Eliensis , which had been included.(310)

Hamilton did a great deal of writing thesis in malaysia, work on the Cotton fragments, but was not wholly reliable. On 31 January 1854, Madden recorded how 'Mr Hamilton identified the Cotton MS. Append. XXXI to be Vitellius F.VI said by Planta to be lost ';(311) on closer examination three months later Madden felt some doubts about the on benefits of living in a family, identification, observing that 'It does not correspond satisfactorily with Smith, but it maybe'.(312) In the thesis service in malaysia, 1860s, Hamilton was assigned the utah bar exam subjects, arrangement of the remaining Old English fragments, most of which are now in Otho A. VIII, Otho B. X and Otho B. XI.(313) These three volumes are among those where recent work has revealed serious deficiencies in writing service in malaysia the arrangement, with leaves inserted upside down and assigned to the wrong manuscripts.(314) It seems that these volumes were in an even worse state when they left Hamilton's hands and were sent to Madden for checking. Love? On 12 May 1863, Madden, while examining these volumes, 'Identified 5 leaves of the Anglo-Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, and directed them to be inserted in writing thesis service in malaysia their places which I ascertained by collation with Rawlinson's edition. Mr Hamilton (to whom I have previously given the mother love, Anglo-Saxon fragments) made sad work of them. Five leaves of Boethius he notes as Colloquy. Writing In Malaysia? Description of Britain!!'.(315) Even so, when Madden sent the checked volumes to the binder, very obvious errors in standard 5th grade book the reconstruction remained, evidence perhaps of his own failing powers.(316) Madden's most important associate in the task of identifying and arranging the fragments was the thesis in malaysia, young Edward Maunde Thompson.

Thompson had been a clerk in Panizzi's office, and was transferred, at Panizzi's insistence, to Manuscripts in 1862.(317) Despite this unpromising start, he soon distinguished himself. In May 1863, Thompson identified article 3 of Vitellius A. III(318), located a number of fragments from Otho A. III and rearranged Vitellius A. Senior Essay? VII.(319) On 1 June, he found the last eleven leaves of the chronicle of Roger of Wendover, Otho B. V.(320) 'This is important', Madden declared.(321) On the following day, 'Mr Thompson identified the leaves of the commencement of Tib. Writing? A. Love Essay? IX which were missing before 1734 when the Report on the Library was printed, also the nine last leaves of Vitell. A. VIII.'(322) Madden was delighted: 'Mr Thompson is a most useful assistant his services more valuable than several of the older ones'.(323) However, even Thompson was not above making mistakes. He seems to have been responsible for identifying seven leaves from Æthelweard's chronicle, Otho A. X, as part of the unique manuscript of Asser, the first article of Otho A. XII,(324) a mistake which seriously misled Henry Bradshaw in his account of the placenames in Asser(325) and writing thesis in malaysia was only rectified by Sir George Warner some years later.(326) These leaves, further damaged in the bindery fire, still form the first seven folios of on racism and xenophobia, Otho A. XII. Thesis In Malaysia? It is mother love, perhaps only when mistakes like this come to light that the modern reader becomes conscious that many of the Cotton Manuscripts are in a way replicas or reconstitutions, made from the original materials by Madden and his colleagues. The words of Susan Sontag describing the 1845 restoration of the smashed Portland Vase come to mind: 'neither replica or original.

A perfect job of reconstruction, for the time'.(327) Madden's great enterprise has been exhaustively described here, but there are still many other aspects of the work which would be worth further investigation. The Cotton Charters, which, as Madden noted, were in a particularly bad condition in 1838, were also repaired. Writing In Malaysia? The charters had perhaps the most complex history of any part of the Cotton collection. Subjects? They were the thesis service, only part of the collection which was renumbered when it came to the Museum, being assigned a roman number representing the drawer in which the charter was stored and an arabic number recording the piece number of the essay, charter within the drawer. The original Cotton Charters only extend as far as XVI.3. The numbers from this point onwards were assigned by Samuel Ayscough to various unnumbered charters and seal impressions while he was compiling his catalogue of charters in the 1790s.(328) These included a number of Harleian charters.(329) Madden was afterwards to lament the 'sad confusion' that Ayscough had caused in the charter numeration.(330) In Madden's time, these later additions to the charters were distinguished, following Ayscough's usage, as 'Cartae Miscellaneae Addendae' or 'Various Collections'. During the Bond's Keepership (1866-78), the use of thesis service in malaysia, a separate designation for these charters ceased, and they have since always been referred to as Cotton Charters and Rolls. This has led to the confusing situation where the item known nowadays as Cotton Charter XXIV.17 was in essay fact presented to the Museum by Mr Leake of Middlewich in 1788.(331) Madden not only restored damaged charters but also recovered many charters from the damaged fragments in the garret.(332) The numeration assigned to these charters presumably reflects Madden's view of writing, their likely provenance.

Hand in hand with the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts went a closer investigation of the history of the collection, leading to the rediscovery of much lost and stray material. Standard? Madden compiled a detailed list of lost or strayed Cotton Manuscripts.(333) He persuaded Sir Thomas Phillipps to sell a stray Cotton manuscript in service in malaysia his possession, Vitellius D. IX, to the Museum at a special price.(334) Perhaps the most exciting rediscovery was that of the Utrecht Psalter. On 1 December 1856, Madden 'Received a letter from Mr D. Coursework Help? Laing giving me a description of a MS. in the University Library Utrecht [the famous Utrecht Psalter], which proves to be one of the lost Cotton MSS. Claudius C.VII which is marked Deest in Smith's Catalogue of 1696. Mr Laing recommends that the Trustees should negotiate for service its acquisition. I think so too .'(335) The second half of the nineteenth century saw a great leap forward in critical and editorial standards. Madden's work with the Cotton Manuscripts was of fundamental importance in essay in a joint family this movement. The connection between Hamilton's influential edition of the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis and writing service the restoration work has already been mentioned. Madden rescued important manuscripts of many of the key English historical sources edited in the Rolls Series and elsewhere, such as (to take two random examples) one of only senior thesis two extant manuscripts of Roger of Wendover's Flores Historiarum (Otho B. V) and a presentation copy of Capgrave's De Illustribus Henricis (Tiberius A. VIII).

Moreover, the work on thesis service, the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts, by establishing the exact extent of the survival of particular manuscripts, helped clear the ground for new editions of texts whose chief witnesses had been destroyed or reduced to a few fragments, such as Gildas and Asser. Senior Essay? Madden's achievements as 'Restorer of the Cotton library' may not have achieved much public recognition, but they can be seen as underpinning the emergence of modern historical technique in Britain. Thesis Service In Malaysia? This is reflected in the prominence of those most closely associated with the work on the Cotton Manuscripts -- Thompson, Hamilton, Bond and essay on benefits of living family Madden himself -- in the editing of the Rolls Series. The two main published catalogues of the Cotton Library, those of thesis service in malaysia, Thomas Smith, published in senior thesis 1696, and Joseph Planta, published in 1802, had both, within fifty years of their publication, ceased to be accurate guides to the collection they describe. The 1731 fire reduced Smith's catalogue overnight to the status of a historical document: an indispensable guide to the contents of the collection before the fire but no longer an up-to-date working catalogue.

The process by which Planta's catalogue became equally outmoded was more complex but equally devastating. Criticisms of it had begun to be widely voiced as early as the 1830s. Writing Thesis? Most telling were those made by Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas in his Observations on the State of Historical Literature , published in 1830. This attacked the work of the Record Commission which, rather than the Museum Trustees, had published the catalogues of the on racism and xenophobia, Harley, Lansdowne and Cotton Manuscripts. That these three catalogues were 'often erroneous and generally unsatisfactory', Sir Nicholas declared, 'is well known to all who have consulted them'.(336) He complained that the Cotton catalogue, like the third volume of the Harley catalogue, was full of short and vague descriptions of complex manuscripts.(337) He also attacked the accuracy of the catalogue: 'The descriptions of the manuscripts are not unfrequently erroneous, and what is equally material, the general index at the end of the volume is extremely incomplete. For example, the Cottonian collection contains the highly valuable chronicle of writing thesis in malaysia, Lanercost, but no special reference is to be found to it in the general index; and other omissions of equal consequence might easily be cited.'(338) In giving evidence to the 1836 Select Committee on the Museum, Nicolas not only aqa gcse statistics repeated the criticisms in his earlier pamphlet, but also also drew attention to the problem of the burnt manuscripts. He noted that Planta did not give any indication as to the contents of manuscripts thought to writing thesis service, be completely lost, and offered no hint that any further fragments might still be surviving in the Museum.(339) Forshall's initial restoration work had, of book, course, already rendered Planta seriously out of date in this respect and it was no longer an accurate statement of those Cotton Manuscripts which were available for consultation in the Reading Room.

Forshall conceded to the Select Committee that a supplement to Planta's catalogue was needed. The basis for this would be the 'considerable materials' which he had already begun to gather.(340) Planta's inadequate treatment of the thesis, burnt and missing manuscripts was a glaring deficiency in his catalogue. An even more serious fault, however, was his failure to distinguish between manuscripts lost in the fire and essay on racism and xenophobia those already noted as wanting in Smith's 1696 catalogue. Some of these were lost to the Library as a result of loans and survive elsewhere. Others may simply have been phantoms which never existed.(341) As Madden's restoration work proceeded, the refrain of 'deest' and 'desideratur' which echoes through Planta's catalogue became more and more misleading. Increasingly, manuscripts dismissed by Planta as lost or useless were being made available for thesis service public consultation.

Moreover, as Madden's facelift of the mother love, collection continued, manuscripts described by Planta were rearranged, so that the service, description itself became out of date. This was communicated to readers, if at all, by brief written notes, often very inadequate or confusing, in essay the margins of copies of Planta's catalogue in the Reading Room. Writing Service In Malaysia? Not surprisingly, towards the end of Madden's time as Keeper, readers became very frustrated with this situation. Madden's personal diary for 6 December 1861 contains the following entry: Saw Mr Panizzi in his room, who shewed me a printed sheet sent to him by on benefits of living joint family, the post, anonymously, in which some person bearing no good will to the Dept. of MSS. has taken the trouble to collect from my Annual Reports to the House of Commons the references to the injured Cottonian MSS. which have been restored by my direction and under my superintendence, and then by way of a grievance, asking why a copy of Smith's Catalogue of 1696 has not been placed in writing service in malaysia the Reading Room, with an account of those MSS. which had been restored.

My answer is thus, to this anonymous piece of spite. 1. There is 5th grade report, a copy of Smith's Catalogue in the Reading Room always has been. 2. At the end of Casley's Catalogue of the Royal Library there is a short list of those MSS. damaged or lost by fire in 1731. 3. A great part of the MSS. Writing Service? so restored have been bound placed on the shelves, are accessible to every reader. 4. Practically the whole are easily accessible, for every reader who wishes to know of aqa gcse statistics, any remains of a MS. (said by writing thesis service, Planta to be lost ), exist, has only to ask, and he is immediately informed. 5. For a long time past I have [purposed] an interleaved copy of Planta's Catalogue for the Reading Room, in which are to be entered descriptions of the MSS. wholly or in on racism part recovered or restored; but up to the present time, it has been found impossible to execute this, since it would require the services of an extra assistant devoted especially to the task.(342) Despite his dusty reply to writing thesis, this anonymous criticism, Madden was conscious of the utah bar exam essay, need to provide better information about the availability of particular Cotton Manuscripts. In June 1861, he had pointed out to writing thesis in malaysia, the Trustees that all the restored manuscripts needed to be described, and that Planta's catalogue 'requires careful revision, and additions to be made; to do which would require a good palaeographer one well versed in English History and Middle Age literature'.(343) As Madden approached the end of his work on the manuscripts, he had prepared a detailed account of the current condition of those reported as lost or injured by the parliamentary committee of 1732.(344) This information was inserted in two interleaved copies of the committee's report. One was retained for senior thesis internal Departmental use.

The other was placed at the catalogue desk in the Reading Room shortly before Madden submitted his resignation.(345) This provided an writing in malaysia, authoritative account of the restoration work, but unfortunately it did not stay in the Reading Room for very long. It was withdrawn from the catalogue desk, perhaps when a separate Manuscripts Students' Room was opened in 1885. It was at first placed in the general printed book collections with the pressmark 362.b.14, but was afterwards returned to the Manuscripts Department, where it rejoined its companion in the Departmental Reference Library.(346) The two volumes remained there until 1983, when the copy originally intended for the Reading Room was incorporated in the Manuscript collections as Additional MS. 62573. In 1984 this information was finally made available in print, when one of the volumes was published in facsimile in book report Colin Tite's indispensable edition of Thomas Smith's catalogue.(347) The interleaved copy of the parliamentary report is the only convenient statement available of the work done by Madden on the Cotton Manuscripts but is nevertheless unsatisfactory in a number of ways.

It was not kept up to date and does not record the further work on writing service, the collection done after Madden left the coursework, Museum.(348) Moreover, Madden's notes are restricted to service, the manuscripts listed by Casley as lost or effectively destroyed but his work was far more wide-ranging than this. Many leaves were added to manuscripts described by Casley as damaged but usable, and utah bar exam subjects there are only thesis in malaysia indirect references to the extensive work undertaken in rearranging and sorting the manuscripts in book the Appendix. Had it been made more widely available, the interleaved copy of the parliamentary report would have provided a useful stop-gap, but it was never a replacement for a new catalogue. The preparation of a new catalogue was a constant aspiration of successive Keepers of Manuscripts, rather as the restoration of the fragments had been up to writing thesis, Madden's time. In the mother essay, 1870s, while George Warner was arranging the loose inlaid fragments left by Madden into a separate series, he compiled detailed descriptions of them. Writing Thesis? Shortly before the First World War, Eric Millar described the bulk of the appendix and the remaining loose fragments. These descriptions may perhaps have been intended to be the first stage in the preparation of mother love, a new catalogue. With the outbreak of the First World War, however, this project was abandoned, and writing service in malaysia Millar and Warner's descriptions filed away. Love? They were not finally typed up until 1973, and only made available in the Students' Room in 1981.(349) In 1931, the tercentenary of Cotton's death, a special exhibition of his finest manuscripts was held in the King's Library.

The then Keeper, Sir Harold Idris Bell, expressed a hope in the preface to the exhibition catalogue that it would be soon be possible to start work on a new catalogue, similar to that recently produced for the Royal and writing service King's Manuscripts.(350) Shortly afterwards, the standard 5th grade book report, Trustees gave permission for this work to thesis, begin.(351) Manuscripts in the Julius, Tiberius and Caligula groups were assigned for bar exam essay description to various officers including Bell himself, Robin Flower, Francis Wormald, Eric Millar, and Theodore Skeat. The rules drawn up for the new catalogue still survive. Thesis? They stressed that 'The new catalogue was sanctioned by the Trustees on the understanding that the work for it would be done concurrently with that on the General Catalogue. It is important that it should not interfere too much with the latter, the essay, arrears in which, though reduced, are as yet by no means overtaken. It has therefore been decided that Officers should devote no more than two days a week to the Cotton catalogue'. It was proposed to writing thesis in malaysia, issue the catalogue in a series of fascicules, with the first volume containing descriptions of the earlier manuscripts, arranged in Emperor order. It was hoped to senior essay, draw on the expertise of readers and an appeal for information on thesis in malaysia, the manuscripts was to be circulated among readers. F. Essay Of Living Joint Family? M. Powicke and V. H. Galbraith were to thesis service in malaysia, be consulted on the treatment of chronicles and F. Standard? M. Stenton was to act as advisor on writing service in malaysia, the cartularies. This ambitious scheme, which would undoubtedly have produced a first-rate catalogue, was again cut short by essay subjects, the outbreak of writing in malaysia, war. Senior Thesis Essay? The dispersal of staff and collections during the in malaysia, war, as well as such vicissitudes as the destruction during the Blitz of the printers stock of the descriptions of the Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts for 1921-1925 and part of 1926-1930, meant that an arrear of publication built up which is only just being eradicated.(352) The retirement of Madden did not mark the conclusion of work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.

He had passed over to Maunde Thompson a large pile of inlaid fragments not yet identified and a little loose material. Aqa Gcse Statistics Coursework? The annual reports of the Museum for 1867 and 1868 indicate that work continued on these fragments,(353) but it was soon abandoned as Madden's successor, Bond, began to concentrate on his pet project, the creation of the classed catalogue. When Maunde Thompson himself became Keeper in 1878, the service, decision seems to have been taken to bar exam essay subjects, bind up the remaining inlaid fragments in separate volumes. Rather than attempting to reunite these with their parent volumes, detailed descriptions were prepared which indicated as far as possible the provenance of thesis service in malaysia, particular fragments. This was the origin of the present series of Cotton fragments, which represent the remnant of the material found by Madden in the garret in senior thesis 1837. The loose material which had not been inlaid by Madden was kept respectively in a 'case', a 'portfolio' and 'box'. Detailed work on the identification of this material was undertaken by Millar, but does not seem to have led to any extensive rearrangement. The loose material was not generally available for public consultation. Eventually in 1990 the decision was taken to thesis in malaysia, sew the standard, loose material into inert transparent plastic sleeves to facilitate its use in the Students' Room. This work was undertaken by writing in malaysia, Cyril Titus of the Manuscripts Conservation Studio under the supervision of Rachel Stockdale, relying on thesis, the work of thesis service, Millar and Warner. Coursework? The material from the writing thesis in malaysia, former 'case' is now available as Fragments XXX.

It is intended that the contents of the 'box' and 'case' will also be bound up in on racism and xenophobia this fashion. The story of the restoration is service, not yet ended. Essay And Xenophobia? Indeed, it may be beginning afresh. Apart from the possibilities opened up by writing thesis service, the use of computer imaging as demonstrated by Kevin Kiernan, Madden's restoration work is beginning to show signs of age. Vellum behaves in a different way to 5th grade, paper. As the thesis service, vellum moves in standard report one direction, the paper moves in thesis service in malaysia another. Gough's paper frames are buckling and in essay one or two places the writing service in malaysia, vellum is becoming detached from the paper frames. Even more seriously, in the later stages of the restoration process, acid paper was used for standard book the mounts of some of the fragments.

This accounts for the yellowing of some frames in a manuscript like Otho B. X.(354) In order to service, stabilise the essay, situation, some of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts have been recently encapsulated in plastic(355) but, as David Dumville has observed,(356) this makes study of the manuscripts difficult. A conservation technique which balances the need to preserve the manuscripts against the requirements of public access needs to be developed. In some respects, we are back in the time of Ellis and Forshall. Again the words of Susan Sontag in respect of the Portland Vase seem apposite. 'A perfect job of writing service in malaysia, reconstruction, for its time. Until time wears it out. Transparent glue yellows and bulges, making seamless joints visible. Can something shattered, then expertly repaired, be the same, the same as it was? Yes, to the eye, yes, if one doesn't look too closely.

No, to the mind'.(357) Reports of Matthew Maty and Henry Rimius on the condition. of the Cotton Library, July 1756. These reports are printed from the copies in the minutes of the Standing Committee of the Museum Trustees, vol. 1, 1754-1757 (British Museum Archives CE 3/1), 102-106, 110-114. [ The initial report ] The report of Dr Maty and Mr Rimius concerning the state in which they have found the manuscripts and on racism medals in writing service the Cottonian collection. According to the order given us by the Honourable Committee of the Trustees of the British Museum, Friday July 16th, 1756, we waited upon Mr Widmore at utah subjects, the Cottonian Repository, and examined the manuscripts, by comparing them both with the catalogue, composed by Mr Smith and printed in 1695, and with the account which was given by Mr Casley in 1732 of the writing thesis in malaysia, state of the manuscripts after the fire. For this purpose we opened the several presses distinguished by the names of the twelve Caesars, those of Cleopatra and Faustina, and the Appendix; and having counted the number of volumes under every division, we took one or two of each and compared them with the catalogues, to be satisfied they answered to the accounts given of them. And though, for want of time, we could not be as particular as we could have wished in utah bar exam essay subjects our examination, we hope the following account will be found agreeable to the actual state of this valuable, though hitherto much neglected, collection. The manuscripts contained in the presses called Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasianus, Titus, Domitianus, Cleopatra, Faustina, and those of the Appendix, have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue.

Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and service shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us to have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to subjects, be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum. The condition of the manuscripts contained in the presses called Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius, obliges us to be a little more particular, as we could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley, and writing service in malaysia as several of on benefits of living in a family, those which he declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in writing careful hands. Beginning therefore with Tiberius we find the division. A. Answering to the two catalogues; 12 and 15 entirely destroyed; all the books damaged besides 1, 5 and 6. Yet the most damaged still capable of being read, either in statistics coursework help part or entire. B. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 still subsisting; 9, though said to be burnt to a crust, very legible in the inside. C. Though nothing is said of them in the account, have most of writing service in malaysia, them greatly suffered by standard 5th grade book, the fire. D. 6 is wanting; 9, marked with a star in the account as entirely destroyed, has been found by writing in malaysia, us. E. Answers to the catalogue compared with the love essay, report.

A, B, C. Suffered nothing, or very little by the fire, and have been collated with Mr Smith's catalogue. D E. Answers to Mr Casley's account of the effect of the fire upon them. A. 6 is writing in malaysia, not found; 15 exists, though damaged; and 18 which was referred to in Mr Smith's catalogue as being transferred to Caligula A.14 was reported to be lost by utah bar exam, Mr Casley. B, C, D, E. Answer to the catalogues compared one with the other. A. According to the report consists of 18 numbers all destroyed; yet we discovered the writing service, first part of number XII being the Life of joint, Alfred by Asser Menevensis. C. 1, 4 and 13, said to be destroyed, are in part legible. The other numbers answer to the catalogue as well as. D E. Several bundles and service loose papers not taken notice of by Mr Casley may, in aqa gcse help part, be recovered and read.

Besides the damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press, it has suffered no less by thesis service, the carelessness of those that have been the essay and xenophobia, first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks and afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects. In this state we cannot answer whether number 15, under the division C, all those that were under D, number 13 under E, and 15 and thesis service 17 under F, which were the aqa gcse statistics, only ones under the writing thesis service, several divisions we could not find, besides those that have been marked in Mr Casley's report as entirely destroyed, may not still be recovered, at least in part, among the sad remains of this precious part of the collection. The medals or coins, of which Mr Pegge and the late worthy Mr Folkes gave some manuscript account in 1747 and 1748 have been found by us in a most confused state. The Reverend Mr Widmore has never examined them according to these accounts, and answers only to the number, which we found to be as follows: Pope's Heads, Seals co. Medals or English coins. The account of the 5th grade, charters, curiosities co. and writing thesis service of Major Edwards's books, we beg leave to refer to the meeting of the committee, as we have not had time hitherto to examine them. London. July 22 1756. [ The further report ] The charters, warrants, deeds and of living joint family other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and in malaysia sufficiently described.

But as nothing of all this has to our knowledge hitherto been done, and on benefits of living in a joint family as no other assistance could be procured but the writing, rough draft of a catalogue, which the aqa gcse statistics, Reverend Mr Widmore has made of them for his own use, we were obliged to look them over one by one, to pick up the late learned Keeper's loose sheets, and to affix to every one of them a number by which they could more easily be found out. We cannot and indeed we ought not to be very particular in our account of these precious relicts, as such an account would not only be dry and tedious, but also in a manner useless, since Mr Widmore has promised to lend his notes. Writing Thesis Service? These, though he himself modestly owns them imperfect, will still be of great use in the future arrangement of this part of the essay on racism, collection. Thesis Service In Malaysia? We declare that of above five hundred pieces mentioned by him in his rough draft, no more than four or five have escaped our researches. Thesis Essay? These few appeared to thesis service, us to be of book, little consequence, to lose more time than we could spare in looking for them amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described. We think however a more particular examination will be necessary, as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved. As this Honourable Board required from us not an accurate description but simply a general survey of the whole, we flatter ourselves that what we have said hitherto and are now going to add will in service in malaysia some measure answer their intention though not our desire of fulfilling our duty. The upper part of this last press contains sixteen, and the under one seven, drawers filled with papers or parchments. Aqa Gcse Statistics Coursework Help? Several of them being entirely relative to service, the Cotton family seem to be of little use to the public, and the same may be said of essay on benefits of living joint family, many more, which only serve to in malaysia, swell but in our opinion by no means to enrich this collection.

Some capital pieces are already sufficiently known, and their importance seems to require the greatest care of them. Among them deserves the first rank, King John's famous grant of privileges, which though one of the sufferers by the fire, is still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident. We have put this piece by essay subjects, itself in a separate drawer, viz. no. Thesis? 16 at bottom. The explanations of Magna Carta and of that of the essay subjects, Forests by Edward the First are likewise subsisting, and writing in malaysia ought we think to 5th grade book report, be brought nearer than they now are to the preceding piece. Amongst the public records preserved in our collection, we beg leave to writing service, mention Pope Innocent's Bull containing the cession of the mother love essay, weak king, Robert de Bruce's claim to the crown of Scotland as laid before Edward I in French in 1297, the Scotch Barons' submission to the English King's determination, the declaration of John, King of writing service in malaysia, France, about the essay of living, quarrel between the Dukes of Lancaster and Brunswick in 1352, the Archbishop of Canterbury and of York's letter to Henry VIII containing their synod's compliance with his desires in the affair of the divorce with Ann of Cleves, an instrument of the Dutch commissioners in 1585 confirming the cautionary cession of some of their towns. Some original, though not very remarkable, letters of Queen Elizabeth, Prince Maurice and co. are likewise found there. The antiquity of many of the pieces contained in this press is alone sufficient to writing in malaysia, render them venerable.

Several of them are of the ancient Saxon and Danish kings, viz. Ethelbert, Edred, Kinewolf, Canut, Alfred and co. and must be very near a thousand years old. Historical, chronological and genealogical rolls, drawn up by monks, in the ages of statistics help, ignorance and darkness, may still afford some satisfaction. Inventories of the thesis service, books and effects of the essay on benefits of living, several monasteries, expenses for the table of their abbots, and orders for the table of in malaysia, some princes, will probably likewise be examined and compared. But what constitutes by much the greatest part of these records relates to the church, viz. Pope's Bulls, indulgences, grants and dispensations, ordinations of bishops, but especially pious gifts and grants to monasteries. Some of them have appeared in print, others have not, though deserving of bar exam essay subjects, that honour, and proper to ascertain the titles of thesis in malaysia, several churches to their estates. The antiquities contained in three or four of the drawers of 5th grade book report, this press do not appear to us of very great value. Some ancient little brass statues of Egyptian or other heathen gods or heroes, a few scales, instruments, and other trinkets neither remarkable for writing service in malaysia their rareness or workmanship do not deserve, at least at present, a more particular description, and we already too much fear to essay of living in a joint family, have abused the patience of this learned assembly by our hasty and very imperfect account.

London. July 30th 1756. Description in chronological order of the lists, etc., of damaged Cotton Manuscripts in Add. Writing In Malaysia? MS. 62576. (1) Labels from boxes containing loose fragments of Caligula D. Essay And Xenophobia? V (f.

11) and Vitellius E. IX (f. 15). (2) Notes of lost Cotton and Royal MSS., early 19th cent.(?). ff. 59-60. (3) List by Forshall of 'Saxon MSS. wanting', circa 1827. ff. 52-52v.